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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126786, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335439

RESUMO

Barium ferrite nanoparticles (BaFeNPs) are a permanent magnetic nanomaterial widely used in electrical energy storage, recording media or in the improvement of the magnetic properties of other nanoparticles (NPs). However, the information about the toxicity of BaFeNPs is almost non-existent. Thus, in the present work, the antimicrobial effect of BaFeNPs was evaluated for the first time in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and yeast showing neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity at moderate concentrations. On the other hand, in order to assess the in vivo toxicity of BaFeNPs the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was used and ingestion, survival, reproduction and ROS production were evaluated in worms treated with different concentrations of BaFeNPs. Our results show that worms ingest these NPs through the digestive system affecting survival, reproduction and ROS production.

2.
Glob Health Promot ; 24(4): 23-32, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27353117

RESUMO

Understanding social conditions prior to intervention design can enhance tobacco control interventions. This paper describes formative research conducted in 2010 about tobacco use in eight economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities, four of which participated in a previous intervention study (2003-2008). A combined US-Dominican team used a rapid assessment process to collect qualitative social and cultural data on tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes; plus observations about social and policy factors, such as exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), tobacco regulations, pregnancy, health care provider (HCP) practices and sustainability of the 2003-2008 intervention. This assessment found that tobacco use varied by age. While all ages typically used cigarettes, older adults used relatively more unprocessed tobacco, which is seen as less harmful and less addictive. Middle-aged smokers typically used commercial cigarettes, which are viewed as dangerous, addictive, expensive and offensive. Young adults reported avoiding smoking, but using relatively more smokeless tobacco. Smoking during pregnancy has reportedly decreased. SHS was viewed as harmful, although smoke-free homes were uncommon. HCPs discussed tobacco issues mostly for patients with tobacco-related conditions. Sustainability of the 2003-2008 intervention appeared to be linked to active Community Technology Centers with strong leadership, and community social capital. This information could be used to design better targeted interventions in these communities.


Assuntos
Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Smok Cessat ; 11(4): 239-249, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28025600

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use and harm continue to increase in low- and middle income countries (LMICs) globally. Smoking cessation is the most effective means of reducing morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Increasing the prevalence of ex-users is an indicator of population cessation. AIMS: This study provides the first examination of factors associated with ex-tobacco use status in the Dominican Republic (DR), a LMIC in the Latin America and Caribbean region. METHODS: Baseline surveillance was conducted for 1177 randomly selected households in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities (total N=2680 adult household members). RESULTS: Ex-user prevalence was 10.6% (1.0%-18.5% across communities), 14.8% were current users (9.1-20.4), and quit ratios were 41.7% (9.7%-52.7%). Among ever-users, females (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.41, 2.90), older adults (45-64: OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.12, 2.74; 65+: OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.29, 3.39), and those who could read/write (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.08, 2.50), had health conditions (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.11, 2.41), and lived with ex-users (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.12, 2.58) were over 60% to two times as likely to be ex-users. Those from remote communities (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36, 0.74), using chewed tobacco (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04, 0.48) and living with tobacco users (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37, 0.81) were less likely to be ex-users. CONCLUSIONS: Ex-user prevalence and quit ratios were lower than for high income countries. Implementing broad tobacco control measures, combined with clinically targeting vulnerable groups, may increase tobacco cessation to most effectively reduce this public health crisis.

4.
J Smok Cessat ; 11(2): 99-107, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104673

RESUMO

Engaging partners for tobacco control within low and middle income countries (LMICs) at early stages of tobacco control presents both challenges and opportunities in the global effort to avert the one billion premature tobacco caused deaths projected for this century. The Dominican Republic (DR) is one such early stage country. The current paper reports on lessons learned from 12 years of partnered United States (US)-DR tobacco cessation research conducted through two NIH trials (Proyecto Doble T, PDT1 and 2). The projects began with a grassroots approach of working with interested communities to develop and test interventions for cessation and secondhand smoke reduction that could benefit the communities, while concurrently building local capacity and providing resources, data, and models of implementation that could be used to ripple upward to expand partnerships and tobacco intervention efforts nationally. Lessons learned are discussed in four key areas: partnering for research, logistical issues in setting up the research project, disseminating and national networking, and mentoring. Effectively addressing the global tobacco epidemic will require sustained focus on supporting LMIC infrastructures for tobacco control, drawing on lessons learned across partnered trials such as those reported here, to provide feasible and innovative approaches for addressing this modifiable public health crisis.

5.
Glob Public Health ; 10(3): 318-30, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25330110

RESUMO

While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Trabalho Sexual
6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 132(1-2): 238-43, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23478154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. METHODS: We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of key informants (n=135) focused on three facets of alcohol venues: structural features, type of patrons, and HIV risk behaviors. Using latent class analysis, we identified evidence-based typologies of alcohol venues for each of the three facets. Focused contrasts identified the co-occurrence of classes of structural features, classes of types of patrons, and classes of HIV risk behavior, thus elaborating the nature of high risk venues. RESULTS: We identified three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g. sex work on-site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign tourists, who were in turn most likely to engage in the riskiest behaviors. CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in behaviors of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have potential for HIV transmission. Policymakers and prevention scientists can use these methods and data to target HIV prevention resources to identified priority areas.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Viagem/classificação , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Preservativos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transexualidade , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
AIDS Behav ; 17(3): 961-75, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23001411

RESUMO

The present study examined cognitive and emotional correlates of sexual decision-making among three groups of Dominican adolescents: (a) Dominican youth who were born and raised in New York City, (b) Dominican youth who recently immigrated to New York City from the Dominican Republic, and (c) Dominican adolescents who were born and currently reside in the Dominican Republic. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires from Dominican mother-adolescent dyads in New York City (n = 1,008) and the Dominican Republic (n = 213). Across groups, positive emotion constructs were consistently among the most important correlates of intentions to engage in sexual intercourse while issues related to STIs and HIV showed the lowest correlations. Interestingly, positive correlations with intentions to engage in intercourse were found among Dominican-residing males, as were positive correlations with intentions among Dominican-residing females. The implications for HIV prevention programs for Dominican youth are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Hispano-Americanos/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , República Dominicana/etnologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/etnologia
8.
Bioethics ; 22(8): 414-22, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18554278

RESUMO

The current ethical structure for collaborative international health research stems largely from developed countries' standards of proper ethical practices. The result is that ethical committees in developing countries are required to adhere to standards that might impose practices that conflict with local culture and unintended interpretations of ethics, treatments, and research. This paper presents a case example of a joint international research project that successfully established inclusive ethical review processes as well as other groundwork and components necessary for the conduct of human behavior research and research capacity building in the host country.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/ética , Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa/normas , República Dominicana , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/normas , Humanos , Pesquisa/economia , Estados Unidos
9.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 10(5): 851-60, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18569759

RESUMO

The Dominican Republic is a tobacco-growing country, and tobacco control efforts there have been virtually nonexistent. This study provides a first systematic surveillance of tobacco use in six economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities (two small urban, two peri-urban, two rural; half were tobacco growing). Approximately 175 households were randomly selected in each community (total N = 1,048), and an adult household member reported on household demographics and resources (e.g., electricity), tobacco use and health conditions of household members, and household policies on tobacco use. Poverty and unemployment were high in all communities, and significant gaps in access to basic resources such as electricity, running water, telephones/cell phones, and secondary education were present. Exposure to tobacco smoke was high, with 38.4% of households reporting at least one tobacco user, and 75.5% allowing smoking in the home. Overall, 22.5% reported using tobacco, with commercial cigarettes (58.0%) or self-rolled cigarettes (20.1%) the most commonly used types. Considerable variability in prevalence and type of use was found across communities. Overall, tobacco use was higher in males, illiterate groups, those aged 45 or older, rural dwellers, and tobacco-growing communities. Based on reported health conditions, tobacco attributable risks, and World Health Organization mortality data, it is estimated that at least 2,254 lives could potentially be saved each year in the Dominican Republic with tobacco cessation. Although it is expected that the reported prevalence of tobacco use and health conditions represent underestimates, these figures provide a starting point for understanding tobacco use and its prevalence in the Dominican Republic.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Demografia , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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