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1.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442325

RESUMO

AIM: To describe motor development in preschool children, to identify perinatal, neonatal, and social environmental risk factors of poor motor development, and to replicate results in a second cohort. METHODS: Two prospective samples in Germany (Bavarian Longitudinal Study, BLS) and Finland (Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study, AYLS) assessed 4,741 and 1,423 children from birth to 56 months, respectively. Motor functioning was evaluated at birth, and 5, 20 and 56 months. Perinatal, neonatal and social environmental information was collected at birth and 5 months. RESULTS: Two distinct motor trajectories were identified: low (BLS: n=4,486 (94.6%), AYLS: n=1,391 (97.8%)) and high (BLS: n=255 (5.4%), AYLS: n=32 (2.2%)) degree of motor difficulties. High degree of motor difficulties was predicted by neonatal complications, abnormal neonatal neurological status, duration of hospitalisation, and poor parent-infant relationships. Although neonatal complications and poor parent-infant relationships did not significantly predict high degree of motor difficulties in the AYLS, the trends identified were similar to those obtained from the BLS. CONCLUSION: Early identification of children at-risk of motor difficulties across infancy and toddlerhood may help referring those children to interventions earlier. Modifiable risk factors, such as parent-infant relationships, may be addressed by intervention strategies to prevent children from developing motor difficulties.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression during pregnancy increases the risk for adverse developmental outcomes in children. However, the underpinning biological mechanisms remain unknown. We tested whether depression was associated with levels of and change in the inflammatory state during pregnancy, if early pregnancy overweight/obesity or diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders accounted for/mediated these effects, and if depression added to the inflammation that typically accompanies these conditions. METHODS: We analyzed plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and glycoprotein acetyls at three consecutive stages during pregnancy, derived history of depression diagnoses before pregnancy from Care Register for Healthcare (HILMO) (N = 375) and self-reports (N = 347) and depressive symptoms during pregnancy using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale completed concurrently to blood samplings (N = 295). Data on early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and diabetes/hypertensive pregnancy disorders came from medical records. RESULTS: Higher overall hsCRP levels, but not change, during pregnancy were predicted by history of depression diagnosis before pregnancy [HILMO: mean difference (MD) = 0.69 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-1.11, self-report: MD = 0.56 s.d.; 95% CI 0.17-0.94] and higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy (0.06 s.d. per s.d. increase; 95% CI 0.00-0.13). History of depression diagnosis before pregnancy also predicted higher overall glycoprotein acetyls (HILMO: MD = 0.52 s.d.; 95% CI 0.12-0.93). These associations were not explained by diabetes/hypertensive disorders, but were accounted for and mediated by early pregnancy BMI. Furthermore, in obese women, overall hsCRP levels increased as depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased (p = 0.006 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with a proinflammatory state during pregnancy. These associations are mediated by early pregnancy BMI, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy aggravate the inflammation related to obesity.

3.
Behav Brain Res ; 375: 112157, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437468

RESUMO

A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, Val66Met, has been reported to impair BDNF secretion and memory function. However, few studies have investigated the interaction of BDNF genotype and sleep characteristics, such as sleep spindles, that promote long-term potentiation during sleep. In this study we compared overnight visual memory between the carriers of BDNF Met and non-carriers (Val homozygotes), and examined how sleep spindle density associated with memory performance. The sample constituted of 151 adolescents (mean age 16.9 years; 69% Val homozygotes, 31% Met carriers). The learning task contained high and low arousal pictures from Interactive Affective Picture System. The learning task and all-night polysomnography were conducted at the homes of the adolescents. Slow (10-13 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) spindles were detected with automated algorithm. Neither post-sleep recognition accuracy nor spindle density differed between Val homozygotes and Met carriers. While frontal slow and fast spindle densities associated with better recognition accuracy in the entire sample, examining the allelic groups separately indicated paralleling associations in Val homozygotes only. Interaction analyses revealed a significant genotype-moderated difference in the associations between frontal fast sleep spindles and high arousal pictures. In sum, sleep spindles promote or indicate visual learning in Val homozygote adolescents but not in Met carriers. The result suggests that the role of sleep spindles in visual recognition memory is not equal across individuals but moderated by a common gene variant.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 334-350, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374203

RESUMO

Susceptibility to schizophrenia is inversely correlated with general cognitive ability at both the phenotypic and the genetic level. Paradoxically, a modest but consistent positive genetic correlation has been reported between schizophrenia and educational attainment, despite the strong positive genetic correlation between cognitive ability and educational attainment. Here we leverage published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia to parse biological mechanisms underlying these results. Association analysis based on subsets (ASSET), a pleiotropic meta-analytic technique, allowed jointly associated loci to be identified and characterized. Specifically, we identified subsets of variants associated in the expected ("concordant") direction across all three phenotypes (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia, lower cognitive ability, and lower educational attainment); these were contrasted with variants that demonstrated the counterintuitive ("discordant") relationship between education and schizophrenia (i.e., greater risk for schizophrenia and higher educational attainment). ASSET analysis revealed 235 independent loci associated with cognitive ability, education, and/or schizophrenia at p < 5 × 10-8. Pleiotropic analysis successfully identified more than 100 loci that were not significant in the input GWASs. Many of these have been validated by larger, more recent single-phenotype GWASs. Leveraging the joint genetic correlations of cognitive ability, education, and schizophrenia, we were able to dissociate two distinct biological mechanisms-early neurodevelopmental pathways that characterize concordant allelic variation and adulthood synaptic pruning pathways-that were linked to the paradoxical positive genetic association between education and schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic correlation analyses revealed that these mechanisms contribute not only to the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia but also to the broader biological dimensions implicated in both general health outcomes and psychiatric illness.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399550

RESUMO

Prenatal stress exposure is associated with risk for psychiatric disorders later in life. This may be mediated in part via enhanced exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs), which are known to impact neurogenesis. We aimed to identify molecular mediators of these effects, focusing on long-lasting epigenetic changes. In a human hippocampal progenitor cell (HPC) line, we assessed the short- and long-term effects of GC exposure during neurogenesis on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles. GC exposure induced changes in DNAm at 27,812 CpG dinucleotides and in the expression of 3,857 transcripts (false discovery rate [FDR] ≤ 0.1 and absolute fold change [FC] expression ≥ 1.15). HPC expression and GC-affected DNAm profiles were enriched for changes observed during human fetal brain development. Differentially methylated sites (DMSs) with GC exposure clustered into 4 trajectories over HPC differentiation, with transient as well as long-lasting DNAm changes. Lasting DMSs mapped to distinct functional pathways and were selectively enriched for poised and bivalent enhancer marks. Lasting DMSs had little correlation with lasting expression changes but were associated with a significantly enhanced transcriptional response to a second acute GC challenge. A significant subset of lasting DMSs was also responsive to an acute GC challenge in peripheral blood. These tissue-overlapping DMSs were used to compute a polyepigenetic score that predicted exposure to conditions associated with altered prenatal GCs in newborn's cord blood DNA. Overall, our data suggest that early exposure to GCs can change the set point of future transcriptional responses to stress by inducing lasting DNAm changes. Such altered set points may relate to differential vulnerability to stress exposure later in life.

6.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
8.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1711-1718, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167617

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- At acute phase and neurointensive care, patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) may become agitated or delirious. We found no previous studies on psychotic disorders or antipsychotic drug (APD) use by long-term aSAH survivors. We defined the APD use and its risk factors among 12-month survivors of aSAH in an Eastern Finnish population-based cohort with long-term follow-up. Methods- We analyzed APD use in 1144 consecutive patients with aSAH alive at 12 months of the Kuopio intracranial aneurysm patient and family database and their age, sex, and birth municipality matched controls (3:1; n=3432) from 1995 to 2013 and median follow-up of 9 years. Using the Finish nationwide health registries, we obtained drug purchase and hospital discharge data. Results- In total, 140 (12%) of the 1144 patients started APD use first time after aSAH (index date), in contrast to 145 (4%) of the 3432 matched population controls. The cumulative rate of starting APD was 6% at 1 year and 9% at 5 years, in contrast to 1% and 2% in the controls, respectively. The rates at 1 and 5 years were only 1% and 2% in the 489 patients with a good condition (modified Rankin Scale score, 0 or 1 at 12 months; no shunt, intracerebral hemorrhage, or intraventricular hemorrhage). Instead, the highest rate of APD use, 23% at 5 years was among the 192 patients shunted for hydrocephalus after aSAH. Eighty-eight (63%) of the 140 aSAH patients with APD use had also concomitant antidepressant or antiepileptic drug use. Conclusions- The 12-month survivors of aSAH were significantly more likely to be started on APD after aSAH than their matched population controls. These patients often used antidepressant and antiepileptic drugs concomitantly. The use of APDs strongly correlated with signs of brain injury after aSAH, with low use if no signs of significant brain injury were present.

9.
Diabetologia ; 62(8): 1412-1419, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214738

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Maternal obesity in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality rate in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity is also associated with increased incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, independently of maternal diabetes as a candidate mechanistic pathway. METHODS: Birth records of 118,201 children from 1950 to 2011 in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to Scottish Care Information-Diabetes, the national register for diagnosed diabetes in Scotland, to identify incident and prevalent type 1 and type 2 diabetes up to 1 January 2012. Maternal BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. The effect of maternal obesity on offspring outcomes was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression to compare outcomes in offspring of mothers in underweight, overweight or obese categories of BMI, compared with offspring of women with normal BMI. RESULTS: Offspring of obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) mothers had an increased hazard of type 2 diabetes compared with mothers with normal BMI, after adjustment for gestation when weight was measured, maternal history of diabetes before pregnancy, maternal history of hypertension, age at delivery, parity, socioeconomic status, and sex of the offspring: HR 3.48 (95% CI 2.33, 5.06) and HR 1.39 (1.06, 1.83), respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Maternal obesity is associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Evidence-based strategies that reduce obesity among women of reproductive age and that might reduce the incidence of diabetes in their offspring are urgently required.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11370-11379, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113877

RESUMO

Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-κB-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-κB regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-κB. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-κB through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-κB signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.

11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 615-625, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identifying risk factors for major depression and depressive symptoms in youths could have important implications for prevention efforts. This study examined the association of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for a broad depression phenotype derived from a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) in adults, and its interaction with childhood abuse, with clinically relevant depression outcomes in clinical and epidemiological youth cohorts. METHODS: The clinical cohort comprised 279 youths with major depression (mean age=14.76 years [SD=2.00], 68% female) and 187 healthy control subjects (mean age=14.67 years [SD=2.45], 63% female). The first epidemiological cohort included 1,450 youths (mean age=13.99 years [SD=0.92], 63% female). Of those, 694 who were not clinically depressed at baseline underwent follow-ups at 6, 12, and 24 months. The replication epidemiological cohort comprised children assessed at ages 8 (N=184; 49.2% female) and 11 (N=317; 46.7% female) years. All cohorts were genome-wide genotyped and completed measures for major depression, depressive symptoms, and/or childhood abuse. Summary statistics from the largest GWAS to date on depression were used to calculate the depression PRS. RESULTS: In the clinical cohort, the depression PRS predicted case-control status (odds ratio=1.560, 95% CI=1.230-1.980), depression severity (ß=0.177, SE=0.069), and age at onset (ß=-0.375, SE=0.160). In the first epidemiological cohort, the depression PRS predicted baseline depressive symptoms (ß=0.557, SE=0.200) and prospectively predicted onset of moderate to severe depressive symptoms (hazard ratio=1.202, 95% CI=1.045-1.383). The associations with depressive symptoms were replicated in the second epidemiological cohort. Evidence was found for an additive, but not an interactive, effect of the depression PRS and childhood abuse on depression outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Depression PRSs derived from adults generalize to depression outcomes in youths and may serve as an early indicator of clinically significant levels of depression.

12.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 104: 89-99, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826632

RESUMO

Background Maternal early pregnancy overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) are associated with mental and physical health adversities in the offspring. Prenatal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been put forward as one of the mechanisms that may play pathophysiological role. However, evidence linking maternal overweight and obesity with offspring HPA-axis activity is scarce. We studied if maternal early pregnancy BMI is associated with diurnal salivary cortisol, a marker of HPA-axis activity, in young adult offspring. Methods At a mean age of 25.3 (standard deviation [SD) = 0.6) years, 653 Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study participants collected saliva samples for cortisol analyses, at awakening, 15 and 30 min thereafter, 10:30AM, 12:00PM, 5:30PM and at bedtime. Maternal BMI was calculated from weight and height verified by a measurement in the first antenatal clinic visit before 12 weeks of gestation derived from healthcare records. Results Per each one kg/m2 higher maternal early pregnancy BMI offspring diurnal average salivary cortisol was -1.4% (95% CI:-2.6, -0.2, pFDR = 0.033) lower, at awakening it was -2.4% (95% CI:-4.0, -0.7, pFDR = 0.025) lower and the morning average salivary cortisol was -2.0% (95% CI:-3.4, -0.5, pFDR=0.017) lower. These associations were independent of the offspring's own young adulthood BMI, and other important covariates. Conclusion Our findings show that young adult offspring born to mothers with higher early pregnancy BMI show lower average levels of diurnal cortisol, especially in the morning. Whether these findings reflect prenatal programming of the offspring HPA-axis activity warrants further investigation.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4395, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867476

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) may increase the risk of anxiety throughout the life course. Whether this effect extends to late adulthood is poorly known. In our study comprising 1872 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in 1934-1944, we investigated the association of various forms of ELS and their accumulation with self-reported anxiety symptoms at the age of 65-77 years. Data on childhood socioeconomic status and separation from parents were based on national registers for all participants. Information on self-reported emotional and physical trauma, parental divorce, and death of a family member in childhood was obtained from 1277 participants. We found that experiencing emotional trauma, physical trauma, and low socioeconomic status in childhood were associated with increased anxiety symptoms in late adulthood [B = 0.44 (95% CI = 0.31-0.58); B = 0.33 (95% CI = 0.20-0.46); B = 0.10 (95% CI = 0.01-0.19), respectively]. These associations remained significant even after controlling for other forms of ELS. Accumulation of early life stress also increased the levels of late-adulthood anxiety symptoms and the risk of anxiety regarded as clinically significant. Screening for potentially stressful childhood experiences in elderly populations may help identifying individuals with increased anxiety symptoms and planning preventive and therapeutic interventions for those exposed to ELS.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2785-2795, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835282

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and prepregnancy overweight/obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2] might adversely affect offspring cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between maternal GDM and prepregnancy overweight/obesity with adult offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study). SETTING: Province of Uusimaa and Northern Finland. PARTICIPANTS: At a mean age of 24.1 ± 1.3 years, we classified offspring as offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of the prepregnancy BMI (OGDM; n = 193); normoglycemic mothers with prepregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO; n = 157); and normoglycemic mothers with prepregnancy BMI <25 kg/m2 (controls; n = 556). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed the cardiometabolic biomarkers from blood and measured the blood pressure at rest and heart rate. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, the OGDM and ONO groups had greater fasting glucose (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.1% to 3.1%; and 2.3%; 95% CI, 0.5% to 4.3%, respectively) and insulin (12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4% to 21.9%; and 8.7%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 17.8%). These differences attenuated to nonsignificance when adjusted for confounders and/or current offspring characteristics, including BMI or body fat percentage. The OGDM group had lower SHBG (men, -12.4%; 95% CI, -20.2% to -3.9%; women, -33.2%; 95% CI, -46.3% to -16.8%), high-density lipoprotein (-6.6%; 95% CI, -10.9% to -2.2%), and apolipoprotein A1 (-4.5%; 95% CI, -7.5% to -1.4%). These differences survived the adjustments. The heart rate and other biomarkers were similar among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Adult offspring of mothers with GDM have increased markers of insulin resistance and a more atherogenic lipid profile. These were only partly explained by confounders or current offspring adiposity. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with impaired offspring glucose regulation, which was explained by confounders and/or current adiposity.

15.
Sleep Med ; 56: 201-210, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with poor offspring sleep. Yet, it remains unknown whether depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain time periods in pregnancy, whether associations are specific to pregnancy stage, whether maternal symptomatology after pregnancy mediates or adds to the prenatal effects, and whether any effects are specific to some child sleep characteristics. METHODS: A total of 2321 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly between gestational weeks + days 12 + 0/13 + 6 and 38 + 0/39 + 6. At child's mean age of 3.5 (standard deviation = 0.7) years, mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and answered questions on child sleep quantity and quality using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and sleep disorders using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. RESULTS: Maternal depressive symptoms showed high stability throughout pregnancy. Children of mothers with clinically significant symptomatology throughout pregnancy had shorter mother-rated sleep duration, longer sleep latency, higher odds for waking up two or more times during the night and for total and several specific sleep disorders. These associations were robust to covariates. However, maternal depressive symptoms at the child follow-up fully mediated the associations with sleep duration and awakenings, partially mediated those with sleep latency and disorders, and added to the effects on sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: Maternal depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are associated with mother-rated child sleep quantity, quality, and disorders. Maternal depressive symptoms at child follow-up mediate and add to the prenatal adverse effects on child sleep characteristics.

16.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(3): 401-407, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853050

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Autistic traits present a continuum from mild symptoms to severe disorder and have been associated with a high prevalence of sleep problems. Sleep spindles have a key function in sleep maintenance and in brain plasticity. Previous studies have found decreased spindle activity in clinical autism. Here we examine the associations between the entire range of autistic traits and sleep spindle activity in a nonclinical community cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Our cohort is based on 172 adolescents born in 1998 (58.7% girls, mean age = 16.9 years, standard deviation = 0.1), who filled in the adult autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), consisting of total score, and social interaction and attention to details subscales. Participants underwent an ambulatory overnight sleep electroencephalography. Sleep spindles (amplitude, duration, density, and intensity) were automatically detected from stage N2 sleep, and divided to slow and fast spindles. RESULTS: Higher AQ total sum and social interaction sum associated with lower fast spindle amplitude and intensity (P < .04). No associations were observed for attention to details. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a higher level of autistic traits in the nonclinical range among generally healthy adolescents associate with similar alterations in sleep spindle activity as observed in many neuropsychiatric conditions, indicating lower sleep-related brain plasticity. This indicates that sleep microstructures form a continuum that follows self-reported symptoms of autism.

17.
J Psychosom Res ; 118: 63-68, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic experiences, such as separation from parents in childhood causing early life stress (ELS) may increase the risk of adverse long-term health outcomes and biological age-related changes. This may have an impact on work career. Our aim was to examine long term consequences of ELS due to temporary separation from parents during World War II (WWII) in relation to work career. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study comprises 13,345 individuals born in Helsinki, Finland, between the years 1934-1944. From the original cohort, 1781 individuals were identified as being separated temporarily from their parents due to World War II. Information on date and type of pension was provided by the Finnish Centre for Pensions and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The cohort members either transitioned into old age pension at the statutory retirement age or retired earlier and transitioned into disability, unemployment, part-time pension or died before retirement. RESULTS: Those who were separated were more likely to have transitioned into disability pension (RRR: 1.26: 95% CI: 1.06-1.48), especially due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.20-2.07), or into unemployment pension (RRR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.02-1.53) compared with those not separated from their parents. Longer duration of separation was associated with early exit from the workforce compared with non-separation. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to ELS may have an impact upon lifetime work career. Early interventions preventing exposure to ELS or mitigating its negative effects may prolong future work careers along with healthier aging across the life-span.

18.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synthetic glucocorticoids, to enhance fetal maturation, are a standard treatment when preterm birth before 34 gestational weeks is imminent. While morbidity- and mortality-related benefits may outweigh potential neurodevelopmental harms in children born preterm (<37 gestational weeks), this may not hold true when pregnancy continues to term (⩾37 gestational weeks). We studied the association of antenatal betamethasone exposure on child mental health in preterm and term children. METHODS: We included 4708 women and their children, born 2006-2010, from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction Study with information on both antenatal betamethasone treatment and child mental and behavioral disorders from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from the child's birth to 31 December 2016. Additional follow-up data on mother-reported psychiatric problems and developmental milestones were available for 2640 children at 3.5 (s.d. = 0.07) years-of-age. RESULTS: Of the children, 187 were born preterm (61 betamethasone-exposed) and 4521 at term (56 betamethasone-exposed). The prevalence of any mental and behavioral, psychological development, emotional and behavioral, and comorbid disorders was higher in the betamethasone-exposed, compared to non-exposed children [odds ratio 2.76 (95% confidence interval 1.76-4.32), 3.61 (2.19-5.95), 3.29 (1.86-5.82), and 6.04 (3.25-11.27), respectively]. Levels of psychiatric problems and prevalence of failure to meet the age-appropriate development in personal-social skills were also higher in mother-reports of betamethasone-exposed children. These associations did not vary significantly between preterm and term children. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal betamethasone exposure may be associated with mental health problems in children born preterm and in those who end up being born at term.

19.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 157: 96-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep facilitates the extraction of semantic regularities amongst newly encoded memories, which may also lead to increased false memories. We investigated sleep stage proportions and sleep spindles in the recollection of adolescents' false memories, and their potential sex-specific differences. METHODS: 196 adolescents (mean age 16.9 y; SD = 0.1, 61% girls) underwent the Deese, Roediger & McDermott (DRM) false memory procedure and overnight polysomnography, with free recall the following morning. Sleep was scored manually into stages 1, 2, 3 and REM. Stage 2 sleep spindle frequency, density, and peak amplitude were used as measures of spindle activity for slow (10-13 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) ranges. RESULTS: In girls, a lower number of critical lures was associated with higher spindle frequency (p ≤ 0.01), density (p ≤ 0.01), and amplitude (p = 0.03). Additionally, girls' longer sleep duration was associated with more intrusion words (p = 0.03), but not with critical lures. These associations survived adjustment for age, pubertal status, and intelligence. No significant results emerged in boys. CONCLUSIONS: In adolescent girls, higher spindle activity was associated with fewer critical lures being falsely recalled in the DRM paradigm. Unlike studies using adult participants, we did not observe any association between slow-wave sleep and false memory recollection.

20.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 157: 106-113, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553020

RESUMO

ADHD and its subclinical symptoms have been associated with both disturbed sleep and weakened overnight memory consolidation. As sleep spindle activity during NREM sleep plays a key role in both sleep maintenance and memory consolidation, we examined the association between subclinical ADHD symptoms and sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, we hypothesized that sleep spindle activity mediates the effect of ADHD symptoms on overnight learning outcome in a procedural memory task. We studied these questions in a community-based cohort of 170 adolescents (58% girls, mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years), who filled in the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1), and underwent an overnight sleep EEG coupled with a mirror tracing task before and after sleep. Elevated ADHD symptoms were associated with weaker fast sleep spindle activity, and poorer overnight learning in the procedural memory test. However, sleep spindles, contrary to the hypothesis, did not mediate the association between ADHD symptoms and overnight learning. Our results showed that a higher level of ADHD symptoms in adolescence is associated with similar alterations in sleep spindle activity as observed in many neuropsychiatric conditions and might contribute to altered synaptic connectivity and sleep fragmentation observed in ADHD.

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