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1.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) plays metabolic, kinase and translational roles in Peritoneal metastasis (PM) of gastric origin and is associated with chemoresistance. Silencing PGK1 might potentiate the effect of chemotherapy. METHODS: In an orthoptic xenograft nude mice model, human gastric cancer cells (MKN45) were grown in 22 donor animals. Solid tumors were then grafted into the gastric subserosa of 102 recipient animals and allowed to grow for 10 days. Animals were randomized into 7 groups: Five test groups: 1) Mitomycin C (MMC), 2) MMC and small hairpin RNA silencing of PGK1 with an adenoviral vector (Adv-shPGK1), 3) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 4) 5-FU and Adv-shPGK1, 5) Adv-shPGK1 alone; two control groups: 1) Sham (NaCl 0.9%), 2) empty viral vector. Intraperitoneal therapy was administered on postoperative day (POD) 11 and 18. Animals were sacrificed at POD 21, analysis was blinded to therapy. RESULTS: Adding Adv-shPGK1 to 5-FU reduced the number (0.23 ± 0.43 vs. 1.36 ± 1.00, p = 0.005) and weight (0,005 ± 0.012 mg vs. 0.05 ± 0.08 mg, p = 0.002) of PM as compared to 5-FU alone. The effect of adding Adv-shPGK1 to MMC did not reach statistical significance. Mortality was not increased by adding Adv-shPGK1 to chemotherapy but was increased by Adv-shPGK1 alone as compared to sham. CONCLUSION: In this experimental model, combined therapy with chemotherapy and Adv-shPGK1 improves control of PM of gastric origin as compared to chemotherapy alone and might counteract chemoresistance of PM. A systemic toxicity of Adv-shPGK1 cannot be excluded.

2.
Semin Diagn Pathol ; 37(1): 32-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889602

RESUMO

The spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T and NK-cell lymphoproliferations is broad and ranges from reactive self-limited disorders to neoplastic processes with a fulminant clinical course. EBV plays an important role promoting lymphomagenesis, although the precise mechanisms remain elusive. EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) are more common in East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan), and Latin America suggesting a strong genetic predisposition. The revised 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification recognizes the following malignant NK- and T-cell lymphomas; extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL), and the provisional entity within the group of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS) "primary EBV-positive nodal T or NK cell lymphoma". Disorders presenting mainly in children and young adults include chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) - systemic and cutaneous forms - which are not considered malignant disorders but were included in the WHO classification for the first time because of the differential diagnosis with other T- or NK-cell lymphomas. CAEBV, cutaneous form, includes hydroa vacciniforme-like LPD (HV-LPD) and severe mosquito bite allergy (SMBA). Finally, systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood was recognized as lymphoma because of its fulminant clinical course. Given the shared pathogenesis of these disorders, overlapping features are common demanding a close clinical, morphological and molecular correlation for an accurate diagnosis. This review summarizes the clinical, histopathological and molecular features of EBV-associated T and NK-cell LPD, highlighting the main features that might aid in the differential diagnosis.

3.
Theranostics ; 10(2): 925-937, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903160

RESUMO

Purpose: Cancer immunotherapy depends on a systemic immune response, but the basic underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Despite the very successful and widespread use of checkpoint inhibitors in the clinic, the majority of cancer patients do not benefit from this type of treatment. In this translational study, we investigated whether noninvasive in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) is capable of detecting immunotherapy-associated metabolic changes in the primary and secondary lymphoid organs and whether this detection enables the prediction of a successful anti-cancer immune response. Methods: RIP1-Tag2 mice with progressed endogenous insular cell carcinomas underwent a combined cancer immunotherapy consisting of CD4+ T cells plus monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) or a sham treatment after radiation-mediated immune cell depletion. A second cohort of RIP1-Tag2 mice underwent exclusive checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT) using anti-PD-L1/LAG-3 mAbs or sham treatment without initial immune cell depletion to mimic the clinical situation. All mice were monitored by 18F-FDG-PET combined with anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, we retrospectively analyzed PET / computed tomography (CT) scans (PET/CT) regarding 18F-FDG uptake of CIT-treated metastatic melanoma patients in the spleen (n=23) and bone marrow (BM; n=20) as well as blood parameters (n=17-21). Results: RIP1-Tag2 mice with advanced insular cell carcinomas treated with combination immunotherapy exhibited significantly increased 18F-FDG uptake in the spleen compared to sham-treated mice. Histopathology of the spleens from treated mice revealed atrophy of the white pulp with fewer germinal centers and an expanded red pulp with hyperplasia of neutrophils than those of sham-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analyses of the spleens revealed a lower number of T cells and a higher number of neutrophils compared to those in the spleens of sham-treated mice. Flow cytometry of the BM showed enhanced activation of T cells following the treatment schemes that included checkpoint inhibitors. The ratio of 18F-FDG uptake at baseline to the uptake at follow-up in the spleens of exclusively CIT-treated RIP1-Tag2 mice was significantly enhanced, but the ratio was not enhanced in the spleens of the sham-treated littermates. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed a reduced number of T cells in the spleens of exclusively CIT-treated mice compared to that of sham-treated mice. A retrospective analysis of clinical 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans revealed enhanced 18F-FDG uptake in the spleens of some successfully CIT-treated patients with metastatic melanoma, but there were no significant differences between responders and non-responders. The analysis of the BM in clinical 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans with a computational segmentation tool revealed significantly higher baseline 18F-FDG uptake in patients who responded to CIT than in non-responders, and this relationship was independent of bone metastasis, even in the baseline scan. Conclusions: Thus, we are presenting the first translational study of solid tumors focusing on the metabolic patterns of primary and secondary lymphoid organs induced by the systemic immune response after CIT. We demonstrate that the widely available 18F-FDG-PET modality is an applicable translational tool that has high potential to stratify patients at an early time point.

4.
Blood ; 135(4): 274-286, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738823

RESUMO

Pediatric large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) share morphological and phenotypic features with adult types but have better prognosis. The higher frequency of some subtypes such as LBCL with IRF4 rearrangement (LBCL-IRF4) in children suggests that some age-related biological differences may exist. To characterize the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors, we studied 31 diffuse LBCLs (DLBCLs), not otherwise specified (NOS); 20 LBCL-IRF4 cases; and 12 cases of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBCL), NOS in patients ≤25 years using an integrated approach, including targeted gene sequencing, copy-number arrays, and gene expression profiling. Each subgroup displayed different molecular profiles. LBCL-IRF4 had frequent mutations in IRF4 and NF-κB pathway genes (CARD11, CD79B, and MYD88), losses of 17p13 and gains of chromosome 7, 11q12.3-q25, whereas DLBCL, NOS was predominantly of germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype and carried gene mutations similar to the adult counterpart (eg, SOCS1 and KMT2D), gains of 2p16/REL, and losses of 19p13/CD70. A subset of HGBCL, NOS displayed recurrent alterations of Burkitt lymphoma-related genes such as MYC, ID3, and DDX3X and homozygous deletions of 9p21/CDKN2A, whereas other cases were genetically closer to GCB DLBCL. Factors related to unfavorable outcome were age >18 years; activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL profile, HGBCL, NOS, high genetic complexity, 1q21-q44 gains, 2p16/REL gains/amplifications, 19p13/CD70 homozygous deletions, and TP53 and MYC mutations. In conclusion, these findings further unravel the molecular heterogeneity of pediatric and young adult LBCL, improve the classification of this group of tumors, and provide new parameters for risk stratification.

5.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822801

RESUMO

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoma, prevalent in Asia and Latin America. Studies in Asian cohorts have identified some recurrent gene mutations in ENKTL; however, the mutational landscape of ENKTL in Latin America is unknown. In this study, we investigated the mutational profile and EBV strains of 71 ENKTL cases from Latin America (42 from Mexico, 17 from Peru, and 12 from Argentina) and compared it with Asian cohorts. The mutational analysis was performed by next generation sequencing (NGS) using an Ion AmpliSeq™ custom panel covering for the most frequently mutated genes identified in ENKTL. STAT3 was the most frequent mutated gene (16 cases: 23%), followed by MSN (10 cases; 14%), BCOR (9 cases; 13%), DDX3X (6 cases; 8%), TP53 (6 cases; 8%), MGA (3 cases; 4%), JAK3 (2 cases; 3%), and STAT5B (1 case; 1%). Mutations in STAT3, BCOR, and DDX3X were nearly mutually exclusive, suggesting different molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of ENKTL; whereas mutations in MGA, MSN, and TP53 were concomitant with other mutations. Most cases (75%) carried Type A EBV without the 30-bp LMP1 gene deletion. The overall survival was significantly associated with serum LDH level, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, and therapy (p < 0.05), but not associated with any mutation, EBV strain or deletion in EBV LMP1 gene. In conclusion, mutational analysis of ENKTL from Latin America reveals frequent gene mutations leading to activation of the JAK-STAT pathway (25%), mostly STAT3. Compared to Asian cohorts, BCOR, DDX3X and TP53 mutations were also identified but with different frequencies. None of these mutations were associated with prognosis.

6.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-12, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833428

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) normally infects B cells, but in some persons the virus infects T or NK cells. Infection of B cells can result in infectious mononucleosis, and the virus is associated with several B cell malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Infection of T or NK cells with EBV is associated with extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, systemic EBV-associated T-cell lymphoma, and chronic active EBV disease, which in some cases can include hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disease and severe mosquito bite allergy. While NK and T cell lymphoproliferative disease is more common in Asia and Latin America, increasing numbers of cases are being reported from the United States and Europe. This review focuses on classification, clinical findings, pathogenesis, and recent genetic advances in NK and T cell lymphoproliferative diseases associated with EBV.

7.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1032, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749671

RESUMO

Recent findings suggest an implication of the gut microbiome in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. PD onset and progression has also been linked with various environmental factors such as physical activity, exposure to pesticides, head injury, nicotine, and dietary factors. In this study, we used a mouse model, overexpressing the complete human SNCA gene (SNCA-TG mice) modeling familial and sporadic forms of PD to study whether environmental conditions such as standard vs. enriched environment changes the gut microbiome and influences disease progression. We performed 16S rRNA DNA sequencing on fecal samples for microbiome analysis and studied fecal inflammatory calprotectin from the colon of control and SNCA-TG mice kept under standard environment (SE) and enriched environment (EE) conditions. The overall composition of the gut microbiota was not changed in SNCA-TG mice compared with WT in EE with respect to SE. However, individual gut bacteria at genus level such as Lactobacillus sp. was a significant changed in the SNCA-TG mice. EE significantly reduced colon fecal inflammatory calprotectin protein in WT and SNCA-TG EE compared to SE. Moreover, EE reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the feces and inflammation inducing genes in the colon. Our data suggest that an enriched social environment has a positive effect on the induction of SNCA mediated inflammation in the intestine and by modulating anti-inflammatory gut bacteria.

8.
Virchows Arch ; 475(6): 771-779, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686194

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to review the histopathological, phenotypic, and molecular characteristics of pediatric-type follicular lymphoma (PTFL) and to assess the diagnostic value of novel immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing PTFL from follicular hyperplasia (FH). A total of 13 nodal PTFLs were investigated using immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and PCR and were compared with a further 20 reactive lymph nodes showing FH. Morphologically, PTFL cases exhibited a follicular growth pattern with irregular lymphoid follicles in which the germinal centers were composed of numerous blastoid cells showing a starry-sky appearance. Immunohistochemistry highlighted preserved CD10 (13/13) and BCL6 (13/13) staining, CD20 (13/13) positivity, a K light chain predominance (7/13), and partial BCL2 expression in 6/13 cases (using antibodies 124, E17, and SP66). The germinal center (GC)-associated markers stathmin and LLT-1 were positive in most of the cases (12/13 and 12/13, respectively). Interestingly, FOXP-1 was uniformly positive in PTFL (12/13 cases) in contrast to reactive GCs in FH, where only a few isolated positive cells were observed. FISH revealed no evidence of BCL2, BCL6, or MYC rearrangements in the examined cases. By PCR, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were detected in 100% of the tested PTFL cases. Our study confirmed the unique morphological and immunophenotypic features of PTFL and suggests that FOXP-1 can represent a novel useful diagnostic marker in the differential diagnosis between PTFL and FH.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estatmina/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754210

RESUMO

Targeted expression of transgenes is essential for the accurate representation of human disease in in vivo models. Current approaches to generate conditional transgenic mouse models are cumbersome and not amenable to high-throughput analysis since they require de novo generation and characterization of genetically modified mice. Here we describe a new system for lineage-restricted expression of transgenes based on a retroviral vector incorporating a translational stop cassette flanked by loxP recombination sites. Conditional transgene expression in chimeric mice is achieved by retroviral infection and transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase from a lineage-specific promoter. For validation, we directed expression of NPM-ALK, the fusion oncogene driving a subset of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), to T-cells by infecting hematopoietic stem cells from Lck-Cre-transgenic mice with a retroviral construct containing the NPM-ALK cDNA preceded by a translational stop cassette. These mice developed T-cell lymphomas within 12-16 weeks, featuring increased expression of the ALCL hallmark antigen CD30 as well as other cytotoxic T-cell markers, similar to the human disease. The new model represents a versatile tool for the rapid analysis of gene function in a defined lineage or in a developmental stage in vivo.

10.
Blood Adv ; 3(22): 3729-3739, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770439

RESUMO

Acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) is a rare and aggressive form of acute leukemia, the biology of which remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the ParaHox gene CDX4 is expressed in patients with acute erythroid leukemia, and that aberrant expression of Cdx4 induced homogenously a transplantable acute erythroid leukemia in mice. Gene expression analyses demonstrated upregulation of genes involved in stemness and leukemogenesis, with parallel downregulation of target genes of Gata1 and Gata2 responsible for erythroid differentiation. Cdx4 induced a proteomic profile that overlapped with a cluster of proteins previously defined to represent the most primitive human erythroid progenitors. Whole-exome sequencing of diseased mice identified recurrent mutations significantly enriched for transcription factors involved in erythroid lineage specification, as well as TP53 target genes partly identical to the ones reported in patients with AEL. In summary, our data indicate that Cdx4 is able to induce stemness and inhibit terminal erythroid differentiation, leading to the development of AEL in association with co-occurring mutations.

11.
Am J Pathol ; 189(12): 2503-2515, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539519

RESUMO

Hyalinosis is a vascular lesion affecting the renal vasculature and contributing to aging-related renal function decline. We assessed whether arteriolar hyalinosis is caused by Klotho deficiency, a state known to induce both renal and vascular phenotypes associated with aging. Histochemistry was used to assess hyalinosis in Klotho-/- kidneys, compared with Klotho+/- and wild-type littermates. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate vascular lesion composition and the different layers of the vascular wall. Finally, spironolactone was used to inhibit calcification in kl/kl mice, and vascular lesions were characterized in the kidney. Arteriolar hyalinosis was detected in Klotho-/- mice, which was present up to the afferent arterioles. Hyalinosis was accompanied by loss of α-smooth muscle actin expression, whereas the endothelial lining was mostly intact. Hyalinous lesions were positive for IgM and iC3b/c/d, indicating subendothelial leakage of plasma proteins. The presence of extracellular matrix proteins suggested increased production by smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Finally, in Klotho-/- mice with marked vascular calcification, treatment with spironolactone allowed for replacement of calcification by hyalinosis. Klotho deficiency potentiates both endothelial hyperpermeability and SMC dedifferentiation. In the absence of a calcification-inducing stimulus, SMCs assume a synthetic phenotype in response to subendothelial leakage of plasma proteins. In the kidney, this results in arteriolar hyalinosis, which contributes to the decline in renal function. Klotho may play a role in preventing aging-related arteriolar hyalinosis.

12.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production and the NF-κB activation are critically involved in inflammatory responses, but knowledge about the temporal dynamics during acute and chronic inflammation is limited. Here, we present a comparative longitudinal in vivo study of both parameters in an experimental model of acute and chronic T cell-driven delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) using noninvasive optical imaging. PROCEDURES: Trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB)-sensitized NF-κB-luciferase-reporter and wild-type mice were TNCB challenged on the right ear to elicit acute DTHR and then repetitively challenged (up to five times) to induce chronic DTHR. Mice were treated with the ROS-scavenging and NF-κB inhibiting molecule N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or underwent sham treatment. ROS/RNS production was noninvasively analyzed in vivo using the ROS-/RNS-sensitive chemiluminescent probe L-012, and NF-κB activation was measured using NF-κB-luciferase-reporter mice. H&E staining, CD3 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunohistochemistry (IHC), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses were employed to investigate immune cell infiltration and expression of NF-κB- and ROS-/RNS-driven genes. RESULTS: In acute DTHR, we found strongly elevated ROS/RNS production and NF-κB activation 12 h after the 1st TNCB ear challenge, peaking at 24 h after the challenge. In chronic DTHR, ROS production peaked as early as 4 h after the 5th TNCB challenge, whereas NF-κB activity peaked after 12 h. The increase in ROS/RNS production in acute DTHR was higher than the increase in NF-κB activity but the relationship was inverse in chronic DTHR. Treatment with the ROS scavenger NAC had differential effects on ROS/RNS production and NF-κB activation during acute and chronic DTHR. Ex vivo cross-validation by histopathology and qPCR analysis correlated closely with the in vivo imaging results. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in vivo imaging is capable of assessing the temporal dynamics of ROS/RNS production and NF-κB activation during progression from acute to chronic DTHR and enables monitoring of anti-inflammatory treatment responses.

13.
Am J Hematol ; 94(11): 1208-1213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396979

RESUMO

Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) can present with different histopathological growth patterns. The impact of these histopathological growth patterns on relapse characteristics is unknown. We therefore analyzed paired biopsies obtained at initial diagnosis and relapse from 33 NLPHL patients who had received first-line treatment within German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial protocols, and from a second cohort of 41 relapsed NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies. Among the 33 GHSG patients, 21 patients presented with a typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis, whereas 12 patients had a variant histology. The histopathological growth patterns at initial diagnosis and at relapse were consistent in 67% of cases. A variant histology at initial diagnosis was associated with a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence (2.8 vs 5.2 years; P = .0219). A similar tendency towards a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence was observed for patients presenting with a variant histology at relapse, irrespective of the growth pattern at initial diagnosis. Results obtained from the 41 NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies were comparable (median time to lymphoma recurrence for variant histology vs typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis: 1.5 vs 7.0 years). In conclusion, the histopathological growth pattern remains consistent at relapse in the majority of NLPHL cases, and has major impact on the time of relapse.

16.
JCI Insight ; 4(15)2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391340

RESUMO

Aberrant activity of the glycoprotein 130 130/JAK/STAT3 (gp130/JAK/STAT3) signaling axis is a recurrent event in inflammation and cancer. In particular, it is associated with a wide range of hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma and leukemia. Novel targeted therapies have only been successful for some subtypes of these malignancies, underlining the need for developing robust mouse models to better dissect the role of this pathway in specific tumorigenic processes. Here, we investigated the role of selective gp130/JAK/STAT3 activation by generating a conditional mouse model. This model targeted constitutively active, cell-autonomous gp130 activity to B cells, as well as to the entire hematopoietic system. We found that regardless of the timing of activation in B cells, constitutively active gp130 signaling resulted in the formation specifically of mature B cell lymphomas and plasma cell disorders with full penetrance, only with different latencies, where infiltrating CD138+ cells were a dominant feature in every tumor. Furthermore, constitutively active gp130 signaling in all adult hematopoietic cells also led to the development specifically of largely mature, aggressive B cell cancers, again with a high penetrance of CD138+ tumors. Importantly, gp130 activity abrogated the differentiation block induced by a B cell-targeted Myc transgene and resulted in a complete penetrance of the gp130-associated, CD138+, mature B cell lymphoma phenotype. Thus, gp130 signaling selectively provides a strong growth and differentiation advantage for mature B cells and directs lymphomagenesis specifically toward terminally differentiated B cell cancers.

17.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296581

RESUMO

SOX11 is a valuable marker to identify biologically and clinically relevant groups of mantle cell lymphoma such as cyclin D1 negative and leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphoma. We aimed to establish a sensitive in situ hybridization analysis of SOX11 mRNA allowing its quantification within the histopathological context and compare it with immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Furthermore, TP53 status was correlated with SOX11 mRNA levels. Sixty-six cases were investigated; 58 conventional mantle cell lymphomas, including 6 cyclin D1 negative (46 classic, 12 blastoid) and 8 leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphomas. RNAscope was used for the in situ hybridization and the results scored as 0 to 4. Mantle cell lymphoma cases with SOX11 positivity by immunohistochemistry were positive by RNAscope but with different scores. RT-qPCR showed a good correlation with the median of the grouped scores but had a wide variation in individual cases. The SOX11 negative leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphomas were also negative by RNAscope. TP53 was mutated in 13/63 (21%) cases, including 5/7 (71%) leukemic non-nodal and 8/56 (14%) conventional mantle cell lymphoma. Interestingly, of the TP53 mutated cases, 9 were in the RNAscope negative/low SOX11 group (9/15; 60%) and 4 in the high SOX11 group (4/36; 11%) (p=.0007). In conclusion, RNAscope is a reliable method to evaluate SOX11 mRNA levels. This study demonstrates the broad range of SOX11 mRNA levels in mantle cell lymphoma. An important finding is the significant correlation of TP53 mutations with negative/low SOX11 mRNA level both in leukemic non-nodal and conventional mantle cell lymphoma.

18.
Nature ; 572(7768): 254-259, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316209

RESUMO

Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) often achieve remission after therapy, but subsequently die of relapse1 that is driven by chemotherapy-resistant leukaemic stem cells (LSCs)2,3. LSCs are defined by their capacity to initiate leukaemia in immunocompromised mice4. However, this precludes analyses of their interaction with lymphocytes as components of anti-tumour immunity5, which LSCs must escape to induce cancer. Here we demonstrate that stemness and immune evasion are closely intertwined in AML. Using xenografts of human AML as well as syngeneic mouse models of leukaemia, we show that ligands of the danger detector NKG2D-a critical mediator of anti-tumour immunity by cytotoxic lymphocytes, such as NK cells6-9-are generally expressed on bulk AML cells but not on LSCs. AML cells with LSC properties can be isolated by their lack of expression of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) in both CD34-expressing and non-CD34-expressing cases of AML. AML cells that express NKG2DLs are cleared by NK cells, whereas NKG2DL-negative leukaemic cells isolated from the same individual escape cell killing by NK cells. These NKG2DL-negative AML cells show an immature morphology, display molecular and functional stemness characteristics, and can initiate serially re-transplantable leukaemia and survive chemotherapy in patient-derived xenotransplant models. Mechanistically, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) represses expression of NKG2DLs. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of PARP1 induces NKG2DLs on the LSC surface but not on healthy or pre-leukaemic cells. Treatment with PARP1 inhibitors, followed by transfer of polyclonal NK cells, suppresses leukaemogenesis in patient-derived xenotransplant models. In summary, our data link the LSC concept to immune escape and provide a strong rationale for targeting therapy-resistant LSCs by PARP1 inhibition, which renders them amenable to control by NK cells in vivo.


Assuntos
Evasão da Resposta Imune , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Evasão Tumoral , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Ligantes , Masculino , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9608, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270368

RESUMO

Allergic enteritis (AE) is a gastrointestinal form of food allergy. This study aimed to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms of AE using a murine model. To induce AE, BALB/c wild type (WT) mice received intraperitoneal sensitization with ovalbumin (an egg white allergen) plus ALUM and feeding an egg white (EW) diet. Microarray analysis showed enhanced gene expression of CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 8 and its ligand, chemokine CC motif ligand (CCL) 1 in the inflamed jejunum. Histological and FACS analysis showed that CCR8 knock out (KO) mice exhibited slightly less inflammatory features, reduced eosinophil accumulation but accelerated neutrophil accumulation in the jejunums, when compared to WT mice. The concentrations of an eosinophil chemoattractant CCL11 (eotaxin-1), but not of IL-5, were reduced in intestinal homogenates of CCR8KO mice, suggesting an indirect involvement of CCR8 in eosinophil accumulation in AE sites by inducing CCL11 expression. The potential of CCR8 antagonists to treat allergic asthma has been discussed. However, our results suggest that CCR8 blockade may promote neutrophil accumulation in the inflamed intestinal tissues, and not be a suitable therapeutic target for AE, despite the potential to reduce eosinophil accumulation. This study advances our knowledge to establish effective anti-inflammatory strategies in AE treatment.

20.
Theranostics ; 9(13): 3903-3917, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281521

RESUMO

Cysteine-type cathepsins such as cathepsin B are involved in various steps of inflammatory processes such as antigen processing and angiogenesis. Here, we uncovered the role of cysteine-type cathepsins in the effector phase of T cell-driven cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHR) and the implication of this role on therapeutic cathepsin B-specific inhibition. Methods: Wild-type, cathepsin B-deficient (Ctsb-/-) and cathepsin Z-deficient (Ctsz-/-) mice were sensitized with 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) on the abdomen and challenged with TNCB on the right ear to induce acute and chronic cutaneous DTHR. The severity of cutaneous DTHR was assessed by evaluating ear swelling responses and histopathology. We performed fluorescence microscopy on tissue from inflamed ears and lymph nodes of wild-type mice, as well as on biopsies from psoriasis patients, focusing on cathepsin B expression by T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and NK cells. Cathepsin activity was determined noninvasively by optical imaging employing protease-activated substrate-like probes. Cathepsin expression and activity were validated ex vivo by covalent active site labeling of proteases and Western blotting. Results: Noninvasive in vivo optical imaging revealed strong cysteine-type cathepsin activity in inflamed ears and draining lymph nodes in acute and chronic cutaneous DTHR. In inflamed ears and draining lymph nodes, cathepsin B was expressed by neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages, B, T and natural killer (NK) cells. Similar expression patterns were found in psoriatic plaques of patients. The biochemical methods confirmed active cathepsin B in tissues of mice with cutaneous DTHR. Topically applied cathepsin B inhibitors significantly reduced ear swelling in acute but not chronic DTHR. Compared with wild-type mice, Ctsb-/- mice exhibited an enhanced ear swelling response during acute DTHR despite a lack of cathepsin B expression. Cathepsin Z, a protease closely related to cathepsin B, revealed compensatory expression in inflamed ears of Ctsb-/- mice, while cathepsin B expression was reciprocally elevated in Ctsz-/- mice. Conclusion: Cathepsin B is actively involved in the effector phase of acute cutaneous DTHR. Thus, topically applied cathepsin B inhibitors might effectively limit DTHR such as contact dermatitis or psoriasis. However, the cathepsin B and Z knockout mouse experiments suggested a complementary role for these two cysteine-type proteases.

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