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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604431

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion from pituitary adenomas in most cases. If neurosurgical therapy is contraindicated or not sufficient, medical therapy is the second line therapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe current medical therapy in acromegaly. DESIGN & METHODS: Retrospective data analysis from 2732 patients treated in 69 centers of the German Acromegaly Registry. 749 patients were seen within the recent 18 months, of which 420 were on medical therapy (56.1%). RESULTS: 73% of medically treated acromegalic patients had normal/low IGF-1 levels. 57% of patients with non-normalized IGF-1 levels had an IGF-1 value between 1- and 1.25-fold above the upper limit of normal. Most patients (55%) received somatostatin analogs as monotherapy, 12% GH receptor monotherapy, and 9% dopamine agonist therapy. Doses of each medical therapy varied widely, with 120 mg lanreotide LAR every 4 weeks, 30 mg octreotide LAR every 4 weeks, 140 mg pegvisomant per week and 1mg cabergoline per week being the most frequent used regimens. A combination of different medical regimens was used in almost 25% of the patients. CONCLUSION: The majority of German acromegalic patients receiving medical therapy are controlled according to normal IGF-1 levels.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

3.
Horm Metab Res ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629514

RESUMO

Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder characterized by severe polydipsia and polyuria that usually presents in early childhood. In this study, we describe a new arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene mutation in an ethnic German family with FNDI and provide an overview of disease-associated AVP-gene mutations that are already described in literature. Three members of a German family with neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus were studied. Isolated DNA from peripheral blood samples was used for mutation analysis by sequencing the whole coding region of AVP-NPII gene. Furthermore, we searched the electronic databases MEDLINE (Pubmed) as well as HGMD, LOVD-ClinVar, db-SNP and genomAD in order to compare our cases to that of other patients with FNDI. Genetic analysis of the patients revealed a novel heterozygote missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP gene (c.274T>G), which has not yet been described in literature. We identified reports of more than 90 disease-associated mutations in the AVP gene in literature. The novel mutation of the AVP gene seems to cause FNDI in the presented German family. Similar to our newly detected mutation, most mutations causing FNDI are found in exon 2 of the AVP gene coding for neurophysin II. Clinically, it is important to think of FNDI in young children presenting with polydipsia and polyuria.

4.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective cohort study, we describe the clinical presentation and workup of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and determine its clinical prognostic parameters. Primary outcome was recurrence free survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: PC is an orphan malignancy for which diagnostic workup and treatment is not established. METHODS: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed with PC between 1986 and 2018. Disease-specific and recurrence-free survivals were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for recurrence were identified by binary logistic regression with adjustment for age and sex. Thirty-nine tumors underwent central histopathological review. RESULTS: Renal (39.8%), gastrointestinal (24.1%), bone (22.9%), and psychiatric (19.3%) symptoms were the most common symptoms. Surgical treatment was heterogeneous [parathyroidectomy [PTx)] alone: 22.9%; PTx and hemithyroidectomy: 24.1%; en bloc resection 15.7%; others 37.3%] and complications of surgery were frequent (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy 25.3%; hypoparathyroidism 6%). Recurrence of PC was observed in 32 of 83 cases. In univariate analysis, rate of recurrence was reduced when extended initial surgery had been performed (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis low T status [odds ratio (OR) = 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-6.88, P = 0.045], N0 stage at initial diagnosis (OR = 6.32, 95% CI 1.33-30.01, P = 0.02), Ki-67 <10% (OR = 14.07, 95% CI 2.09-94.9, P = 0.007), and postoperative biochemical remission (OR = 0.023, 95% CI 0.001-0.52, P = 0.018) were beneficial prognostic parameters for recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSION: Despite a favorable overall prognosis, PC shows high rates of recurrence leading to repeated surgery and postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism. In view of the reduced recurrence rate in cases of extended surgery, ipsilateral completion surgery may be considered when PC is confirmed.

6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 119-127, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580144

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) suffer from impaired quality of life and are at risk of adrenal crisis (AC) despite established replacement therapy. Patient education is regarded an important measure for prevention of AC and improvement of AI management. A standardized education programme was elaborated for patients with chronic AI in Germany. Design: Longitudinal, prospective, questionnaire-based, multi-centre study. Methods: During 2-h sessions, patients (n = 526) were provided with basic knowledge on AI, equipped with emergency cards and sets and trained in self-injection of hydrocortisone. To evaluate the education programme, patients from eight certified centres completed questionnaires before, immediately after and 6-9 months after training. Results: 399 completed data sets were available for analysis. Questionnaire score-values were significantly higher after patient education, indicating successful knowledge transfer (baseline: 17 ± 7.1 of a maximum score of 29; after training: 23 ± 4.2; P < 0.001), and remained stable over 6-9 months. Female sex, younger age and primary cause of AI were associated with higher baseline scores; after education, age, cause of AI and previous adrenal crisis had a significant main effect on scores. 91% of patients would dare performing self-injection after training, compared to 68% at baseline. An improvement of subjective well-being through participation in the education programme was indicated by 95% of the patients 6-9 months after participation. Conclusion: Patient group education in chronic AI represents a helpful tool for the guidance of patients, their self-assurance and their knowledge on prevention of adrenal crises. Repeated training and adaptation to specific needs, for example, of older patients is needed.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Doença Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etiquetas de Emergência Médica , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Alemanha , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Autoadministração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392298

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Contrary to current dogma, growing evidence suggests that some patients with autoimmune Addison disease (AAD) produce corticosteroids even years after diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To determine frequencies and clinical features of residual corticosteroid production in patients with AAD. DESIGN: Two-staged, cross-sectional clinical study in 17 centers (Norway, Sweden, and Germany). Residual glucocorticoid (GC) production was defined as quantifiable serum cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol and residual mineralocorticoid (MC) production as quantifiable serum aldosterone and corticosterone after > 18 hours of medication fasting. Corticosteroids were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clinical variables included frequency of adrenal crises and quality of life. Peak cortisol response was evaluated by a standard 250 µg cosyntropin test. RESULTS: Fifty-eight (30.2%) of 192 patients had residual GC production, more common in men (n = 33; P < 0.002) and in shorter disease duration (median 6 [0-44] vs 13 [0-53] years; P < 0.001). Residual MC production was found in 26 (13.5%) patients and associated with shorter disease duration (median 5.5 [0.5-26.0] vs 13 [0-53] years; P < 0.004), lower fludrocortisone replacement dosage (median 0.075 [0.050-0.120] vs 0.100 [0.028-0.300] mg; P < 0.005), and higher plasma renin concentration (median 179 [22-915] vs 47.5 [0.6-658.0] mU/L; P < 0.001). There was no significant association between residual production and frequency of adrenal crises or quality of life. None had a normal cosyntropin response, but peak cortisol strongly correlated with unstimulated cortisol (r = 0.989; P < 0.001) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; r = -0.487; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In established AAD, one-third of the patients still produce GCs even decades after diagnosis. Residual production is more common in men and in patients with shorter disease duration but is not associated with adrenal crises or quality of life.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424397

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Appropriate management of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in pregnancy can be challenging due to the rarity of the disease and lack of evidence-based recommendations to guide glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid dosage adjustment. OBJECTIVE: Multicenter survey on current clinical approaches in managing AI during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective anonymized data collection from 19 international centers from 2013 to 2019. SETTING AND PATIENTS: 128 pregnancies in 113 women with different causes of AI: Addison disease (44%), secondary AI (25%), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (25%), and acquired AI due to bilateral adrenalectomy (6%). RESULTS: Hydrocortisone (HC) was the most commonly used glucocorticoid in 83% (97/117) of pregnancies. Glucocorticoid dosage was increased at any time during pregnancy in 73/128 (57%) of cases. In these cases, the difference in the daily dose of HC equivalent between baseline and the third trimester was 8.6 ± 5.4 (range 1-30) mg. Fludrocortisone dosage was increased in fewer cases (7/54 during the first trimester, 9/64 during the second trimester, and 9/62 cases during the third trimester). Overall, an adrenal crisis was reported in 9/128 (7%) pregnancies. Cesarean section was the most frequent mode of delivery at 58% (69/118). Fetal complications were reported in 3/120 (3%) and minor maternal complications in 15/120 (13%) pregnancies without fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This survey confirms good maternal and fetal outcome in women with AI managed in specialized endocrine centers. An emphasis on careful endocrine follow-up and repeated patient education is likely to have reduced the risk of adrenal crisis and resulted in positive outcomes.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective response of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) to mitotane and cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen is only ~20% and early tumor progression is frequent. Previous clinical trials with oral multikinase inhibitors were negative, which has been attributed in part to inadvertent drug interaction with mitotane. Cabozantinib (CABO) is an inhibitor of c-MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, AXL, and RET and approved for advanced kidney cancer, liver carcinoma after previous sorafenib, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of CABO monotherapy in ACC patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three referral centers for ACC (Germany, United States). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (13 female) with progressive ACC received CABO after previous mitotane in 15/16 and 3 (median, range 0-8) further systemic treatments. Prior CABO therapy, mitotane was discontinued in all patients. Mitotane plasma concentration was <2 mg/L in 7/16 patients and discontinued >12 months in 6 additional patients before CABO use. In 4/5 cases with available plasma samples, CABO concentration was in the expected steady-state range. Adverse events of grade 1/2 and 3 were observed in 13 and 3 patients, respectively, and consistent with the known safety profile of CABO. Best response was partial response in 3, stable disease in 5, and progressive disease in 8 patients. Median progression-free and overall survival was 16 and 58 weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION: CABO monotherapy appears to be safe and effective as a monotherapy in advanced ACC after failing prior treatments. Therefore, prospective investigation of CABO in ACC patients is warranted.

10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536622

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the key test for subtyping primary aldosteronism (PA), but its interpretation varies widely across referral centers and this can adversely affect the management of PA patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate in a real-life study the rate of bilateral success and identification of unilateral aldosteronism and their impact on blood pressure outcomes in PA subtyped by AVS. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: In a retrospective analysis of the largest international registry of individual AVS data (AVIS-2 study), we investigated how different cut-off values of the selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) affected rate of bilateral success, identification of unilateral aldosteronism, and blood pressure outcomes. RESULTS: AVIS-2 recruited 1625 individual AVS studies performed between 2000 and 2015 in 19 tertiary referral centers. Under unstimulated conditions, the rate of biochemically confirmed bilateral AVS success progressively decreased with increasing SI cut-offs; furthermore, with currently used LI cut-offs, the rate of identified unilateral PA leading to adrenalectomy was as low as <25%. A within-patient pairwise comparison of 402 AVS performed both under unstimulated and cosyntropin-stimulated conditions showed that cosyntropin increased the confirmed rate of bilateral selectivity for SI cut-offs ≥ 2.0, but reduced lateralization rates (P < 0.001). Post-adrenalectomy outcomes were not improved by use of cosyntropin or more restrictive diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSION: Commonly used SI and LI cut-offs are associated with disappointingly low rates of biochemically defined AVS success and identified unilateral PA. Evidence-based protocols entailing less restrictive interpretative cut-offs might optimize the clinical use of this costly and invasive test. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab XX: 0-0, 2020).

12.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 128(4): 246-254, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698477

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Recent studies support a bidirectional interaction between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH), possibly increasing the individual cardiovascular risk. Primary aldosteronism (PA) and primary hyperparathyroidism can occur simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism in PA. PATIENTS: We performed a case finding of primary hyperparathyroidism in a retrospective series of 503 patients with PA (cohort 1). We analysed primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism in 141 prospective PA patients who underwent PTH, serum calcium and phosphate measurements at time of diagnosis of PA (cohort 2). RESULTS: The prevalence for primary hyperparathyroidism was 1.2% in cohort 1, and 2.1% in cohort 2. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was found in 54.6% of the patients. Patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism had significantly higher aldosterone and lower potassium levels and took more antihypertensive medications compared to those with normal PTH levels. In multivariate analysis, aldosterone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly correlated with serum PTH levels. There was a nonsignificant trend to a higher cardiovascular morbidity in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with aldosterone producing adenoma had significantly higher PTH levels compared to patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. After treatment, there was a significant decrease of PTH levels in both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with PA frequently have primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is alleviated by correction of PA by surgical or medical means. Patients affected by secondary hyperparathyroidism seem to have a more severe phenotype of PA and have a trend towards more cardiovascular co-morbidities.

13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613324

RESUMO

CONTEXT: An important clinical feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS) is proximal muscle myopathy caused by glucocorticoid induced protein metabolism. However, interindividual differences cannot be explained solely by the pure extent of hypercortisolemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms (BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK and A3669G), which influence peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity on muscular function in endogenous CS. METHODS: 205 patients with proven endogenous CS (128 central, 77 adrenal) from 3 centers of the German Cushing's Registry and 125 subjects, in whom CS was ruled out, were included. All subjects were assessed for grip strength (via hand grip dynamometer) and performed a chair-rising test (CRT). DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes for GR genotyping. RESULTS: In patients with active CS, normalized handgrip strength of the dominant and nondominant hand was higher in A3669G minor allele than in wildtype carriers (P = .006 and P = .021, respectively). CS patients in remission and ruled-out CS showed no differences in handgrip strength regarding A3669G minor allele and wildtype carriers. Male CS patients harboring the ER22/23EK wildtype presented lower hand grip strength than minor allele carriers (P = .049 dominant hand; P = .027 nondominant hand). The other polymorphisms did not influence handgrip strength. CRT showed no differences regarding GR polymorphisms carrier status. CONCLUSION: Handgrip strength seems to be more susceptible to hypercortisolism in A3669G wildtype than in A3669G minor allele carriers. This might partially explain the inter-individual differences of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy in patients with endogenous CS. ER22/23EK polymorphism seems to exert sex-specific differences.

15.
Pituitary ; 23(2): 103-112, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748928

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Compression of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the cavernous sinus area is a rare event and is mostly associated with pituitary adenomas and meningiomas. Other causes of ICA compression are less well known. We present a rare case of granulomatous hypophysitis causing compression of the ICA, which was treated successfully with immune-suppressive agents. METHODS: The electronic database MEDLINE (PubMed) was searched systematically and other cases with ICA compression were identified and analyzed. RESULTS: A female patient with a history of two previous transsphenoidal operations for suspected pituitary adenoma and post-operative complete pituitary insufficiency presented with severe headaches, nausea, fatigue, and diplopia. Pituitary MRI scan suggested relapse of the pituitary lesion with atypical bilateral infiltration of cavernous sinuses and compression of ICAs. After histological reevaluation of her previous pituitary operations, granulomatous hypophysitis was diagnosed. Treatment was started with high doses of prednisolone. With decreasing doses of prednisolone, symptoms recurred, and azathioprine was started, followed by administration of rituximab resulting in clinical recovery and regression of ICA compression. Literature analysis disclosed 36 case reports with ICA compression in the cavernous sinus region (12 pituitary adenoma, 6 meningioma, 7 hypophysitis, 5 other tumors, and 4 other etiologies). Two cases of hypophysitis recovered completely; five cases improved only partly. CONCLUSION: In the case of ICA compression, clinical signs, onset of symptoms, radiological findings and pituitary insufficiencies should be thoroughly evaluated, and hypophysitis should be considered as a possible cause. In our patient, treatment with azathioprine and, finally, rituximab was successful.

16.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 92(4): 284-294, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) type and doses of glucocorticoids used as well as sex hormone secretion during puberty have important actions on bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. AIM: To evaluate BMD in adult CAH patients depending on current glucocorticoid therapy and on androgen levels in adulthood and at age 16 years. METHODS: We included 244 CAH patients from the dsd-LIFE cohort (women n = 147, men n = 97; salt-wasting n = 148, simple-virilizing n = 71, nonclassical n = 25) in which BMD and bloods were available. Clinical and hormonal data at age 16years were retrieved from patients' files. RESULTS: Simple-virilizing women showed lower BMD compared to salt-wasting women at trochanter (0.65 ± 0.12 vs 0.75 ± 0.15 g/cm2 ; P < .050), whole femur T-score (-0.87 ± 1.08 vs -0.16 ± 1.24; P < .05) and lumbar T-score (-0.81 ± 1.34 vs 0.09 ± 1.3; P < .050). Fracture prevalence did not differ significantly between the CAH groups. Prednisolone vs. hydrocortisone only therapy caused worse trochanter Z-score (-1.38 ± 1.46 vs -0.47 ± 1.16; P < .050). In women lumbar spine, BMD correlated negatively with hydrocortisone-equivalent dose per body surface (r2  = 0.695, P < .001). Furthermore, BMI at age 16years correlated positively with lumbar spine T-score (r2  = 0.439, P = .003) and BMD (r2  = 0.420, P = .002) in women. The androstenedione/testosterone ratio at age 16years correlated positively with lumbar spine Z-score in women (r2  = 0.284, P = .024) and trochanter Z-score in men (r2  = 0.600, P = .025). CONCLUSION: Higher glucocorticoid doses seemed to cause lower BMD especially in women. Prednisolone appeared to have more detrimental effects on BMD than hydrocortisone. Higher glucocorticoid doses (lower androstenedione/testosterone ratio) during adolescence may cause lower BMD in adulthood.

17.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 800-808, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476901

RESUMO

We sought to measure the clinical benefits of adrenal venous sampling (AVS), a test recommended by guidelines for primary aldosteronism (PA) patients seeking surgical cure, in a large registry of PA patients submitted to AVS. Data of 1625 consecutive patients submitted to AVS in 19 tertiary referral centers located in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America were collected in a large multicenter international registry. The primary end points were the rate of bilateral success, ascertained lateralization of PA, adrenalectomy, and of cured arterial hypertension among AVS-guided and non AVS-guided adrenalectomy patients. AVS was successful in 80.1% of all cases but allowed identification of unilateral PA in only 45.5% by the criteria in use at each center. Adrenalectomy was performed in 41.8% of all patients and cured arterial hypertension in 19.6% of the patients, 2-fold more frequently in women than men (P<0.001). When AVS-guided, surgery provided a higher rate of cure of hypertension than when non-AVS-guided (40.0% versus 30.5%; P=0.027). Compared with surgical cases, patients treated medically needed more antihypertensive medications (P<0.001) and exhibited a higher rate of persistent hypokalemia requiring potassium supplementation (4.9% versus 2.3%; P<0.01). The low rate of adrenalectomy and cure of hypertension in PA patients seeking surgical cure indicates suboptimal AVS use, possibly related to issues in patient selection, technical success, and AVS data interpretation. Given the better outcomes of AVS-guided adrenalectomy, these results call for actions to improve the diagnostic use of this test that is necessary for detection of surgical PA candidates. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01234220.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/irrigação sanguínea , Adrenalectomia , Aldosterona/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(4): 421-428, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376812

RESUMO

Objective: Saline infusion test (SIT) and captopril challenge test (CCT) are standard confirmatory procedures routinely used in the diagnostic work-up of primary aldosteronism (PA). However, side effects and complications during testing have not been systematically studied. Design: We performed a cohort study with patients undergoing SIT and/or CCT in two centers from 2016 until 2018. Methods: We studied 272 study participants with suspected PA enrolled at two outpatient centers in Germany. We assessed the frequency and severity of side effects during adjustment of blood pressure medication and during SIT and CCT. Results: During the adjustment phase prior confirmatory testing, side effects including palpitations, headaches, edema and hypertensive episodes occurred in 18.4% of study participants. Side effects were associated with higher defined daily doses (DDD) (r = 0.25, P < 0.005), number of antihypertensive drugs (r = 0.285, P < 0.005) and higher blood pressure (r = 0.145, P = 0.019). During SIT, 17.5% of study participants had side effects, associated with higher blood pressure (systolic: r = 0.541, P < 0.0005; diastolic: r = 0.426, P < 0.0005) and DDDs (r = 0.727, P < 0.0005). During CCT, only 1.5% of study participants developed side effects. Conclusions: In contrast to the high rate of side effects during SIT, CCT appears to be the safer test with a very low event rate. This makes CCT especially suitable for severely hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294750

RESUMO

Importance: The risk stratification of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on tumor proliferation index and stage is limited. Adjuvant therapy after surgery is recommended for most patients. Pan-genomic studies have identified distinct molecular groups closely associated with outcome. Objective: To compare the molecular classification for prognostic assessment of ACC with other known prognostic factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective biomarker analysis, ACC tumor samples from 368 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal were collected from March 1, 2005, to September 30, 2015 (144 in the training cohort and 224 in the validation cohort) at 21 referral centers with a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range, 18-74 months). Data were analyzed from March 2016 to March 2018. Exposures: Meta-analysis of pan-genomic studies (transcriptome, methylome, chromosome alteration, and mutational profiles) was performed on the training cohort. Targeted biomarker analysis, including targeted gene expression (BUB1B and PINK1), targeted methylation (PAX5, GSTP1, PYCARD, and PAX6), and targeted next-generation sequencing, was performed on the training and validation cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazards regression and C indexes were used to assess the prognostic value of each model. Results: Of the 368 patients (mean [SD] age, 49 [16] years), 144 were in the training cohort (100 [69.4%] female) and 224 were in the validation cohort (142 [63.4%] female). In the training cohort, pan-genomic measures classified ACC into 3 molecular groups (A1, A2, and A3-B), with 5-year survival of 9% for group A1, 45% for group A2, and 82% for group A3-B (log-rank P < .001). Molecular class was an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in stage I to III ACC after complete surgery (hazard ratio, 55.91; 95% CI, 8.55-365.40; P < .001). The combination of European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stage, tumor proliferation index, and molecular class provided the most discriminant prognostic model (C index, 0.88). In the validation cohort, the molecular classification, determined by targeted biomarker measures, was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor of recurrence (hazard ratio, 5.96 [95% CI, 1.81-19.58], P = .003 for the targeted classifier combining expression, methylation, and chromosome alterations; and 2.61 [95% CI, 1.31-5.19], P = .006 for the targeted classifier combining methylation, chromosome alterations, and mutational profile). The prognostic value of the molecular markers was limited for patients with stage IV ACC. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that in localized ACC, targeted classifiers may be used as independent markers of recurrence. The determination of molecular class may improve individual prognostic assessment and thus may spare unnecessary adjuvant treatment.

20.
J Endocr Soc ; 3(8): 1445-1456, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317123

RESUMO

Purpose: Although sexuality has been reported to be impaired in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from 21-hydroxylase deficiency, sexuality in males with CAH so far has remained largely unconsidered. Patients: One of the largest European male cohorts of patients with CAH in which sexuality in male patients with CAH was assessed. Methods: Sexuality was evaluated in 91 sexually active male patients with CAH using questionnaires investigating sexual orientation, age at sexual initiation, sexual activity, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual problems, such as fears or dislike of sexual activity, lack or excessive sexual desire, difficulties getting aroused or reaching an orgasm, premature ejaculation, and no or incomplete erection. Results: Sexuality in male patients with CAH was similar to European reference populations. If sexuality problems were present, they were less frequently reported by the most severely affected CAH males. Adducing a holistic perspective, sexual problems showed substantial association to psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Sexuality in male patients with CAH in general was unaffected and sexuality problems seemed to be associated in particular with psychological problems. Because sexual health is a key factor of general health, we recommend that sexuality as well as psychological issues explicitly should be addressed in health care of patients with a CAH diagnosis, independent of sex.

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