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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 11(1): 226, 2017 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a well-known disease of the newborn that in most cases responds well to treatment with nitric oxide and treatment of any underlying causes. Genetic causes of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn are rare. The TWIST1 gene is involved in morphogenetics, and deletions are known to cause Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Deletions of PHF14 have never been reported in neonates, but animal studies have shown a link between severe defects in lung development and deletions of this gene. There have not, to the best of our knowledge, been any publications of a link between the genes TWIST1 and PHF14 and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, making this a novel finding. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a white male neonate born at term to non-consanguineous white parents; he presented with dysmorphic features and a therapy-refractory persistent pulmonary hypertension. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed the presence of a 14.7 Mb interstitial deletion on chromosome 7, encompassing the genes TWIST1 and PHF14. CONCLUSIONS: The TWIST1 gene can explain our patient's dysmorphic features. His severe persistent pulmonary hypertension has, however, not been described before in conjunction with the TWIST1 gene, but could be explained by involvement of PHF14, consistent with findings in animal experiments showing lethal respiratory failure with depletion of PHF14. These findings are novel and of importance for the clinical management and diagnostic workup of neonates with severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and dysmorphic features.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/congênito , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Evolução Fatal , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(1): 232-245, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders thus far associated with mutations in more than 300 genes. The clinical phenotypes derived from distinct genotypes can overlap. Genetic etiology can be a prognostic indicator of disease severity and can influence treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the ability of whole-exome screening methods to detect disease-causing variants in patients with PIDDs. METHODS: Patients with PIDDs from 278 families from 22 countries were investigated by using whole-exome sequencing. Computational copy number variant (CNV) prediction pipelines and an exome-tiling chromosomal microarray were also applied to identify intragenic CNVs. Analytic approaches initially focused on 475 known or candidate PIDD genes but were nonexclusive and further tailored based on clinical data, family history, and immunophenotyping. RESULTS: A likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in 110 (40%) unrelated probands. Clinical diagnosis was revised in about half (60/110) and management was directly altered in nearly a quarter (26/110) of families based on molecular findings. Twelve PIDD-causing CNVs were detected, including 7 smaller than 30 Kb that would not have been detected with conventional diagnostic CNV arrays. CONCLUSION: This high-throughput genomic approach enabled detection of disease-related variants in unexpected genes; permitted detection of low-grade constitutional, somatic, and revertant mosaicism; and provided evidence of a mutational burden in mixed PIDD immunophenotypes.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Genomics ; 17: 51, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With advances in next generation sequencing technology and analysis methods, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and indels can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity in exome sequencing data. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability to detect disease-causing copy number variants (CNVs) in exome sequencing data. However, exonic CNV prediction programs have shown high false positive CNV counts, which is the major limiting factor for the applicability of these programs in clinical studies. RESULTS: We have developed a tool (cnvScan) to improve the clinical utility of computational CNV prediction in exome data. cnvScan can accept input from any CNV prediction program. cnvScan consists of two steps: CNV screening and CNV annotation. CNV screening evaluates CNV prediction using quality scores and refines this using an in-house CNV database, which greatly reduces the false positive rate. The annotation step provides functionally and clinically relevant information using multiple source datasets. We assessed the performance of cnvScan on CNV predictions from five different prediction programs using 64 exomes from Primary Immunodeficiency (PIDD) patients, and identified PIDD-causing CNVs in three individuals from two different families. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, cnvScan reduces the time and effort required to detect disease-causing CNVs by reducing the false positive count and providing annotation. This improves the clinical utility of CNV detection in exome data.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Algoritmos , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação
5.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0131637, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26154504

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is characterized by relapsing, non-pruritic swelling in skin and submucosal tissue. Symptoms can appear in early infancy when diagnosis is more difficult. In the absence of a correct diagnosis, treatment of abdominal attacks often lead to unnecessary surgery, and laryngeal edema can cause asphyxiation. A cohort study of 52 patients from 25 unrelated families in Norway was studied. Diagnosis of C1-INH-HAE was based on international consensus criteria including low functional and/or antigenic C1-INH values and antigenic C4. As SERPING1 mutations in Norwegian patients with C1-INH-HAE are largely undescribed and could help in diagnosis, we aimed to find and describe these mutations. Mutation analysis of the SERPING1 gene was performed by Sanger sequencing of all protein coding exons and exon-intron boundaries. Samples without detected mutation were further analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect deletions and duplications. Novel mutations suspected to lead to splice defects were analyzed on the mRNA level. Fifty-two patients from 25 families were included. Forty-four (84,6%) suffered from C1-INH-HAE type I and eight (15,4%) suffered from C1-INH-HAE type II. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were found in 22/25 families (88%). Thirteen unique mutations were detected, including six previously undescribed. There were three missense mutations including one mutation affecting the reactive center loop at codon 466, three nonsense mutations, three small deletions/duplications, three gross deletions, and one splice mutation.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/genética , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/genética , Mutação/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Noruega
6.
BMC Genomics ; 15: 661, 2014 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25102989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With advances in next generation sequencing technologies and genomic capture techniques, exome sequencing has become a cost-effective approach for mutation detection in genetic diseases. However, computational prediction of copy number variants (CNVs) from exome sequence data is a challenging task. Whilst numerous programs are available, they have different sensitivities, and have low sensitivity to detect smaller CNVs (1-4 exons). Additionally, exonic CNV discovery using standard aCGH has limitations due to the low probe density over exonic regions. The goal of our study was to develop a protocol to detect exonic CNVs (including shorter CNVs that cover 1-4 exons), combining computational prediction algorithms and a high-resolution custom CGH array. RESULTS: We used six published CNV prediction programs (ExomeCNV, CONTRA, ExomeCopy, ExomeDepth, CoNIFER, XHMM) and an in-house modification to ExomeCopy and ExomeDepth (ExCopyDepth) for computational CNV prediction on 30 exomes from the 1000 genomes project and 9 exomes from primary immunodeficiency patients. CNV predictions were tested using a custom CGH array designed to capture all exons (exaCGH). After this validation, we next evaluated the computational prediction of shorter CNVs. ExomeCopy and the in-house modified algorithm, ExCopyDepth, showed the highest capability in detecting shorter CNVs. Finally, the performance of each computational program was assessed by calculating the sensitivity and false positive rate. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, we assessed the ability of 6 computational programs to predict CNVs, focussing on short (1-4 exon) CNVs. We also tested these predictions using a custom array targeting exons. Based on these results, we propose a protocol to identify and confirm shorter exonic CNVs combining computational prediction algorithms and custom aCGH experiments.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
7.
Epilepsy Res ; 105(1-2): 110-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23415449

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe epileptic encephalopathy with complex etiology. To explore possible genetic predispositions and causes of LGS, we have searched for copy number variants (CNVs). METHODS: We studied 21 patients with LGS or LGS-like epilepsy for CNVs using whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). KEY FINDINGS: Eight patients (38%) carried rare CNVs that might contribute to their phenotype. The pathogenicity could be questioned in some of them, but in four patients (19%) a causative role was considered highly probable. Three had CNVs and clinical features consistent with known genetic syndromes: 22q13.3 deletion, 2q23.1 deletion, and MECP2 duplication. SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high frequency of rare CNVs in adult patients with LGS-like epilepsy. The phenotypes of these background disorders may be obscured by the effects of intractable seizures and massive antiepileptic drug treatment. Previously, syndromic disorders were primarily identified by their clinical features; however, a genome wide approach with identification of the genotype might shed light on the phenotype.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Lennox Gastaut , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 8: 3, 2013 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23294540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nineteen patients with deletions in chromosome 6p22-p24 have been published so far. The syndromic phenotype is varied, and includes intellectual disability, behavioural abnormalities, dysmorphic features and structural organ defects. Heterogeneous deletion breakpoints and sizes (1-17 Mb) and overlapping phenotypes have made the identification of the disease causing genes challenging. We suggest JARID2 and ATXN1, both harbored in 6p22.3, as disease causing genes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe five unrelated patients with de novo deletions (0.1-4.8 Mb in size) in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.1 detected by aCGH in a cohort of approximately 3600 patients ascertained for neurodevelopmental disorders. Two patients (Patients 4 and 5) carried non-overlapping deletions that were encompassed by the deletions of the remaining three patients (Patients 1-3), indicating the existence of two distinct dosage sensitive genes responsible for impaired cognitive function in 6p22.3 deletion-patients. The smallest region of overlap (SRO I) in Patients 1-4 (189 kb) included the genes JARID2 and DTNBP1, while SRO II in Patients 1-3 and 5 (116 kb) contained GMPR and ATXN1. Patients with deletion of SRO I manifested variable degrees of cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and distinct, similar facial dysmorphic features (prominent supraorbital ridges, deep set eyes, dark infraorbital circles and midface hypoplasia) that might be ascribed to the haploinsufficiency of JARID2. Patients with deletion of SRO II showed intellectual disability and behavioural abnormalities, likely to be caused by the deletion of ATXN1. Patients 1-3 presented with lower cognitive function than Patients 4 and 5, possibly due to the concomitant haploinsufficiency of both ATXN1 and JARID2. The chromatin modifier genes ATXN1 and JARID2 are likely candidates contributing to the clinical phenotype in 6p22-p24 deletion-patients. Both genes exert their effect on the Notch signalling pathway, which plays an important role in several developmental processes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients carrying JARID2 deletion manifested with cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and a characteristic facial appearance, whereas patients with deletion of ATXN1 seemed to be characterized by intellectual disability and behavioural abnormalities. Due to the characteristic facial appearance, JARID2 haploinsufficiency might represent a clinically recognizable neurodevelopmental syndrome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Haploinsuficiência , Histonas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Adolescente , Ataxina-1 , Ataxinas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Deleção de Sequência
9.
Radiother Oncol ; 86(3): 314-20, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17963910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals with variable risk of RIF (grouped into five classes from low to high risk) were irradiated with two different schemes: 1 x 3.5 Gy with RNA isolated 2 and 24h after irradiation, and a fractionated scheme with 3 x 3.5 Gy in intervals of 24h with RNA isolated 2h after the last dose. RNA was also isolated from non-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF and the four patients with the lowest risk of RIF after the fractionated scheme. The genes were associated with known functions in processes like apoptosis, extracellular matrix remodelling/cell adhesion, proliferation and ROS scavenging. A minimum set of 18 genes were identified that could differentiate high risk from low risk-patients after the fractionated scheme. CONCLUSIONS: The classifier of 18 genes may provide basis for a predictive assay for normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy, and provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of RIF.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Fibrose/etiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Lesões por Radiação , Fatores de Risco
10.
Acta Ophthalmol Scand ; 85(5): 557-62, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17376192

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of ophthalmologic examination of 10 Norwegian children with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) followed through 5 years. METHODS: Ten Norwegian patients with AT aged 2-22 years (three females, seven males) were examined. The diagnosis was confirmed clinically as well as with molecular genetic studies. Conventional ophthalmologic examination was performed and supplemented by photographs of the conjunctiva, video recordings and registration of eye motility in five consecutive years. Additionally conjunctival biopsies were performed at the end of the follow-up period. RESULTS: General ataxia was usually detected when the child started to walk. All children over the age of 4 years had abnormal saccade movements, a form of ocular motor apraxia. Conjunctival telangiectasias were mostly visible at 4-5 years, primarily within the palpebral fissure. Immunohistochemical examination of conjunctival biopsies showed an increased number of cross-sections of blood vessels and neurons surrounded by glial tissue. There was a tendency to slightly earlier onset of conjunctival telangiectasias in the patients homozygous for a founder mutation compared with the other patients. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of AT can be supported at preschool age by the onset of ocular motor apraxia and conjunctival telangiectasias. The findings become more prominent with age. The conjunctival telangiectasias seem to appear slightly earlier in the patients who are homozygous for a Norwegian founder mutation than in the rest of the patients.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/diagnóstico , Túnica Conjuntiva/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/diagnóstico , Acomodação Ocular , Adolescente , Adulto , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Capilares/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Fenótipo , Fotografação , Estudos Prospectivos , Movimentos Sacádicos
11.
Radiother Oncol ; 77(3): 231-40, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16297999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transcriptional profiling of fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients might improve our understanding of subcutaneous radiation-induced fibrosis. The aim of this study was to get a comprehensive overview of the changes in gene expression in subcutaneous fibroblast cell lines after various ionizing radiation (IR) schemes in order to provide information on potential targets for prevention and to suggest candidate genes for SNP association studies aimed at predicting individual risk of radiation-induced morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty different human fibroblast cell lines were included in the study, and two different radiation schemes; single dose experiments with 3.5 Gy or fractionated with 3 x 3.5 Gy. Expression analyses were performed on unexposed and exposed cells after different time points. The IR response was analyzed using the statistical method Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). RESULTS: While many of the identified genes were involved in known IR response pathways like cell cycle arrest, proliferation and detoxification, a substantial fraction of the genes were involved in processes not previously associated with IR response. Of particular interest is genes involved in ECM remodelling, Wnt signalling and IGF signalling. Many of the genes were identified after a single dose, but transcriptional changes in genes related to ROS scavenging and ECM remodelling were most profound after a fractionated scheme. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a number of IR response pathways in fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients. Besides previously identified pathways, we have identified new pathways and genes that could be relevant for prevention and intervention studies of subcutaneous radiation-induced fibrosis as well as being candidates for SNP association studies.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Pneumonite por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Radiação Ionizante , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas Wnt/biossíntese , Proteínas Wnt/fisiologia
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