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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 2: e20191004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813766

RESUMO

An updated and annotated checklist of mammals occurring in Brazil is presented. A total of 751 native species, distributed in 249 genera, 51 families and 11 orders were recorded to the country. The Brazilian mammalian fauna shows an elevated rate of endemism (30%; 223 species). Among the species evaluated by IUCN (668 species; 90%), a total of 80 (10.6% of total mammalian fauna) are Threatened, 28 (3.9%) are considered as Near Threatened, two species (0.3%) are presumable Extinct, 96 (12.8%) are considered with Deficient Data for conservation and 462 (61.6%) are considered as Least Concern. Fifteen new species were described since the last national compilation (published in 2017), which associated to new records to the country and synonimizations resulted in an increment of 30 species. Eight non-native species were introduced to the country, including the recently established Asiatic cervids Rusa unicolor (sambar) and Axis axis (chital). Seven native species (five primates and two hystricomorph rodents) have been translocated from their areas of natural occurrence to other areas inside the country.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Mamíferos , Animais , Brasil
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 135479, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761358

RESUMO

Wetlands are environments of extreme importance due to their high biodiversity and invaluable ecosystem services. Nevertheless, wetlands worldwide are under the increasing threat of the effects of contaminants, which put at risk the biota and the ecosystems. Herein the concentrations of non-essential and toxic elements arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in caudal crests of the yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) from the Brazilian Pantanal, one of the largest wetlands in the world, were investigated aiming to compare concentrations in individuals from a large pristine area (Southern Pantanal) to animals from an area close to potential sources of anthropogenic emissions (Northern Pantanal). Levels above the limit of detection were found for all the elements in the majority of the analysed samples. The highest mean concentration was detected for As in samples from both sites, followed by Pb and Cd in samples from Southern Pantanal, and Cd and Pb in samples from Northern Pantanal. Significant negative correlations were found between As and Cd concentrations and the size of the individuals from the Southern Pantanal. Surprisingly, concentrations of all three elements were higher in pristine Southern Pantanal, but with significant differences only for Cd. This result suggests that natural sources and processes may be acting for the mobilisation and availability of As, Pb and Cd for Southern Pantanal biota, which reflected in the contamination of C. yacare. Data from the literature showed higher levels of As, Pb and Cd in abiotic compartments in Southern Pantanal and adjacent plateaus in comparison to Northern Pantanal, corroborating the higher concentrations detected in biotic samples from the south. Thus, natural sources seem to play a relevant role in the contamination of biota by As, Pb and Cd in Southern Pantanal, characterising an intriguing pattern that could be tested for other species.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Animais , Arsênio , Brasil , Cádmio , Ecossistema , Chumbo
3.
Herpetological Monographs, v. 34, n. 1, p. 98-115, jul. 2020
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-3135

RESUMO

Chironius bicarinatus is a conspicuous colubrid snake species, widely distributed in northeastern, southeastern, central-western, and southern Brazil, as well as Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay. On the basis of new morphological data of individuals from previously unsampled regions and deoxyribonucleic acid sequences, we reviewed the taxonomy of populations previously referred to as C. bicarinatus, revisiting the species definition with an updated diagnosis, inferring its phylogenetic relationships with closely related lineages in southern Brazil, herein described as a new species restricted to Pampa forests or grasslands and Atlantic Forest semidecidual forests in southern Brazil. The new species can be readily diagnosed from C. bicarinatus and all other congeners on the basis of internal (hemipenis unilobed, unicalyculate, cylindrical, apex with smooth calyces, with spinules restricted to proximal portion, near the medial area; lacrimal foramen with small projection on the anteroventral margin) and external morphology (ventrals 153–165 [153–165 in males, 155–164 in females]; subcaudals 103–146 pairs [129–142 in males, 103–146 in females]; adult dorsal pattern with dark green background, scales sometimes with light blue margin, two conspicuous black dorsal stripes with light green vertebral stripe between them that gradually dissipates to the tail, ventrals with black margin on its edges) and molecular evidence.

4.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 19(1): e20180585, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038854

RESUMO

Abstract: The coastal streams of southernmost Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul state, are marked by a period of regular marine intrusion resultant from intense oceanic winds. In the present study we aimed to investigate the species composition, abundance and relative biomass of the ichthyofauna in the lower stretch of a coastal stream during summer, a period of regular marine intrusion. Estreito is a coastal hydrological complex composed by lakes, swamps and a perennial stream, located at the central-south portion of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul state. During the summer of 2018, the ichthyofauna of lower Estreito stream was sampled by beach hauls applied in 17 random points distributed in a stretch of ca. 2km. Measurements at the sampled stretch revealed salinities between 19.3 to 31.3 ppt, characterizing the studied system as polyhaline/euhaline during summer. The sample of 4,533 specimens revealed the occurrence of 20 species, being the great majority marine-dwelling. The most abundant species were the anablepid Jenynsia lineata (70.3%), the cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis (19.3%) and the the mugilid Mugil curema (7.5%). The highest relative biomass was recorded for J. lineata, followed by M. curema and G. brasiliensis. The dominance of marine-dwelling species in the assemblage composition and the high abundance of limnic-estuarine J. lineata corroborate previous studies conducted in other washouts of Rio Grande do Sul.


Resumo: Os arroios costeiros do extremo sul do Brasil, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, são marcados por um período de regular intrusão marinha resultante de intensos ventos oceânicos. No presente estudo nós tivemos como objetivo investigar a composição de espécies, abundância e biomassa relativa da ictiofauna no trecho inferior de um arroio costeiro durante o verão, período de regular intrusão marinha. Estreito é um complexo hidrológico costeiro composto por lagoas, pântanos e um arroio perene, localizados na porção centro-sul da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. Durante o verão de 2018, a ictiofauna do baixo arroio Estreito foi amostrada por arrastos de praia aplicados em 17 pontos aleatórios distribuídos em um trecho de cerca de 2 km. Medidas no trecho amostrado revelaram salinidades entre 19.3 e 31.3 ppt, caracterizando o sistema estudado como polialino/euhalino durante o verão. A amostra de 4.533 espécimes revelou a ocorrência de 20 espécies, sendo a grande maioria habitantes marinhos. As espécies mais abundantes foram o anablepídeo Jenynsia lineata (70,3%), o ciclídeo Geophagus brasiliensis (19,3%) e o mugilídeo Mugil curema (7.5%). A maior biomassa relativa foi registrada para J. lineata, seguido por M. curema e G. brasiliensis. A dominância das espécies marinhas na composição da assembléia e a alta abundância da espécie límnica-estuarina J. lineata corrobora estudos prévios conduzidos em outros sangradouros do Rio Grande do Sul.

5.
Herpetol. Notes, v. 11, p. 553-555, jul. 2018
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-4113
6.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 149(3-4): 249-58, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25037444

RESUMO

Despite the order Rodentia present worldwide distribution and large number of species in the Brazilian fauna, detailed studies on testicular morphophysiology are still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the dynamics of the spermatogenic process of Oxymycterus nasutus using morphometrical and stereological tools. Testicles from ten sexually mature males were used, showing a gonadosomatic index of 0.89%. The testicular parenchyma showed one of the highest tubulesomatic indexes reported among wild rodents - 0.82% - from which 65.12% was allocated into seminiferous epithelium. The average tubular diameter was 249.89 µm, whereas the epithelium height was 62.47 µm and the total length was 18.62 m per gram of testis. Eight different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were described. Stage 1 was used for counting the germ cell population as well as the Sertoli cells. On average, 3.47 type-A spermatogonia, 24.39 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 24.13 primary spermatocytes in pachytene, 68.38 round spermatids and 7.33 Sertoli cells were found per tubular cross section. There were 91.02 × 10(6) Sertoli cells per gram of testis and each cell was able to support 9.33 spermatids and 16.43 germ cells. The coefficient of spermatogonial mitosis was 7.02, while 2.83 spermatids were produced for each primary spermatocyte in pachytene. The overall efficiency of spermatogenesis was 19.70 cells, whereas the sperm reserve per gram of testis totalized 849.63 × 10(6) spermatids. Therefore, the presented data showed that O. nasutus shows a high energetic investment in reproduction, corroborating the findings for other species of the Cricetidae family.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
7.
Zootaxa ; (3811): 207-25, 2014 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24943159

RESUMO

A new species of swamp rat of the genus Scapteromys from the Meridional Plateau of Southern Brazil is described. Morphological, molecular, and karyological analysis support the recognition of the new species, distinct from S. aquaticus and S. tumidus. Scapteromys sp. nov. is significantly smaller than the congeneric taxa considering most of the external and craniometric measurements and the pelage is conspicuously grayer and darker. It can be distinguished from S. tumidus by the laterally extended thenar pad of the manus and the parallel edges of the hamular process of the pterygoid, and from S. aquaticus by a grayer and darker pelage and smaller values of most external and craniometric measurements. Karyological analysis indicated a difference in chromosome numbers across the distributional range: 2n=34 and 2n=36. A total of 11 haplotypes were found along the range of the new species within the biogeographic province of Araucaria angustifolia Forest. Strongly supported substructure was found within the new taxon, resulting in two reciprocally monophyletic clades.


Assuntos
Sigmodontinae/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Filogenia , Sigmodontinae/anatomia & histologia , Sigmodontinae/genética , Árvores
8.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 13(4): 284-289, Oct-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-703568

RESUMO

Non-volant small mammals are key elements in natural environments due its importance as food resource. This study aimed to investigate the species composition and habitat occupancy by non-volant small mammals (Didelphimorphia, Rodentia) in a coastal grassland area in southern Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain. Between April 2009 and March 2010 pitffal traps were used to capture small mammals in coastal grasslands associated to sand dunes and arbustive Restinga. We sampled 180 individuals including two marsupials (Cryptonanus guahybae and Didelphis albiventris) and seven rodent species (Calomys laucha, Cavia aperea, Ctenomys flamarioni, Deltamys kempi, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oxymycterus nasutus and Scapteromys tumidus). Cryptonanus guahybae, D. albiventris and C. flamarioni were captured only in dunes while C. aperea and O. nasutus were recorded only in arbustive Restinga habitats. Calomys laucha, D. kempi, O. flavescens and O. nasutus were captured in both habitats. Oligoryzomys flavescens and C. laucha were the most representative species in both habitats, comprising respectively 40.7 and 38.9% of captures in dunes and 56.3 and 34.9% of captures in Restinga habitats. The species richness recorded in the sampled coastal grasslands area was lower than those previously recorded in subtropical forest coastal systems.


Pequenos mamíferos não-voadores são elementos chave em ambientes naturais devido a sua importância como recurso alimentar. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a composição de espécies e a ocupação de habitat por pequenos mamíferos não-voadores (Didelphimorphia, Rodentia) em uma área de campos litorâneos na região sul da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. Entre abril de 2009 e março de 2010 armadilhas de interceptação e queda foram utilizadas para a captura de pequenos mamíferos em campos associados a dunas e a restinga arbustiva. Foram amostrados 180 indivíduos pertencentes a duas espécies de marsupiais (Cryptonanus guahybae e Didelphis albiventris) e sete espécies de roedores (Calomys laucha, Cavia aperea, Ctenomys flamarioni, Deltamys kempi, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oxymycterus nasutus e Scapteromys tumidus). Cryptonanus guahybae, D. albiventris e C. flamarioni foram capturados somente em dunas, enquanto que C. aperea e O. nasutus foram registrados somente em restinga arbustiva. Calomys laucha, D. kempi, O. flavescens e O. nasutus foram capturados em ambos os ambientes. Oligoryzomys flavescens e C. laucha foram as espécies mais representativas em ambos os ambientes, compreendendo respectivamente 40,7 e 38,9% das capturas em dunas, e 56,3 e 34,9% das capturas em restinga. A riqueza de espécies registrada na área de campo litorâneo amostrada foi inferior a aquelas previamente registradas em sistemas florestais costeiros subtropicais.

9.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 35(1): 55-61, Jan.-Mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-859554

RESUMO

This paper presents data on species composition and use of habitat of medium and large sized mammal assemblages in a coastal dunes segment and adjacent marshes at Rio Grande municipality, southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Records were obtained through visualization of living animals and identification of footprints, feces and remains. From November 2007 to September 2008, nine 600 m long and 5 m wide linear transects were settled on coastal dunes segment (frontal and intermediate dunes) and adjacent marshes, parallel to ocean shore on a 23 km section at Cassino Beach. Transects were settled in areas under high, medium and low levels of anthropic occupancy (A1, A2 and A3, respectively), being three transects on each area. Fourteen species were recorded, distributed in five orders and 10 families. Lepus europaeus was the most frequent species (81.9% of the transect walks), present in all areas and seasons, followed by Lycalopex gimnocercus (23.5%) and Conepatus chinga (10.3%). Five species were present on A1, seven on A2 and fourteen on A3. Seven species were recorded on frontal dunes, nine on intermediate dunes and 13 on adjacent marshes.


O presente estudo apresenta dados sobre a composição de espécies e uso do hábitat de assembleias de mamíferos de médio e grande porte em um trecho no cordão de dunas costeiras e brejos adjacentes no município de Rio Grande, região Sul da Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os registros foram obtidos no período de novembro de 2007 a setembro de 2008 por meio da observação direta de indivíduos e carcaças e da identificação de vestígios (pegadas e fezes). Nove transectos lineares de 600 m de extensão e 5 m de largura, paralelos à praia oceânica, foram estabelecidos sobre um trecho de 23 km do cordão de dunas costeiras e brejos adjacentes no Balneário Cassino. Foram amostradas áreas sob alto, médio e baixo grau de antropização (A1, A2 e A3, respectivamente), sendo estabelecidos três transectos em cada área. Os métodos empregados possibilitaram o registro de 14 espécies sendo Lepus europaeus a mais frequente (81,9% do total de transecções) e presente em todas as áreas e em todas as estações, seguida de Lycalopex gymnocercus (23,52%) e Conepatus chinga (10,29%). Cinco espécies foram registradas em A1, sete em A2 e 14 em A3. Sete espécies foram encontradas nas dunas frontais, nove nas dunas intermediárias e 13 nos brejos adjacentes.


Assuntos
Duna , Fauna , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Zootaxa ; 3716: 583-91, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26106793

RESUMO

A new species of casque-headed tree frog of the genus Aparasphenodon is described from the municipality of Cataguases (21°20'S, 42°45'W; 288 m a.s.l.) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov. is characterized by medium size (males, snout-vent length, SVL 51.6-60.5 mm; females, SVL 58.7-62.1 mm); snout almost round in dorsal view; dorsum and limbs with cream-colored reticulation on dark-brown background; spots on ventral surface cream-colored; lips white; cream-colored dorsolateral stripe originating on the snout, crossing the upper eyelid and extending posteriorly to the axilla level; and red iris.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/classificação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 55(6): 877-886, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-660336

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream) in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus) in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

12.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 34(4): 407-412, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-859677

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the feeding habits of Lontra longicaudis in a pool system within the Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) Usina Maurício, located in Paraíba do Sul river basin, Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais State. The diet composition was determined based on the identification of items present in 212 scats sampled between July 2008 and October 2009 in a 4.1 km stretch of the pool system. The found items and its respective percentages of occurrence were: mollusks (0.5%), insects (16.5%), spiders (1.4%), crustaceans (3.3%), fish (96.7%), amphibians (0.9%), snakes (3.8%), birds (2.8%), mammals (8.5%) and fruits (0.5%). Among fish, the identified families and respective percentages of occurrence were: Loricariidae (65.4%), Pimelodidae (42.9%) Cichlidae (22%), Characidae (7.3%), Erythrinidae (3.9%), Synbranchidae (2.4%), Anostomidae (2%) . Therefore fish make up the most consumed item in the study area, with the predominance of benthic siluriformes (families Loricariidae and Pimelodidae).


O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os hábitos alimentares de Lontra longicaudis em um sistema de poções na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural ­ RPPN Usina Maurício, localizada na bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul, Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Estado de Minas Gerais. A composição da dieta foi determinada com base na identificação de itens presentes em 212 amostras de fezes coletadas entre julho de 2008 e outubro de 2009 em um trecho de 4,1 km de um sistema de poções. Os itens alimentares encontrados e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: moluscos (0,5%), insetos (16,5%), aranhas (1,4%), crustáceos (3,3%), peixes (96,7%), anfíbios (0,9%), serpentes (3,8%), aves (2,8%), mamíferos (8,5%), frutos (0,5%). Dentre os peixes, famílias identificadas e suas respectivas porcentagens de ocorrência foram: Loricariidae (65,4%), Pimelodidae (42,9%) Cichlidae (22%), Characidae (7,3%), Erythrinidae (3,9%), Synbranchidae (2,4%), Anostomidae (2%). Os peixes, portanto, representaram o item mais consumido na área de estudo, com predominância de siluriformes bentônicos (famílias Loricariidae e Pimelodidae).


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Lorisidae , Lontras
13.
Biota neotrop. (Online, Ed. port.) ; 12(1): 261-266, Jan.-Mar. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-643007

RESUMO

As matas de restinga representam formações vegetais originais na Planície Costeira do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição de espécies de pequenos mamíferos não-voadores em dois fragmentos de matas de restinga (mata palustre e mata arenosa ciliar) no município de Rio Grande, região sul da Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. Um total de 234 indivíduos pertencentes a três espécies de marsupiais (Didelphidae: Cryptonanus guahybae, Didelphis albiventris, Lutreolina crassicaudata) e oito espécies de roedores (Cricetidae: Deltamys kempi, Holochilus brasiliensis, Oligoryzomys flavescens, O. nigripes, Oxymycterus nasutus, Scapteromys tumidus; Muridae: Mus musculus, Rattus rattus) foi capturado. As espécies C. guahybae, D. albiventris, D. kempi, H. brasiliensis, O. nigripes, S. tumidus e M. musculus foram registradas no fragmento de mata palustre, enquanto que C. guahybae, D. albiventris, Lutreolina crassicaudata, D. kempi, O. flavescens, O. nigripes, S. tumidus e R. rattus ocorreram no fragmento de mata arenosa ciliar. Oligoryzomys nigripes e S. tumidus foram as espécies mais abundantes no fragmento de mata palustre, representando respectivamente 40,4 e 22,1% do total de indivíduos capturados. No fragmento de mata arenosa ciliar, as espécies mais abundantes foram O. nigripes e D. albiventris, representando respectivamente 63,4 e 12,4% do total de indivíduos capturados. Indivíduos de C. guahybae e O. nigripes foram capturados em estrato arbóreo (alturas entre 0,50 e 1,65 m) enquanto que todos os indivíduos das demais espécies foram capturados no solo.


The restinga forests represent original vegetal formations in Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul state. This work aimed to evaluate the species composition of non-volant small mammals in two restinga forests (peat forest and sandy riparian forest) in Rio Grande, Southern Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain. A total of 234 individuals belonging to three species of marsupials (Didelphidae: Cryptonanus guahybae, Didelphis albiventris, Lutreolina crassicaudata) and eight species of rodents (Cricetidae: Deltamys kempi, Holochilus brasiliensis, Oligoryzomys flavescens, O. nigripes, Oxymycterus nasutus, Scapteromys tumidus; Muridae: Mus musculus, Rattus rattus) was captured. The species C. guahybae, D. albiventris, D. kempi, H. brasiliensis, O. nigripes, S. tumidus and M. musculus were recorded in the peat forest while C. guahybae, D. albiventris, Lutreolina crassicaudata, D. kempi, O. flavescens, O. nigripes, S. tumidus and R. rattus occurred in the riparian sandy forest. Oligoryzomys nigripes and S. tumidus were the most abundant species in the peat forest, representing 40.4 and 22.1% of the total of captured individuals, respectively. The most abundant species in the riparian sandy forest were O. nigripes e D. albiventris, representing 63.4 and 12.4% of the total of captured individuals. Individuals of C. guahybae and O. nigripes were captured on trees (heights between 0.50 and 1.65 m) while all individuals of the remaining species were captured on the ground.

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