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1.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Imaging evaluation of the cerebral ventricles is important for clinical decision-making in pediatric hydrocephalus. Although quantitative measurements of ventricular size, over time, can facilitate objective comparison, automated tools for calculating ventricular volume are not structured for clinical use. The authors aimed to develop a fully automated deep learning (DL) model for pediatric cerebral ventricle segmentation and volume calculation for widespread clinical implementation across multiple hospitals. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 200 children with obstructive hydrocephalus from four pediatric hospitals, along with 199 controls. Manual ventricle segmentation and volume calculation values served as "ground truth" data. An encoder-decoder convolutional neural network architecture, in which T2-weighted MR images were used as input, automatically delineated the ventricles and output volumetric measurements. On a held-out test set, segmentation accuracy was assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient (0 to 1) and volume calculation was assessed using linear regression. Model generalizability was evaluated on an external MRI data set from a fifth hospital. The DL model performance was compared against FreeSurfer research segmentation software. RESULTS: Model segmentation performed with an overall Dice score of 0.901 (0.946 in hydrocephalus, 0.856 in controls). The model generalized to external MR images from a fifth pediatric hospital with a Dice score of 0.926. The model was more accurate than FreeSurfer, with faster operating times (1.48 seconds per scan). CONCLUSIONS: The authors present a DL model for automatic ventricle segmentation and volume calculation that is more accurate and rapid than currently available methods. With near-immediate volumetric output and reliable performance across institutional scanner types, this model can be adapted to the real-time clinical evaluation of hydrocephalus and improve clinician workflow.

2.
Front Surg ; 7: 517375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195383

RESUMO

Introduction: Surgical resection of brain tumors is often limited by adjacent critical structures such as blood vessels. Current intraoperative navigations systems are limited; most are based on two-dimensional (2D) guidance systems that require manual segmentation of any regions of interest (ROI; eloquent structures to avoid or tumor to resect). They additionally require time- and labor-intensive processing for any reconstruction steps. We aimed to develop a deep learning model for real-time fully automated segmentation of the intracranial vessels on preoperative non-angiogram imaging sequences. Methods: We identified 48 pediatric patients (10-months to 22-years old) with high resolution (0.5-1 mm axial thickness) isovolumetric, pre-operative T2 magnetic resonance images (MRIs). Twenty-eight patients had anatomically normal brains, and 20 patients had tumors or other lesions near the skull base. Manually segmented intracranial vessels (internal carotid, middle cerebral, anterior cerebral, posterior cerebral, and basilar arteries) served as ground truth labels. Patients were divided into 80/5/15% training/validation/testing sets. A modified 2-D Unet convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture implemented with 5 layers was trained to maximize the Dice coefficient, a measure of the correct overlap between the predicted vessels and ground truth labels. Results: The model was able to delineate the intracranial vessels in a held-out test set of normal and tumor MRIs with an overall Dice coefficient of 0.75. While manual segmentation took 1-2 h per patient, model prediction took, on average, 8.3 s per patient. Conclusions: We present a deep learning model that can rapidly and automatically identify the intracranial vessels on pre-operative MRIs in patients with normal vascular anatomy and in patients with intracranial lesions. The methodology developed can be translated to other critical brain structures. This study will serve as a foundation for automated high-resolution ROI segmentation for three-dimensional (3D) modeling and integration into an augmented reality navigation platform.

3.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on operative case volume in 8 U.S. neurosurgical residency training programs in early 2020 and to survey these programs regarding training activities during this period. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of monthly operative case volumes and types for 8 residency programs for 2019 and January through April 2020. Cases were grouped as elective cranial, elective spine, and nonelective emergent cases. Programs were surveyed regarding residents' perceptions of the impact of COVID-19 on surgical training, didactics, and research participation. Data were analyzed for individual programs and pooled across programs. RESULTS: Across programs, the 2019 monthly mean ± SD case volume was 211 ± 82; 2020 mean ± SD case volumes for January, February, March, and April were 228 ± 93, 214 ± 84, 180 ± 73, and 107 ± 45. Compared with 2019, March and April 2020 mean cases declined 15% (P = 0.003) and 49% (P = 0.002), respectively. COVID-19 affected surgical case volume for all programs; 75% reported didactics negatively affected, and 90% reported COVID-19 resulted in increased research time. Several neurosurgery residents required COVID-19 testing; however, to our knowledge, only 1 resident from the participating programs tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a significant reduction in operative volume in 8 neurosurgery residency training programs in early 2020. During this time, neurosurgery residents engaged in online didactics and research-related activities, reporting increased research productivity. Residency programs should collect data to determine the educational impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on residents' operative case volumes, identify deficiencies, and develop plans to mitigate any effects.

5.
J Clin Neurosci ; 75: 71-79, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241644

RESUMO

Gunshot wounds (GSW) are one of the most lethal forms of head trauma. The lack of clear guidelines for civilian GSW complicates surgical management. We aimed to develop a decision-tree algorithm for mortality prediction and report long-term outcomes on survivors based on 15-year data from our level 1 trauma center. We retrospectively reviewed 96 consecutive patients who presented with cerebral GSWs between 2003 and 2018. Clinical information from our trauma database, EMR, and relevant imaging scans was reviewed. A decision-tree model was constructed based on variables showing significant differences between survivors and non-survivors. After excluding patients who died at arrival, 54 patients with radiologically confirmed intracranial injury were included. Compared to survivors (51.9%), non-survivors (48.1%) were significantly more likely to have perforating (entry and exit wound), as opposed to penetrating (entry wound only), injuries. Bi-hemispheric and posterior fossa involvement, cerebral herniation, and intraventricular hemorrhage were more commonly present in non-survivors. Based on the decision-tree, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) > 8 and penetrating, uni-hemispheric injury predicted survival. Among patients with GCS ≤ 8 and normal pupillary response, lack of 1) posterior fossa involvement, 2) cerebral herniation, 3) bi-hemispheric injury, and 4) intraventricular hemorrhage, were associated with survival. Favorable long-term outcomes (mean follow-up 34.4 months) were possible for survivors who required neurosurgery and stable patients who were conservatively managed. We applied clinical and radiological characteristics that predicted survival to construct a decision-tree to facilitate surgical decision-making for GSW. Further validation of the algorithm in a large patient setting is recommended.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Árvores de Decisões , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/mortalidade , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/patologia
7.
Neurosurgery ; 86(4): 530-537, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease often leads to ischemic strokes visible on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with subsequent cognitive impairment. In adults with moyamoya, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is correlated with regions of steal phenomenon and executive dysfunction prior to white matter changes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate quantitative global diffusion changes in pediatric moyamoya patients prior to explicit structural ischemic damage. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed children (<20 yr old) with moyamoya disease and syndrome who underwent bypass surgery at our institution. We identified 29 children with normal structural preoperative MRI and without findings of cortical infarction or chronic white matter ischemic changes. DWI datasets were used to calculate ADC maps for each subject as well as for 60 age-matched healthy controls. Using an atlas-based approach, the cerebral white matter, cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem were segmented in each DWI dataset and used to calculate regional volumes and ADC values. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of covariance using the regional ADC and volume values as dependent variables and age and gender as covariates revealed a significant difference between the groups (P < .001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated significantly elevated ADC values for children with moyamoya in the cerebral cortex, white matter, caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. No significant volume differences were found. CONCLUSION: Prior to having bypass surgery, and in the absence of imaging evidence of ischemic stroke, children with moyamoya exhibit cerebral diffusion changes. These findings could reflect microstructural changes stemming from exhaustion of cerebrovascular reserve.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Moyamoya/patologia , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurosurg Focus ; 47(6): E16, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While conventional imaging can readily identify ventricular enlargement in hydrocephalus, structural changes that underlie microscopic tissue injury might be more difficult to capture. MRI-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) uses properties of water motion to uncover changes in the tissue microenvironment. The authors hypothesized that DTI can identify alterations in optic nerve microstructure in children with hydrocephalus. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed 21 children (< 18 years old) who underwent DTI before and after neurosurgical intervention for acute obstructive hydrocephalus from posterior fossa tumors. Their optic nerve quantitative DTI metrics of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were compared to those of 21 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with hydrocephalus had increased MD and decreased FA in bilateral optic nerves, compared to controls (p < 0.001). Normalization of bilateral optic nerve MD and FA on short-term follow-up (median 1 day) after neurosurgical intervention was observed, as was near-complete recovery of MD on long-term follow-up (median 1.8 years). CONCLUSIONS: DTI was used to demonstrate reversible alterations of optic nerve microstructure in children presenting acutely with obstructive hydrocephalus. Alterations in optic nerve MD and FA returned to near-normal levels on short- and long-term follow-up, suggesting that surgical intervention can restore optic nerve tissue microstructure. This technique is a safe, noninvasive imaging tool that quantifies alterations of neural tissue, with a potential role for evaluation of pediatric hydrocephalus.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Anisotropia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Lactente , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/complicações , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/cirurgia , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/complicações , Meduloblastoma/cirurgia , Nervo Óptico/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Derivação Ventriculoperitoneal
12.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-12, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches constitute an essential technique for the resection of skull base tumors in adults. However, in the pediatric population, sellar and suprasellar lesions have historically been treated by craniotomy. Transnasal endoscopic approaches are less invasive and thus may be preferable to craniotomy, especially in children. In this case series, the authors present their institutional experience with transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches for pediatric skull base tumors. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years) who had undergone transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches for either biopsy or resection of sellar or suprasellar lesions between 2007 and 2016. All operations were performed jointly by a team of pediatric neurosurgeons and skull base otolaryngologists, except for 8 cases performed by one neurosurgeon. RESULTS: The series included 42 patients between 4 and 18 years old (average 12.5 years) who underwent 51 operations. Headache (45%), visual symptoms (69%), and symptoms related to hormonal abnormalities (71%) were the predominant presenting symptoms. Improvement in preoperative symptoms was seen in 92% of cases. Most patients had craniopharyngiomas (n = 16), followed by pituitary adenomas (n = 12), Rathke cleft cysts (n = 4), germinomas (n = 4), chordomas (n = 2), and other lesion subtypes (n = 4). Lesions ranged from 0.3 to 6.2 cm (median 2.5 cm) in their greatest dimension. Gross-total resection was primarily performed (63% of cases), with 5 subsequent recurrences. Nasoseptal flaps were used in 47% of cases, fat grafts in 37%, and lumbar drains in 47%. CSF space was entered intraoperatively in 15 cases, and postoperative CSF was observed only in lesions with suprasellar extension. There were 8 cases of new hormonal deficits and 3 cases of new cranial nerve deficits. Length of hospital stay ranged from 1 to 61 days (median 5 days). Patients were clinically followed up for a median of 46 months (range 1-120 months), accompanied by a median radiological follow-up period of 45 months (range 3.8-120 months). Most patients (76%) were offered adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-institution report of the transnasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, the authors demonstrated that this technique is generally safe and effective for different types of pediatric skull base lesions. Favorable effects of surgery were sustained during a follow-up period of 4 years. Further refinement in technology will allow for more widespread use in the pediatric population.

13.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 23(4): 486-492, 2019 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Moyamoya disease is a dynamic cerebrovascular condition that often requires vascular surveillance. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MR perfusion method that is increasingly used for stroke and other various neurovascular pathologies. Unlike perfusion-weighted MRI, ASL uses endogenous water molecules for signal and therefore obviates gadolinium use; and provides direct, not relative, quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) measures. Presently, the potential role of ASL for evaluating postoperative pediatric moyamoya patients is relatively unexplored. This study investigated the role for ASL in evaluating cerebral hemodynamic changes in children who underwent revascularization surgery. METHODS: This retrospective study examined 15 consecutive pediatric patients with moyamoya disease (n = 7) or moyamoya syndrome (n = 8) presenting between 2010 and 2014 who underwent revascularization and in whom 3T ASL was performed pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative MRI at least 3 months after revascularization procedure was used for analysis. Quantitative CBF in various vascular territories was interrogated: anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries, and basal ganglia supplied by the lenticulostriate collaterals, resulting in evaluation of 20 brain regions. RESULTS: After revascularization, CBF in the high middle cerebral artery territory significantly increased (p = 0.0059), accompanied by a decrease in CBF to the ipsilateral lenticulostriate-supplied basal ganglia (p = 0.0053). No perfusion changes occurred in the remaining cerebral vascular territories after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: ASL-based quantitative CBF showed improved cerebral perfusion to the middle cerebral artery territory after revascularization in children with both moyamoya syndrome and disease. Reduced perfusion to the basal ganglia might reflect pruning of the lenticulostriate collaterals, potentially from effects of revascularization. ASL can quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic changes in children with moyamoya after revascularization, and it may be a useful adjunct to routine clinical MRI surveillance.


Assuntos
Artérias Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Revascularização Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/cirurgia , Marcadores de Spin , Adolescente , Angiografia Digital , Angiografia Cerebral , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
14.
World Neurosurg ; 122: e1300-e1304, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current standard of care for children with infratentorial ependymoma includes maximal safe resection and local radiation of 54-59 Gray. High-dose local radiation has been associated with declines in multiple cognitive domains. The anatomic and physiologic correlates of this cognitive decline remain undefined, and there have been no radiographic studies on the long-term effects of this treatment paradigm. METHODS: A comprehensive database of pediatric brain tumor patients treated at Stanford Children's from 2004-2016 was queried. Seven patients with posterior fossa ependymoma who were treated with surgery and local radiation alone, who had no evidence of recurrent disease, and had imaging suitable for analysis were identified. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging datasets were used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps for each subject, while arterial spin labeling datasets were used to calculate maps of cerebral blood flow. Diffusion-weighted imaging and arterial spin labeling datasets of 52 age-matched healthy children were analyzed in the same fashion to enable group comparisons. RESULTS: Several statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups. Cerebral blood flow was lower in the caudate and pallidum and higher in the nucleus accumbens in the ependymoma cohort compared with controls. Apparent diffusion coefficient was increased in the thalamus and trended toward decreased in the amygdala. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery and local radiation for posterior fossa ependymoma are associated with supratentorial apparent diffusion coefficient and cerebral blood flow alterations, which may represent an anatomic and physiologic correlate to the previously published decline in neurocognitive outcomes in this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Ependimoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ependimoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Infratentoriais/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino
15.
Neurosurg Focus ; 45(6): E16, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544324

RESUMO

The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been demonstrated in various studies with respect to prevalence, morbidity, and mortality data. Many of the patients burdened with long-term sequelae of TBI are veterans. Although fewer in number, female veterans with TBI have been suggested to suffer from unique physical, mental, and social challenges. However, there remains a significant knowledge gap in the sex differences in TBI. Increased female representation in the military heralds an increased risk of TBI for female soldiers, and medical professionals must be prepared to address the unique health challenges in the face of changing demographics among the veteran TBI population. In this review, the authors aimed to present the current understanding of sex differences in TBI in the veteran population and suggest directions for future investigations.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgia , Fatores Sexuais , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Veteranos
16.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 22(2): 158-164, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Fast magnetic resonance imaging (fsMRI) sequences are single-shot spin echo images with fast acquisition times that have replaced CT scans for many conditions. Introduced as a means of evaluating children with hydrocephalus and macrocephaly, these sequences reduce the need for anesthesia and can be more cost-effective, especially for children who require multiple surveillance scans. However, the role of fsMRI has yet to be investigated in evaluating the posterior fossa in patients with Chiari I abnormality (CM-I). The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic performance of fsMRI in evaluating the cerebellar tonsils in comparison to conventional MRI. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 18 pediatric patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CM-I based on gold-standard conventional brain MRI and 30 controls without CM-I who had presented with various neurosurgical conditions. The CM-I patients were included if fsMRI studies had been obtained within 1 year of conventional MRI with no surgical intervention between the studies. Two neuroradiologists reviewed the studies in a blinded fashion to determine the diagnostic performance of fsMRI in detecting CM-I. For the CM-I cohort, the fsMRI and T2-weighted MRI exams were randomized, and the blinded reviewers performed tonsillar measurements on both scans. RESULTS The mean age of the CM-I cohort was 7.39 years, and 50% of these subjects were male. The mean time interval between fsMRI and conventional T2-weighted MRI was 97.8 days. Forty-four percent of the subjects had undergone imaging after posterior fossa decompression. The sensitivity and specificity of fsMRI in detecting CM-I was 100% (95% CI 71.51%-100%) and 92.11% (95% CI 78.62%-98.34%), respectively. If only preoperative patients are considered, both sensitivity and specificity increase to 100%. The authors also performed a cost analysis and determined that fsMRI was significantly cost-effective compared to T2-weighted MRI or CT. CONCLUSIONS Despite known limitations, fsMRI may serve as a useful diagnostic and surveillance tool for CM-I. It is more cost-effective than full conventional brain MRI and decreases the need for sedation in young children.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tonsila Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43708, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272472

RESUMO

Recessive mutations in WD repeat domain 62 (WDR62) cause microcephaly and a wide spectrum of severe brain malformations. Disruption of the mouse ortholog results in microcephaly underlain by reduced proliferation of neocortical progenitors during late neurogenesis, abnormalities in asymmetric centrosome inheritance leading to neuronal migration delays, and altered neuronal differentiation. Spindle pole localization of WDR62 and mitotic progression are defective in patient-derived fibroblasts, which, similar to mouse neocortical progenitors, transiently arrest at prometaphase. Expression of WDR62 is closely correlated with components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC), a key regulator of mitosis. Wild type WDR62, but not disease-associated mutant forms, interacts with the CPC core enzyme Aurora kinase B and staining of CPC components at centromeres is altered in patient-derived fibroblasts. Our findings demonstrate critical and diverse functions of WDR62 in neocortical development and provide insight into the mechanisms by which its disruption leads to a plethora of structural abnormalities.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase B/genética , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Epistasia Genética , Padrões de Herança , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Consanguinidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microcefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Microcefalia/patologia , Mutação , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
J Neurosurg Spine ; 22(6): 622-30, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25746119

RESUMO

OBJECT Extradural decompression is a minimally invasive technique for treating Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) that avoids the complications of dural opening. While there is no agreement on which surgical method is optimal, mounting evidence demonstrates that extradural decompression effectively treats clinical symptoms, with a minimal reoperation rate. Neurological symptoms such as headache may be related to obstructed flow of CSF, and one aspect of successful extradural decompression is improved CSF dynamics. In this series, the authors report on their use of phase-contrast cine flow MRI to assess CSF flow as well as satisfactory decompression. METHODS The authors describe their first surgical series of 18 patients with CM-I undergoing extradural decompression and correlate clinical improvement with radiological changes. Patients were categorized as having complete, partial, or no resolution of their symptoms. Posterior fossa area, cisterna magna area, and tonsillar herniation were assessed on T2-weighted MRI, whereas improvement of CSF flow was evaluated with phase-contrast cine flow MRI. All patients received standard pre- and postoperative MRI studies; 8 (44.4%) patients had pre- and postoperative phase-contrast cine, while the rest underwent cine studies only postoperatively. RESULTS All 18 patients presented with symptomatic CM-I, with imaging studies demonstrating tonsillar herniation ≥ 5 mm, and 2 patients had associated syringomelia. All patients underwent suboccipital decompression and C-1 laminectomy with splitting of the dura. Patients with complete resolution of their symptoms had a greater relative increase in cisterna magna area compared with those with only partial improvement (p = 0.022). In addition, in those with complete improvement the preoperative cisterna magna area was smaller than in those who had either partial (0.020) or no (0.025) improvement. Ten (91%) of the 11 patients with improved flow also had improvement in their symptoms. There was 1 postoperative complication of dysphagia and dysphonia. None of the patients have required a second operation. CONCLUSIONS Extradural decompression has the potential to be the first-line treatment for CM-I but has been lacking an objective measure by which to assess surgical success as well as the need for reoperation. An increase in the CSF spaces and improved CSF dynamics may be associated with resolution of clinical symptoms. Including cine imaging as part of routine pre- and postoperative evaluation can help identify which patients are most likely to benefit from surgery.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Dura-Máter/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laminectomia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Curr Treat Options Neurol ; 17(2): 334, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25630995

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical management in the acute setting needs to occur in the intensive care unit in order to identify, prevent, and treat secondary insults from local ischemia, hypotension, hypoxia, and inflammation. Maintenance of adequate perfusion and oxygenation is quintessential and a mean arterial pressure >85-90 mm Hg should be kept for at least 1 week. A cervical collar and full spinal precautions (log-roll, flat, holding C-spine) should be maintained until the spinal column has been fully evaluated by a spine surgeon. In patients with SCI, there is a high incidence of other bodily injuries, and there should be a low threshold to assess for visceral, pelvic, and long bone injuries. Computed tomography of the spine is superior to plain films, as the former rarely misses fractures, though caution needs to be exerted as occipitocervical dislocation can still be missed. To reliably assess the spinal neural elements, soft tissues, and ligamentous structures, magnetic resonance imaging is indicated and should be obtained within 48-72 h from the time of injury. All patients should be graded daily using the American Spinal Injury Association classification, with the first prognostic score at 72 h postinjury. Patients with high cervical cord (C4 or higher) injury should be intubated immediately, and those with lower cord injuries should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. However, in the acute setting, respiratory mechanics will be disrupted with any spinal cord lesion above T11. Steroids have become extremely controversial, and the professional societies for neurosurgery in the United States have given a level 1 statement against their use in all patients. We, therefore, do not advocate for them at this time. With every SCI, a spine surgeon must be consulted to discuss operative vs nonoperative management strategies. Indications for surgery include a partial or progressive neurologic deficit, instability of the spine not allowing for mobilization, correction of a deformity, and prevention of potential neurologic compromise. Measures to prevent pulmonary emboli from deep venous thromboembolisms are necessary: IVC filters are recommended in bedbound patients and low-molecular weight heparins are superior to unfractionated heparin. Robust prevention of pressure ulcers as well as nutritional support should be a mainstay of treatment. Lastly, it is important to note that neurologic recovery is a several-year process. The most recovery occurs in the first year following injury, and therefore aggressive rehabilitation is crucial.

20.
Clin Med Insights Pathol ; 7: 15-20, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24940089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Spinal teratomas comprise a rare subset of spinal cord tumors, and here, we describe an even rarer childhood thoracic extradural-intracanalicular teratoma. The clinical presentation, management, and pathophysiology of these tumors are reviewed to promote recognition and guide treatment of these lesions. METHODS: We report the case of a 21-month-old boy who presented with marked spasticity, as well as failure to ambulate and meet motor milestones. Additionally, we provide a literature review of spinal teratomas, including their clinical presentation, work-up, pathophysiology, and underlying genetics. RESULTS: An MRI of the spine revealed a large dorsal epidural tumor extending from T3 to T10 with heterogeneous contrast enhancement and severe spinal cord compression. The tumor was resected revealing a cystic mass with tissue resembling hair, muscle, as well as cartilage; pathology confirmed the diagnosis of teratoma. Gross total resection was achieved, and the child eventually gained ambulatory function. CONCLUSIONS: Given that spinal teratomas are rare entities that can present with significant neurologic compromise, they must remain on clinicians' differentials. Unfortunately, the exact origin of these tumors remains inconclusive and requires further investigation.

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