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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 111, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal serum free light chains (sFLC) are a well-known cause of renal impairment (RI) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). As an indicator of monoclonality, sFLC ratio has acquired a key role in the diagnosis and monitorization of the disease. However, its interpretation is altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aims to evaluate the modification of the sFLC ratio reference range in patients with CKD, and propose an optimal range for patients with CKD. METHODS: Serum FLC κ/λ ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were retrospectively analyzed in 113 control patients (without hematologic disease), 63 patients with MM in complete remission and 347 patients with active MM. The three groups included patients with CKD (eGFR < 90). RESULTS: In the group of patients without active MM (n = 176), the sFLC ratio increased at different stages of CKD without pathological significance, with an increase in the number of false positives specially when eGFR is ≤55 ml/min. An optimal range was established for patients with eGFR ≤55 ml/min/1.73 m2: 0.82-3,6 with maximum sensitivity + specificity for that group with an improvement in the Area under the curve (AUC), 0.91 (0.84-0.97) compared with the current ranges proposed by Katzmann and Hutchinson. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the influence of eGFR on the interpretation of the sFLC ratio, showing a decreasing specificity in progressive CKD stages when using the reference sFLC range (Katzmann), especially in patients with eFGR ≤55. According to our results, we suggest a modified optimal range (0.82-3,6) for eGFR ≤55 ml/min/1.73 m2. It is necessary to validate this modified range in larger and prospective studies.

2.
Acta Haematol ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235118

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterized by the production and deposition of light chain-derived amyloid fibrils in different organs. Prompt treatment directed to the underlying plasma cell clone is crucial in order to achieve a rapid, deep and durable hematologic response. The decrease in the production of the amyloidogenic light chains is a required condition to obtain the organ response, which is commonly delayed. Meanwhile, supportive treatment is aimed to maintain quality of life of these patients and preserve their involved organs' function. From simple measures, such as salt restriction or compressive stockings, to very complex interventions, such as heart transplantation in very selected patients with isolated severe cardiac involvement, this supportive care is essential and has to be necessarily included in the multidisciplinary management of this disease.

3.
J Clin Apher ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219886

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonantigen-specific immunoadsorption (IA) has proven to be effective in acute antibody-mediated rejection (aAMR). However, there is a lack of solid studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of IA with antihuman Ig-columns in aAMR. For chronic-active AMR (cAMR), no studies have evaluated the efficacy of nonantingen-specific IA with antihuman Ig-columns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of nonantigen-specific IA with antihuman Ig-columns in the treatment of both aAMR and cAMR in kidney transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In retrospective and observational study, kidney graft and recipient survival rates were assessed after treatment of aAMR and cAMR with nonantigen-specific IA with Ig-Flex columns (Therasorb) between January 2012 and May 2018. Protocols included nonantigen-specific IA, rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin, and rescue plasma exchange, if necessary. RESULTS: The study included 14 patients with AMR (acute in 9, chronic active in 5). For aAMR, mean follow-up was 13 ± 6 months, and patient and graft survival were, respectively, of 100% and 83%, with a mean increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 7.98 ± 12.96, 10.18 ± 16.71, and 11.43 ± 13.85 mL/min/1.72 m2 (P > .05) at 3, 12 months after treatment, and at the end of follow-up, respectively. For cAMR, mean follow-up was 14 ± 8 months, and patient and graft survival were, respectively, of 100% and 60%, with an average increase in eGFR of 4.30 ± 7.86, 5.64 ± 10.47, and 14.5 ± 7.86 mL/min/m2 (P > .05) at 3, 12 months after IA treatment, and at the end of the follow-up, respectively, although 40% did not respond and required chronic hemodialysis. CONCLUSION: Nonantigen-specific IA with Ig-Flex columns was safe and effective for aAMR treatment in kidney transplantation. In cAMR, IA with Ig-Flex columns was associated with a satisfactory kidney graft survival, suggesting that IA could potentially offer some benefits supporting its indication in cAMR.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103146

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases early mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients and may accelerate chronic kidney disease (CKD) development. We analyzed prospective variables related to AKI and CKD in 422 allo-HCT recipients to establish risk factors of severe acute renal failure and CKD. Renal function and creatinine were periodically assessed from baseline till the last follow-up. Sixty-three patients (14%) developed severe AKI (AKI-3) at 100 days post transplant and 15% at 12 months. Variables associated with AKI-3 were age above 55 years [hazard ratio (HR): 2.4; p = 0.019], total body irradiation (TBI) (HR: 1.8; p = 0.044), high-risk cytomegalovirus reactivation (HR: 1.8; p = 0.041), and methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis (HR: 2.1; p = 0.024). AKI-3 increased the mortality risk (HR: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-3.4). The CKD prevalence in 161 living patients was 10.2% at the last follow-up and in most, CKD developed 1 year post HCT, independent of AKI. The CKD at 1 year post HCT was associated with increased mortality (HR: 3.54; p < 0.001). Interestingly, pretransplant CKD was associated with early mortality (HR: 5.6; p < 0.001). In fact, pre- and posttransplant CKD had independent unfavorable long-term outcomes. These pretransplant factors can potentially be targeted to improve allo-HCT outcomes.

5.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(4): 102495, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Renal involvement in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is associated with significant morbidity and higher mortality rates. This study examined clinical manifestations associated with renal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis within a large, international cross-sectional cohort. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with renal disease, which was defined as i) a serum-creatinine >30% above normal and a fall in creatinine-clearance >25%; or ii) haematuria attributable to active vasculitis. RESULTS: The study cohort include 1230 patients from 31 countries; 723 (58.8%) presented with renal involvement: microscopic polyangiitis (82.2%), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (58.6%), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (26.4%). The following clinical and laboratory factors were more common among patients with renal disease: age (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.01-1.02), fever (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.35-2.88), fatigue (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.10), weight loss (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.12), polyarthritis (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.89), petechiae/purpura (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-2.05), pulmonary haemorrhage (OR 5.23, 95% CI 1.39-19.63), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.34-3.58), seizures (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.26-9.30), lower serum albumin (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.64-3.57), higher CRP (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.04-4.06), low serum C3 at baseline (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.30-11.53), myeloperoxidase- (OR 7.97, 95% CI 2.74-23.20) and proteinase 3-ANCA (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.22-9.50). The following clinical factors were less common among patients with renal disease: mononeuritis multiplex (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.98), proptosis/exophthalmos (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.59), nasal polyps (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19-0.55), septal defect/perforation (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.14-0.60), respiratory distress/pulmonary fibrosis/asthma (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.19), and wheeze/obstructive airway disease (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16-0.52). CONCLUSION: In this large international study, several clinical and laboratory factors were identified as associated with renal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis.

6.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(12): 1719-1732, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. There is evidence showing complement activation in other thrombotic microangiopathies. The aim of this study was to evaluate complement activation in different thrombotic microangiopathies and to monitor treatment response. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Complement activation was assessed by exposing endothelial cells to sera or activated-patient plasma-citrated plasma mixed with a control sera pool (1:1)-to analyze C5b-9 deposits by immunofluorescence. Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (n=34) at different stages of the disease, HELLP syndrome (a pregnancy complication characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) or severe preeclampsia (n=10), and malignant hypertension (n=5) were included. RESULTS: Acute phase atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome-activated plasma induced an increased C5b-9 deposition on endothelial cells. Standard and lower doses of eculizumab inhibited C5b-9 deposition in all patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, except in two who showed partial remission and clinical relapse. Significant fibrin formation was observed together with C5b-9 deposition. Results obtained using activated-plasma samples were more marked and reproducible than those obtained with sera. C5b-9 deposition was also increased with samples from patients with HELLP (all cases) and preeclampsia (90%) at disease onset. This increase was sustained in those with HELLP after 40 days, and levels normalized in patients with both HELLP and preeclampsia after 6-9 months. Complement activation in those with malignant hypertension was at control levels. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed methodology identifies complement overactivation in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome at acute phase and in other diseases such as HELLP syndrome and preeclampsia. Moreover, it is sensitive enough to individually assess the efficiency of the C5 inhibition treatment.

7.
Kidney Int ; 96(4): 995-1004, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420192

RESUMO

Malignant hypertension is listed among the causes of secondary thrombotic microangiopathy, but pathogenic mutations in complement genes have been reported in patients with hypertension-induced thrombotic microangiopathy. Here we investigated the frequency and severity of hypertension in 55 patients with primary atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). A genetic analysis was performed in all patients, and funduscopic examination was performed in all the patients with Grades 2 and 3 hypertension. A cohort of 110 patients with malignant hypertension caused by diseases other than aHUS served as control. Thirty-six patients with aHUS presented Grade 2 or Grade 3 hypertension and funduscopic examination showed malignant hypertension in 19. Genetic abnormalities in complement were found in 19 patients (37% among patients with malignant hypertension). Plasmapheresis was performed in 46 patients and 26 received eculizumab. Renal and hematological responses were significantly lower after plasmapheresis (24%) than after eculizumab (81%). Renal survival was significantly higher in patients treated with eculizumab (85% at one, three and five years) compared to patients who did not receive this treatment (54%, 46% and 41%), respectively. Response to eculizumab was independent of hypertension severity and the presence of complement genetic abnormalities. Among patients with malignant hypertension caused by other diseases the prevalence of thrombotic microangiopathy was very low (5%). Thus, severe and malignant hypertension are common among patients with aHUS and eculizumab treatment leads to a higher renal survival when compared to plasmapheresis. However, thrombotic microangiopathy is uncommon among patients presenting with malignant hypertension caused by diseases other than aHUS.

8.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 394-398, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291610

RESUMO

ANCA associated vasculitis is a serious, very often recurrent disease that despite the current standard treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and either cyclophosphamide or rituximab, patients have a nine-fold increased mortality risk in the first year compared with healthy controls, attributed to infections, vasculitis activity, and renal disease. During the last few years, novel findings have suggested that activation of the complement system, in particular the alternative complement system, has a significant role in ANCA associated vasculitis pathogenesis. Detection of several components of this system in the circulation and urine reflects disease activity, and thus may be useful for clinical prognosis and to set up personalised treatments. In fact, some components of the complement system, such as C5a, might be potential targets for therapy. In this Review an update on clinical evidence for the role of complement activation in AAV is provided and subsequently we discuss potential therapeutic strategies that target complement components and open the way for clinical use of this target therapy in the near future.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Animais , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Rituximab/farmacologia
10.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(8): 1183-1192, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that the incidence of IgA nephropathy is increasing in older adults, but there is a lack of information about the epidemiology and behavior of the disease in that age group. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this retrospective multicentric study, we analyzed the incidence, forms of presentation, clinical and histologic characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes in a cohort of 151 patients ≥65 years old with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy diagnosed between 1990 and 2015. The main outcome was a composite end point of kidney replacement therapy or death before kidney replacement therapy. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy over time from six patients in 1990-1995 to 62 in 2011-2015 (P value for trend =0.03). After asymptomatic urinary abnormalities (84 patients; 55%), AKI was the most common form of presentation (61 patients; 40%). Within the latter, 53 (86%) patients presented with hematuria-related AKI (gross hematuria and tubular necrosis associated with erythrocyte casts as the most important lesions in kidney biopsy), and eight patients presented with crescentic IgA nephropathy. Six (4%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Among hematuria-related AKI, 18 (34%) patients were receiving oral anticoagulants, and this proportion rose to 42% among the 34 patients older than 72 years old who presented with hematuria-related AKI. For the whole cohort, survival rates without the composite end point were 74%, 48%, and 26% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Age, serum creatinine at presentation, and the degree of interstitial fibrosis in kidney biopsy were risk factors significantly associated with the outcome, whereas treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers was associated with a lower risk. Immunosuppressive treatments were not significantly associated with the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of IgA nephropathy among older adults in Spain has progressively increased in recent years, and anticoagulant therapy may be partially responsible for this trend. Prognosis was poor. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2019_07_16_CJASNPodcast_19_08_.mp3.

12.
Case Rep Transplant ; 2019: 7438254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011460

RESUMO

Despite the high incidence of posttransplant infections, postinfectious acute glomerulonephritis (PIAGN) in renal allograft is a rare entity, without effective treatment and a bad prognosis. We describe two cases of PIAGN: the first one was developed 2 years after kidney transplantation, secondary to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with presence of extracapillary proliferation in biopsy. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone and plasma exchanges without response, remaining dialysis dependent. The second case was reported 5 years after kidney transplantation, secondary to influenza A infection. Kidney biopsy showed an IgA-dominant PIAGN and methylprednisolone boluses were initiated without clinical response, suffering a progressive worsening and loss of kidney graft. Due to the aggressive clinical course of this entity, PIAGN should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney graft failure in the context of an infection. Elderly patients have a higher risk of more severe acute renal dysfunction, requiring dialysis in a great proportion of cases.

13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(5): 510-518, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844548

RESUMO

Refractory lupus nephritis indicates an inadequate response to lupus nephritis therapy. It implies persisting or worsening disease activity despite therapy, but the definition is complicated by the parameters of response, proteinuria and renal function, that do not discriminate clearly between activity and irreversible damage. Understanding the causes of refractory disease and developing treatment strategies is important because these patients are more likely to develop poor outcomes, especially end stage renal disease. This review explores current concepts and definitions of refractory disease and summarises treatment approaches that have been used in observational cohort studies and case series. We highlight the importance of optimising adherence to the prescribed immunosuppressive and supportive measures and avoidance of diagnostic delay. Treatment options include higher dose glucocorticoid, switching between cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate acid derivates, or addition of rituximab, the latter potentially in combination with belimumab. Less evidence supports extracorporeal treatment (plasma exchange or immunoadsorption), calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine A or tacrolimus), intravenous immunoglobulin and stem cell transplantation. Improvements in understanding what refractory disease is and how definitions can be integrated into treatment pathways has the potential to enhance lupus nephritis outcomes.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica/terapia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Nefrite Lúpica/epidemiologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
14.
Clin Kidney J ; 12(1): 36-41, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747150

RESUMO

Background: M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (APLA2R) is considered the major antigen involved in the pathogenesis of adult primary membranous nephropathy (MN), which is the leading cause of non-diabetic nephrotic syndrome. Antibodies to this antigen have been proved to be an excellent biomarker of disease activity in primary MN. In fact, preliminary data suggest that the higher the antibody level the more proteinuria, and that a decrease in antibody level precedes the remission of proteinuria, but more solid evidence is needed. Methods: The present work aims to characterize the predictive value of the level of antibodies against PLA2R as a biomarker of disease course and treatment response in a well-defined cohort of 62 patients from University Hospitals Clinic of Barcelona and Josep Trueta in Girona. The primary outcome was the appearance of a spontaneous complete remission (CR), defined as induction of a CR without the use of immunosuppressive agents. Results: In common with other reports, this work confirms that spontaneous CR is more frequent in patients with low titre of APLA2R at diagnosis, but strikingly, in this cohort we found that spontaneous CR was achieved in patients with APLA2R levels <40 UI/mL. Furthermore, spontaneous CR were less frequently observed in patients with proteinuria >8 g/day. Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings point out the important role of APLA2R as a tool to predict the disease course and establish personalized therapeutic options at the moment of diagnosis of primary MN. Specifically, patients with low titre of APLA2R (<40 UI/mL) and proteinuria <4/day could obtain benefit of a longer period of follow-up with conservative treatment after diagnosis.

15.
Clin Kidney J ; 11(3): 422-428, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988247

RESUMO

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is estimated to cause end-stage renal disease in ∼ 5% of patients, in whom renal transplantation is the therapy of choice. Among patients receiving a transplant for MN, the disease will recur in the graft in 30-50%; among these, graft loss will occur in 50% within 10 years. Several studies have suggested that phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody (aPLA2R) levels before transplantation might be useful in predicting recurrence, and their titration after transplantation is clinically relevant to assess the risk of recurrence and progression, to guide treatment indications and to monitor treatment response. In this review we describe the evolving role of aPLA2R as a biomarker in primary MN and its current usefulness in predicting recurrence of this autoimmune podocytopathy after renal transplantation.

16.
Int J Artif Organs ; 40(12): 676-682, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is being used increasingly in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) as a safer alternative to heparin. However, complex metabolic control to avoid side effects have generated discrepancies about its introduction into everyday practice. We aimed to compare both anticoagulation techniques in terms of efficacy, safety and feasibility. METHODS: Observational retrospective study performed in 3 specialized ICUs in patients receiving CVVHDF with RCA between January 2013 and May 2016. Heparin-treated patients matched by age, sex and disease severity treated in the preceding year were selected as historic controls. Filter lifetime, number of filters used, haemorrhagic complications and metabolic complications were recorded. RESULTS: 54 patients (27 treated with RCA and 27 with heparin) were included in the study. Filter lifetimes in the first 72 hours were 55.1 ± 21.8 hours in the RCA group compared to 38.8 ± 24.8 hours in the heparin group, (p = 0.004). In addition, the number of filters used in the first 72 hours was significantly higher in the heparin group (2.4 ± 1.3 vs. 1.5 ± 0.7; p = 0.004). There was a trend toward a lower incidence of bleeding in the RCA group, with a significantly lower red blood cell transfusion rate (p = 0.027) in the citrate group. No clinically significant metabolic disturbances were observed in the RCA group. Regarding outcomes, there were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the implementation of CVVHDF with RCA using concentrated citrate solutions prolongs filter lifetime, achieves a longer effective hemodiafiltration time and is a safe and feasible method.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Ácido Cítrico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Hemorragia , Heparina , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Cítrico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemodiafiltração/efeitos adversos , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
17.
Kidney Int ; 92(4): 953-963, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637589

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy (IgAN), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease worldwide, is characterized by mesangial deposition of galactose-deficient IgA1-containing immune complexes. Complement involvement in IgAN pathogenesis is suggested by the glomerular deposition of complement components and the strong protection from IgAN development conferred by the deletion of the CFHR3 and CFHR1 genes (ΔCFHR3-CFHR1). Here we searched for correlations between clinical progression and levels of factor H (FH) and FH-related protein 1 (FHR-1) using well-characterized patient cohorts consisting of 112 patients with IgAN, 46 with non-complement-related autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and 76 control individuals. Patients with either IgAN or ADPKD presented normal FH but abnormally elevated FHR-1 levels and FHR-1/FH ratios compared to control individuals. Highest FHR-1 levels and FHR-1/FH ratios are found in patients with IgAN with disease progression and in patients with ADPKD who have reached chronic kidney disease, suggesting that renal function impairment elevates the FHR-1/FH ratio, which may increase FHR-1/FH competition for activated C3 fragments. Interestingly, ΔCFHR3-CFHR1 homozygotes are protected from IgAN, but not from ADPKD, and we found five IgAN patients with low FH carrying CFH or CFI pathogenic variants. These data support a decreased FH activity in IgAN due to increased FHR-1/FH competition or pathogenic CFH variants. They also suggest that alternative pathway complement activation in patients with IgAN, initially triggered by galactose-deficient IgA1-containing immune complexes, may exacerbate in a vicious circle as renal function deterioration increase FHR-1 levels. Thus, a role of FHR-1 in IgAN pathogenesis is to compete with complement regulation by FH.


Assuntos
Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/análise , Via Alternativa do Complemento/genética , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/sangue , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Adulto , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas Inativadoras do Complemento C3b/genética , Fator H do Complemento/análise , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rim Policístico Autossômico Dominante/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 32(3): 466-474, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339660

RESUMO

Background: Complement dysregulation occurs in thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) other than primary atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). A few of these patients have been reported previously to be successfully treated with eculizumab. Methods: We identified 29 patients with so-called secondary aHUS who had received eculizumab at 11 Spanish nephrology centres. Primary outcome was TMA resolution, defined by a normalization of platelet count (>150 × 10 9 /L) and haemoglobin, disappearance of all the markers of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA), and improvement of renal function, with a ≥25% reduction of serum creatinine from the onset of eculizumab administration. Results: Twenty-nine patients with secondary aHUS (15 drug-induced, 8 associated with systemic diseases, 2 with postpartum, 2 with cancer-related, 1 associated with acute humoral rejection and 1 with intestinal lymphangiectasia) were included in this study. The reason to initiate eculizumab treatment was worsening of renal function and persistence of TMA despite treatment of the TMA cause and plasmapheresis. All patients showed severe MAHA and renal function impairment (14 requiring dialysis) prior to eculizumab treatment and 11 presented severe extrarenal manifestations. A rapid resolution of the TMA was observed in 20 patients (68%), 15 of them showing a ≥50% serum creatinine reduction at the last follow-up. Comprehensive genetic and molecular studies in 22 patients identified complement pathogenic variants in only 2 patients. With these two exceptions, eculizumab was discontinued, after a median of 8 weeks of treatment, without the occurrence of aHUS relapses. Conclusion: Short treatment with eculizumab can result in a rapid improvement of patients with secondary aHUS in whom TMA has persisted and renal function worsened despite treatment of the TMA-inducing condition.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/tratamento farmacológico , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/etiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/metabolismo , Síndrome de Churg-Strauss/complicações , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Renal , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmaferese , Contagem de Plaquetas , Recidiva , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/tratamento farmacológico , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/metabolismo
19.
Clin Transplant ; 30(4): 461-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854647

RESUMO

Previous studies that have assessed the association of pre-transplant antiphospholipase A2 receptor autoantibody (PLA2R-Ab) concentration with a recurrence of membranous nephropathy (rMN) post-kidney transplant have yielded variable results. We tested 16 consecutive transplant patients with a history of iMN for pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers (Euroimmun, NJ, USA) >14 RU/mL were considered positive. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed after combining data from Quintana et al. (n = 21; Transplantation February 2015) to determine a PLA2R-Ab concentration which could predict rMN. Six of 16 (37%) patients had biopsy-proven rMN at a median of 3.2 yr post-transplant. Of these, five of six (83%) had a positive PLA2R-Ab pre-transplant with a median of 82 RU/mL (range = 31-1500). The only patient who had rMN with negative PLA2R-Ab was later diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma. One hundred percent (n = 10) of patients with no evidence of rMN (median follow-up = five yr) had negative pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab. In a combined ROC analysis (n = 37), a pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab > 29 RU/mL predicted rMN with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 92%. Pre-transplant PLA2R-Ab could be a useful tool for the prediction of rMN. Patients with rMN in the absence of PLA2R-Ab should be screened for occult malignancy and/or alternate antigens.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/sangue , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
20.
Autoimmun Rev ; 15(1): 38-49, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26318215

RESUMO

Extracorporeal treatments have been used since the 1970s in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A randomised controlled trial comparing the efficacy of standard of care (SOC) combined with plasma exchange against SOC alone in patients with lupus nephritis revealed no difference in terms of renal outcome. Subsequently, initial expectations have been dampened and further experience with plasma exchange is mainly limited to observational studies and single case reports. Beneficial effects have been reported in patients with refractory disease course or in pregnancy with prior complications due to SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome. A more specific form of extracorporeal treatment, immunoadsorption (IAS), has emerged as a valuable option in the treatment of SLE. In line with the plasma exchange experience, IAS seems to have beneficial effects in patients with refractory disease, contraindications to standard immunosuppression or during pregnancy. The mechanism IAS relates to autoantibody removal but for plasma exchange removal of activated complement components, coagulation factors, cytokines and microparticles may also be relevant. Both treatment forms have good safety profiles although reactions to blood product replacement in plasma exchange and procedure related complications such as bleeding or catheter-related infections have occurred. There is a need to more clearly define the clinical utility of plasma exchange and IAS in refractory lupus and APS subgroups.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/terapia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Hemorragia , Humanos , Técnicas de Imunoadsorção , Troca Plasmática
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