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2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 157: 227-234, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625396

RESUMO

The production of acid mine drainage of (AMD) is one of the main phenomena responsible for much of the degradation of water and soil resources. Organisms present at sites contaminated by AMD can have the potential to bioaccumulate heavy metals, stimulating their application in bioremediation processes. Ulothrix sp. LAFIC 010 was identified among the species of algae isolated from water contaminated by AMD in the region of Sideropólis (Brazil). The present study evaluated its tolerance and bioaccumulation potential related to zinc, manganese and nickel. Experiments were performed to see the effects of different concentrations of Zn, Mn and Ni (individually and in combination) on the physiological performance of the alga. The results showed that only the cultures submitted to concentrations above 0.55 mM Zn showed a decrease in growth rate and damage to physiological processes. There was no observed effect of Mn and Ni on Ulothrix sp. LAFIC 010 physiology, even with an 8-fold increase in concentrations of these metals in the medium. In cultures with combined metals, only the treatments with the highest concentrations of Zn presented reduced growth, regardless of the presence of other metals. Additionally, we observed that Mn and Ni did not decrease the toxic effect of Zn. Mn accumulation was indicated in the cell wall and Ni in the vacuole. Our results suggest that the distribution of this alga in contaminated medium is not affected by the concentration of Ni and Mn, at least under the pH that was evaluated. We conclude that Ulothrix sp. LAFIC 010 tolerates and grows under conditions with higher metal concentrations than previously reported for AMD.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Ácidos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brasil , Clorófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/metabolismo , Manganês/toxicidade , Níquel/metabolismo , Níquel/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/toxicidade
3.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 22(3): 716-22, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18180139

RESUMO

Chlorophyll fluorescence techniques are used for the detection of toxic substances in samples of photosynthetic cells by measuring chlorophyll a fluorimetric parameters, which are a response of the PSII physiological status. This work was conducted to determine the effects of the herbicide bentazon (CASRN 25057-89-0) on growth and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. Unialgal cultures were exposed to several bentazon concentrations and its effects on algal growth and Fv/Fm were determined. The traditional algal growth inhibition test (algal biomass measurements) and DCMU-induced chlorophyll a variable fluorescence measurements were determined. Our results showed that even low concentrations of bentazon rapidly lead to Fv/Fm decrease, while the effects on algal growth were detected after 24 h of exposure. The LOEC (2.81 mg L(-1)) and EC50 (13.0 mg L(-1)) determined through Fv/Fm experiments were lower than the LOEC (22.5 mg L(-1)) and EC50 (24.0 mg L(-1)) determined through algal growth inhibition experiments. This confirms that the Fv/Fm is a more sensitive parameter than algal growth for monitoring the effects of bentazon. The present results have demonstrated the applicability of Fv/Fm parameter to access the early toxicity of bentazon, as well as other PSII-inhibition compounds, before significant changes occurred in the original concentration and bioavailability of these toxicants during longer exposure times.


Assuntos
Benzotiadiazinas/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurona/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fluorescência
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 67(4): 597-609, Nov. 2007. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-474182

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures.


Este trabalho teve o objetivo de compreender como um ecossistema de córrego que flui desde as nascentes até sua desembocadura dentro de uma cidade, transforma-se de recurso hídrico em fonte pontual de poluição. Foi adotada uma abordagem descritiva multidisciplinar, incluindo a determinação espacial e temporal em escala diária de variáveis físicas, químicas, biológicas e ecotoxicológicas. Os resultados mostraram que a qualidade da água rapidamente diminui com o aumento da intensidade espacial de urbanização, levando o sistema a adquirir características típicas de esgoto bruto já após suas primeiras centenas de metros de curso. Apesar da circulação relacionada à maré junto a desembocadura ser restrita devido às baixas profundidades, foi registrada certa melhora na qualidade da água nessa área. A avaliação multidisciplinar se mostrou útil para obter uma compreensão mais realista do processo de degradação do córrego e para propor medidas de restauração ou mitigação dos impactos.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Movimentos da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Brasil
5.
Ecotoxicology ; 16(8): 565-71, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17879160

RESUMO

Deterministic and probabilistic risk analyses were carried out for seven hydrographic basins in the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil), where irrigated rice is cultivated. Monitoring studies conducted in 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 had found that the herbicide quinclorac was the most frequently detected agrochemical residue, occurring in five of the seven hydrographic basins. In order to assess the ecological risk posed by quinclorac, median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and median effective concentration (EC(50)) data were obtained for quinclorac in toxicity tests with organisms routinely used in Brazil for this purpose. Experiments were carried out on microcosms associated with the irrigated rice crop to evaluate the effects of the herbicide on the natural plankton community. The deterministic analyses showed that the risk presented by the herbicide residues to the phytoplankton require mitigating action, while the probabilistic analysis revealed that the levels of risk for the aquatic community were acceptable. Field experiments showed that the recommended application concentration of the product directly affects phytoplankton and has an indirect, short-term effect on the zooplankton community.


Assuntos
Água Doce/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Quinolinas/análise , Agricultura , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Oryza , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
6.
Braz J Biol ; 67(4): 597-609, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18278310

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Movimentos da Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água , Brasil
7.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 23(3): 91-8, 1985.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3880431

RESUMO

Social theory provided the perspective for this exploration of power as it relates to the nurse/client relationship. As the authors agree with Smith and Vetter (1982) that interactions are a legitimate basis for understanding behavior, we, have, therefore, presented actual nurse/client relationships as empirical cases to examine and to apply theory. These six vignettes provide examples of various responses of patients and therapists to power in therapeutic relationships. Although each situation differs in some respects, there are similarities regarding power as a phenomenon. Dependence and sanctions, the objective features of power, are present. On analyzing the audiotapes and process notes from the individual therapy of clients and nurses who were beginning therapists enrolled in a graduate psychiatric nursing program, it becomes clear that the therapists got involved in power struggles with their clients or used exploitive power when they, themselves, felt vulnerable or angry because they perceived their expert power to be threatened. It also becomes clear that the nurse-therapists were not always accustomed to, or comfortable with, an autonomous role. They, therefore, sometimes failed to use their legitimate powers. However, once they reviewed their interactions within a conceptual framework of power, and discussed these issues with clinical and academic supervisors, they could examine causes, characteristics, and potential changes in their reactions to their clients.


Assuntos
Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Psicoterapia , Adulto , Ira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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