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1.
ACS Omega ; 4(6): 11205-11214, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460221

RESUMO

Herein, we report an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for Cu2O thin films using copper(II) acetate [Cu(OAc)2] and water vapor as precursors. This precursor combination enables the deposition of phase-pure, polycrystalline, and impurity-free Cu2O thin films at temperatures of 180-220 °C. The deposition of Cu(I) oxide films from a Cu(II) precursor without the use of a reducing agent is explained by the thermally induced reduction of Cu(OAc)2 to the volatile copper(I) acetate, CuOAc. In addition to the optimization of ALD process parameters and characterization of film properties, we studied the Cu2O films in the fabrication of photoconductor devices. Our proof-of-concept devices show that approximately 20 nm thick Cu2O films can be used for photodetection in the visible wavelength range and that the thin film photoconductors exhibit improved device characteristics in comparison to bulk Cu2O crystals.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(44): 14538-14542, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048031

RESUMO

Rhenium is both a refractory metal and a noble metal that has attractive properties for various applications. Still, synthesis and applications of rhenium thin films have been limited. We introduce herein the growth of both rhenium metal and rhenium nitride thin films by the technologically important atomic layer deposition (ALD) method over a wide deposition temperature range using fast, simple, and robust surface reactions between rhenium pentachloride and ammonia. Films are grown and characterized for compositions, surface morphologies and roughnesses, crystallinities, and resistivities. Conductive rhenium subnitride films of tunable composition are obtained at deposition temperatures between 275 and 375 °C, whereas pure rhenium metal films grow at 400 °C and above. Even a just 3 nm thick rhenium film is continuous and has a low resistivity of about 90 µΩ cm showing potential for applications for which also other noble metals and refractory metals have been considered.

3.
Small ; 14(21): e1800547, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673074

RESUMO

Semiconducting 2D materials, such as SnS2 , hold immense potential for many applications ranging from electronics to catalysis. However, deposition of few-layer SnS2 films has remained a great challenge. Herein, continuous wafer-scale 2D SnS2 films with accurately controlled thickness (2 to 10 monolayers) are realized by combining a new atomic layer deposition process with low-temperature (250 °C) postdeposition annealing. Uniform coating of large-area and 3D substrates is demonstrated owing to the unique self-limiting growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition. Detailed characterization confirms the 1T-type crystal structure and composition, smoothness, and continuity of the SnS2 films. A two-stage deposition process is also introduced to improve the texture of the films. Successful deposition of continuous, high-quality SnS2 films at low temperatures constitutes a crucial step toward various applications of 2D semiconductors.

4.
Adv Mater ; 30(24): e1703622, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315833

RESUMO

2D materials research is advancing rapidly as various new "beyond graphene" materials are fabricated, their properties studied, and materials tested in various applications. Rhenium disulfide is one of the 2D transition metal dichalcogenides that has recently shown to possess extraordinary properties such as that it is not limited by the strict monolayer thickness requirements. The unique inherent decoupling of monolayers in ReS2 combined with a direct bandgap and highly anisotropic properties makes ReS2 one of the most interesting 2D materials for a plethora of applications. Here, a highly controllable and precise atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is applied to deposit ReS2 thin films. Film growth is demonstrated on large area (5 cm × 5 cm) substrates at moderate deposition temperatures between 120 and 500 °C, and the films are extensively characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry using grazing incidence, atomic force microscopy, focused ion beam/transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis techniques. The developed ReS2 ALD process highlights the potential of the material for applications beyond planar structure architectures. The ALD process also offers a route to an upgrade to an industrial scale.

5.
Langmuir ; 32(41): 10559-10569, 2016 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27673703

RESUMO

Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ≈ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(16): 10838-48, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25815628

RESUMO

Ar ion irradiation-induced changes in the morphology of bare and 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) covered Au(111) surfaces have been investigated systematically. The changes were followed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements while varying the ion charge (Ar(+),Ar(4+)), energy (10-40 keV) and fluency (10(12)-10(13) ions per cm(2)). The impact of flame-annealing of the Au(111) surface on subsequent ion bombardment was considered and more prominent related surface morphology changes were noted. The irradiation of Au(111) surfaces generated Au vacancy and adatom islands and caused roughening of step edges. The size and abundance of these islands and the level of deformation on the step edges depended strongly on the ion energy and fluency. In case of the SAM functionalized surface, the gold vacancy islands present on the surface already from the SAM formation were modified, step edges roughened and gold adatom islands formed. Similarly to the bare surface, the level of surface deformation increased as a function of ion energy and fluency. The Ar(4+) irradiation caused on the average slightly larger vacancy islands on the SAM modified surfaces than the Ar(+) irradiation. Irradiation to fluency of 10(12) ions per cm(2) mostly maintained standing-up orientation of the thiolates whereas irradiation to higher fluency resulted in reduced surface coverage and flat-lying molecules. As a general trend the DDT covered surfaces were more susceptible for irradiation-induced surface morphology changes than the unmodified Au surfaces.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(24): 4319-23, 2014 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26273981

RESUMO

The atomic layer deposition (ALD) method was applied to grow thin polycrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) films on Pt/SiO2/Si substrates. The 50 nm thick films were found to exhibit high resistivity, good morphological integrity, and homogeneity achieved by the applied ALD technique. Magnetic characterization revealed saturated magnetization of 25 emu/cm(3) with temperature-dependent coercivity varying from 5 to 530 Oe within the temperature range from 300 to 2 K. Magnetism observed in the films was found to change gradually from ferromagnetic spin ordering to pinned magnetic domain interactions mixed with weak spin-glass-like behavior of magnetically frustrated antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) spin ordering depending on the temperature and magnitude of the applied magnetic field. Antiferromagnetic order of spin cycloids was broken in polycrystalline films by crystal sizes smaller than the cycloid length (∼60 nm). Uncompensated spincycloids and magnetic domain walls were found to be the cause of the high magnetization of the BFO films.

8.
ACS Nano ; 7(8): 6691-9, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23829643

RESUMO

While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films produced by cluster deposition in the aggregate form that can be considered as a crossover state between a nanocluster and a continuous film. We demonstrate ferromagnetic-like hysteretic magnetization with temperature dependence indicative of spin-glass-like behavior and find this to be consistent with theoretical predictions, available in the literature, based on first-principles calculations.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Magnetismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Gases , Vidro/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura
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