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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(36): 17741-17746, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431527

RESUMO

A foundational question in the social sciences concerns the interplay of underlying causes in the formation of people's political beliefs and prejudices. What role, if any, do genes, environmental influences, or personality dispositions play? Social dominance orientation (SDO), an influential index of people's general attitudes toward intergroup hierarchy, correlates robustly with political beliefs. SDO consists of the subdimensions SDO-dominance (SDO-D), which is the desire people have for some groups to be actively oppressed by others, and SDO-egalitarianism (SDO-E), a preference for intergroup inequality. Using a twin design (n = 1,987), we investigate whether the desire for intergroup dominance and inequality makes up a genetically grounded behavioral syndrome. Specifically, we investigate the heritability of SDO, in addition to whether it genetically correlates with support for political policies concerning the distribution of power and resources to different social groups. In addition to moderate heritability estimates for SDO-D and SDO-E (37% and 24%, respectively), we find that the genetic correlation between these subdimensions and political attitudes was overall high (mean genetic correlation 0.51), while the environmental correlation was very low (mean environmental correlation 0.08). This suggests that the relationship between political attitudes and SDO-D and SDO-E is grounded in common genetics, such that the desire for (versus opposition to) intergroup inequality and support for political attitudes that serve to enhance (versus attenuate) societal disparities form convergent strategies for navigating group-based dominance hierarchies.

2.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(11)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429228
3.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 120, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health researchers often use survey studies to examine associations between risk factors at one time point and health outcomes later in life. Previous studies have shown that missing not at random (MNAR) may produce biased estimates in such studies. Medical researchers typically do not employ statistical methods for treating MNAR. Hence, there is a need to increase knowledge about how to prevent occurrence of such bias in the first place. METHODS: Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the degree to which selective non-response leads to biased estimates of associations between risk factors and health outcomes when persons with the highest levels of health problems are under-represented or totally missing from the sample. This was examined under different response rates and different degrees of dependency between non-response and study variables. RESULTS: Response rate per se had little effect on bias. When extreme values on the health outcome were completely missing, rather than under-represented, results were heavily biased even at a 70% response rate. In most situations, 50-100% of this bias could be prevented by including some persons with extreme scores on the health outcome in the sample, even when these persons were under-represented. When some extreme scores were present, estimates of associations were unbiased in several situations, only mildly biased in other situations, and became biased only when non-response was related to both risk factor and health outcome to substantial degrees. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for preventing bias by including some extreme scorers in the sample is high (50-100% in many scenarios). Estimates may then be relatively unbiased in many situations, also at low response rates. Hence, researchers should prioritize to spend their resources on recruiting and retaining at least some individuals with extreme levels of health problems, rather than to obtain very high response rates from people who typically respond to survey studies. This may contribute to preventing bias due to selective non-response in longitudinal studies of risk factors and health outcomes.

4.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 75: 82-89, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002099

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to elucidate the relationship between personality traits, perfectionism, and mental health (self-efficacy, positive emotions) among competition riders. Data were collected by online questionnaires among 662 licensed competition riders in Norway. The results showed that riders who were high on conscientiousness and low on neuroticism had better mental health than other riders. Self-oriented perfectionism predicted mental health and mediated partly the associations between personality traits and mental health. Socially prescribed perfectionism had no association with mental health. The findings indicate that self-oriented perfectionism may have a positive effect on the mental health of the riders. The high degree of conscientiousness that many of the competition riders possess may be associated with self-oriented perfectionism and positive outcomes.

5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(1): 3, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932049
6.
Addiction ; 114(6): 1004-1014, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hazardous drinking (i.e. alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk for adverse health outcomes) during pregnancy is associated with adverse child outcomes. To address whether the associations are causal, we aimed to estimate the effect of maternal hazardous drinking during the first trimester on offspring emotional and behavioural problems throughout the pre-school age. We adjusted for: (1) measured confounding (e.g. smoking), (2) familial risk factors by sibling control design and (3) non-shared environmental risk factors by using hazardous drinking the 3 months before pregnancy as an instrumental variable. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited between 1999 and 2009 at ultrasound examination offered to all pregnant women in Norway. Data were collected during the 17th and the 30th weeks of gestation, and when the children were aged 1.5, 3 and 5 years. SETTING: Norway, 1999-2015. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 14 639 mothers with 25 744 offspring siblings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. MEASUREMENTS: Respondents self-reported on: alcohol consumption, children's emotional problems (i.e. emotional reactive, anxiety/depression, somatic complaints) and children's behavioural problems (i.e. attention and aggressive behaviour) throughout pre-school age. We used longitudinal latent growth curve models to estimate the effect of maternal drinking during the first trimester on offspring emotional and behavioural problems. FINDINGS: Most associations were strongly reduced after controlling for both familial and measured environmental risk factors. After adjustment, exposed children were more emotionally reactive [ß = 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-4.53] and had more somatic complaints (ß = 1.93; 95% CI = 0.09-3.77) at age 3, but not at age 5. Exposed children were less aggressive than unexposed siblings at age 5 (ß = -2.27; 95% CI = -4.02 to -0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Children exposed to their mothers' hazardous drinking during the first trimester appear to be more emotionally reactive and have more somatic complaints at age 3, but not at age 5, and are less aggressive at age 5 compared with unexposed siblings.

7.
Child Dev ; 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536534

RESUMO

Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Child internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 1.5, 3, and 5, and modeled using multilevel analyses with repeated measures nested within siblings, nested within mothers. Maternal pre- and postnatal anxiety were no longer associated with child internalizing or externalizing problems after adjusting for maternal depression and familial confounding. Maternal anxiety when the children were in preschool age, however, remained significantly associated with child internalizing but not externalizing problems.

8.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-7, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246674

RESUMO

We examined genetic and environmental contributions to the development of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. ADHD symptoms in siblings at 1.5, 3, and 5 years of age were investigated in a population-based sample from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The longitudinal contributions of additive genetic, shared, twin-specific, and unique environmental influences were estimated using biometric structural equation models. Heritability of ADHD symptoms ranged from 54% to 70%. There was evidence of partially new genetic influences at successive ages, with genetic correlations ranging from .58 to .89. Contributions from shared environmental factors and twin-specific factors were minor. The importance of unique environmental effects appeared to increase across ages, and was mostly specific to a given age. There was no evidence suggesting that this pattern differs across males and females. Symptoms of ADHD are highly heritability in young children from as early as 1.5 years of age. Longitudinal stability of ADHD symptoms is mainly attributable to genetic influences, but there is also some evidence for age-specific genetic influences. These findings contribute to our understanding of development of ADHD early in life, and can guide future molecular genetics studies.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12298, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120258

RESUMO

Human wellbeing is influenced by personality traits, in particular neuroticism and extraversion. Little is known about which facets that drive these associations, and the role of genes and environments. Our aim was to identify personality facets that are important for life satisfaction, and to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the association between personality and life satisfaction. Norwegian twins (N = 1,516, age 50-65, response rate 71%) responded to a personality instrument (NEO-PI-R) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Regression analyses and biometric modeling were used to examine influences from personality traits and facets, and to estimate genetic and environmental contributions. Neuroticism and extraversion explained 24%, and personality facets accounted for 32% of the variance in life satisfaction. Four facets were particularly important; anxiety and depression in the neuroticism domain, and activity and positive emotions within extraversion. Heritability of life satisfaction was 0.31 (0.22-0.40), of which 65% was explained by personality-related genetic influences. The remaining genetic variance was unique to life satisfaction. The association between personality and life satisfaction is driven mainly by four, predominantly emotional, personality facets. Genetic factors play an important role in these associations, but influence life satisfaction also beyond the effects of personality.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198594, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nature of the relationship between fatigue and its risk factors is poorly understood. In the present study the genetic and environmental association between anxiety-depression, musculoskeletal (MS) pain and fatigue was examined, and the role of neuroticism as a shared risk factor that may possibly explain the co-occurrence between these phenotypes was investigated in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal twin design. METHODS: The sample consisted of 746 monozygotic (MZ) and 770 dizygotic (DZ) twins in the age group of 50-65 (mean = 57.11 years, SD = 4.5). Continuous measures of fatigue symptoms and the other phenotypes were employed. Using Cholesky modeling, genetic and environmental influences on the phenotypes, and the associations among them, were determined. Analyses were performed using measures of neuroticism obtained concurrently and 13-19 years earlier. RESULTS: Results from multiple regression analyses showed that neuroticism, anxiety-depression symptoms, and MS pain were all significantly associated with fatigue, controlling for sex, education, and general health indices. The best-fitting biometric models included additive genetic and individual-specific environmental effects. Heritabilities in the 0.40-0.53 range were demonstrated. Furthermore, while there was a considerable overlap in genetic risk factors between the four phenotypes, a substantial proportion of the genetic risk shared between anxiety-depression and fatigue, and between MS pain and fatigue, was independent of neuroticism. CONCLUSION: Evidence for a common underlying susceptibility to report fatigue symptoms, genetically linked to neuroticism, anxiety-depression, and MS pain, was found. Both unique and pleiotropic effects appear to be involved in the genetic architecture of the phenotypes.

11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(7): 649-656, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both normative personality and DSM-IV personality disorders have been found to be heritable. However, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which the genetic and environmental influences underlying DSM personality disorders are shared with those of normative personality. The aims of this study were to assess the phenotypic similarity between normative and pathological personality and to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences underlying individual differences in normative personality account for symptom variance across DSM-IV personality disorders. METHOD: A large population-based sample of adult twins was assessed for DSM-IV personality disorder criteria with structured interviews at two waves spanning a 10-year interval. At the second assessment, participants also completed the Big Five Inventory, a self-report instrument assessing the five-factor normative personality model. The proportion of genetic and environmental liabilities unique to the individual personality disorder measures, and hence not shared with the five Big Five Inventory domains, were estimated by means of multivariate Cholesky twin decompositions. RESULTS: The median percentage of genetic liability to the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders assessed at wave 1 that was not shared with the Big Five domains was 64%, whereas for the six personality disorders that were assessed concurrently at wave 2, the median was 39%. Conversely, the median proportions of unique environmental liability in the personality disorders for wave 1 and wave 2 were 97% and 96%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that a moderate-to-sizable proportion of the genetic influence underlying DSM-IV personality disorders is not shared with the domain constructs of the Big Five model of normative personality. Caution should be exercised in assuming that normative personality measures can serve as proxies for DSM personality disorders when investigating the etiology of these disorders.

12.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(4): 1239-1252, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117871

RESUMO

Studies have shown that early language difficulties are associated with later internalizing problems. Less is known about the nature of the association: the bidirectional relationship over time, the role of different types of language difficulties, and gender differences. The present study examined bidirectional longitudinal associations between parent-rated language difficulties and internalizing problems in a four-wave cross-lagged model from 18 months to 8 years. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were used (N = 114,000). Gender-specific dichotomized language variables were created, and associations were investigated uniquely for boys and girls. Logistic regression analyses showed that all cross-lagged associations from 18 months to 5 years were significant for girls (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.48-1.94). For boys, only internalizing problems at 3 years predicted change in language difficulties (OR = 2.33). From 5 to 8 years, the cross-lagged associations between semantic language difficulties and internalizing problems were significant and strong for girls (ORs = 1.92-2.97) and nonsignificant for boys. The results suggest that the associations between language difficulties and internalizing problems are bidirectional from an early age, and that girls are especially vulnerable for developing co-occurring language difficulties and internalizing problems during the years of transition to school.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguagem , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(6): 1199-1209, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244063

RESUMO

Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. Evaluating paternal psychosocial stress and conducting a sibling comparison could provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding. We examined the associations of parental psychosocial stress during and after pregnancy with asthma at age 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 63,626; children born in 2000-2007). Measures of psychosocial stress included lifetime major depressive symptoms, current anxiety/depression symptoms, use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work stress, and social support. Childhood asthma was associated with maternal lifetime major depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.30), in addition to symptoms of anxiety/depression during pregnancy (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28). Maternal negative life events during pregnancy (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.13) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) were also associated with asthma. These associations were not replicated when evaluated within sibling groups. There were no associations with paternal psychosocial stress. In conclusion, maternal anxiety/depression and negative life events were associated with offspring asthma, but this might be explained by unmeasured maternal background characteristics that remain stable across deliveries.

14.
J Res Adolesc ; 27(2): 379-391, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876515

RESUMO

Research on longitudinal interparental conflict patterns and offspring development is scarce. The population-based TOPP study (N = 459) was used to investigate (1) child-rearing conflict trajectories through four time points during childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16), and (2) associations between conflict trajectories and child characteristics (i.e., birth order, gender, externalizing patterns from early childhood). Latent profile analysis identified six distinct trajectories. Conflict levels decreased for most respondents over the adolescent offspring period, but offspring's birth order and externalizing problems were related to less typical trajectories and higher levels of conflict. Onset of externalizing problems was of additional importance for the course of parental child-rearing conflicts. The results highlight the perception of the whole family as an interwoven system.

16.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 126(6): 812-822, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541064

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often comorbid. It is not understood how genetic risk factors for these disorders relate to each other over time and to what degree they are stable. Age-dependent characteristics of the disorders indicate that different genetic factors could be relevant at different stages of life, and MDD may become increasingly correlated with AUD over time. DSM-IV diagnoses of AUD and MDD were assessed by interviews of 2,801 young adult twins between 1999 and 2004 (T1) and 2,284 of the same twins between 2010 and 2011 (T2). Stability, change, and covariation were investigated in longitudinal biometric models. New genetic factors explained 56.4% of the genetic variance in AUD at T2. For MDD, there was full overlap between genetic influences at T1 and T2. Genetic risk factors for MDD were related to AUD, but their association with AUD did not increase over time. Thus, genetic risk factors for AUD, but not MDD, vary with age, suggesting that AUD has age-dependent heritable etiologies. Molecular genetic studies of AUD may therefore benefit from stratifying by age. The new genetic factors in AUD were not related to MDD. Environmental influences on the 2 disorders were correlated in middle, but not in young adulthood. The environmental components for AUD correlated over time (r = .27), but not for MDD. Environmental influences on AUD can have long-lasting effects, and the effects of preventive efforts may be enduring. Environment influences seem to be largely transient. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Fenótipo , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1633-1640, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449133

RESUMO

Background: Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy has repeatedly been associated with development of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. It is, however not known whether this reflects a direct casual intra-uterine effect or a non-causal relationship due to confounding. We used three different approaches to control for measured and unmeasured confounding: statistical adjustment for covariates, negative control comparison against maternal pre-pregnancy alcohol use, and comparison among differentially exposed siblings. Methods: The sample comprised 114 247 children (34 283 siblings) from 94 907 mothers, recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort Study between 1999 and 2008. Self-reported measurements of alcohol use were obtained in week 30 during the pregnancy. Mothers rated offspring ADHD symptoms at 5 years on two measures. Clinical ADHD diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Registry. Results: We found an overall positive association between maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and offspring ADHD symptoms, which was only marginally attenuated after inclusion of measured covariates. Both the negative control and the sibling comparison analysis further attenuated the estimated association, but it remained greater than zero [ß = 0.017, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.005-0.030). No association was found between maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and offspring ADHD diagnosis. Conclusions: For offspring ADHD symptoms we found a weak, but possibly causal association with maternal alcohol use during pregnancy, but no such effect was observed for clinical ADHD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Irmãos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
18.
Health Psychol ; 36(8): 729-739, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal (MS) complaints are reported commonly, but the extent to which such complaints reflect the severity of site-specific pathology or a more generalized susceptibility to feel pain/discomfort is uncertain. Both site-specific and more widespread MS conditions have been shown to be linked to anxiety and depression, but the nature of this relationship is poorly understood. In the present study the role of neuroticism as a shared risk factor that may possibly explain the co-occurrence between anxiety-depression and MS complaints was investigated. METHOD: The sample consisted of 746 monozygotic and 770 dizygotic twins in the age group of 50-65 years (M = 57.11, SD = 4.5). Using Cholesky modeling, genetic and environmental influences on neuroticism, anxiety-depression and MS symptoms, and the associations among these phenotypes were determined. RESULTS: A single factor accounted for about 50% of the overall variance in MS symptom reporting. The best-fitting biometric model included sex-specific additive genetic and individual-specific environmental effects. All 3 phenotypes were strongly influenced by genetic factors, heritability (h2) = 0.41-0.56. Furthermore, while there was a considerable overlap in genetic risk factors among the 3 phenotypes, a substantial proportion of the genetic risk shared between MS complaints and anxiety-depression was independent of neuroticism. CONCLUSION: Evidence for a common underlying susceptibility to report MS symptoms, genetically linked to both neuroticism and anxiety-depression symptoms, was found. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Ansiedade/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Neuroticismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
19.
Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 477-481, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28175262

RESUMO

Background: Sickness absence (SA) among pregnant women is high. The aim of this study was to examine whether factors known to predict SA in general also predict SA during pregnancy by estimating the association between prior mental distress and musculoskeletal pain and SA during pregnancy, and to assess the influence of familial (genetic and shared environmental) factors. In this prospective cohort study, data from 2076 female twins born 1967-79 who participated in a questionnaire study in 1998 were linked to register data on SA and childbirth during the years 1998-2008. Baseline measures included mental distress (symptoms of anxiety and depression; SCL-5) and musculoskeletal pain (lumbar spine, neck/shoulder and/or persisting muscular pain). SA was measured as a ratio of days on SA divided by potential working days. Negative binomial regression was performed for individual and within-pair effects. Musculoskeletal pain, but not mental distress, was prospectively associated with overall SA during pregnancy in the adjusted individual-level analyses. With each standard deviation increase in musculoskeletal pain, SA granted for any disorder increased with 12% (IRR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17) and SA granted for pregnancy related disorders increased with 9% (IRR 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.17). Within-pair estimates were similar, suggesting little or no familial confounding. Women with previous musculoskeletal pain are at increased risk of SA during pregnancy, whereas no increased risk in women with previous symptoms of mental distress could be demonstrated. SA during pregnancy seems partly to be associated with different factors than SA in general.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Musculoesquelética/complicações , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 58(7): 779-786, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28229455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found significant associations between maternal prenatal and postpartum depression and child behavior problems (CBP). The present study investigates whether associations remain in a prospective, longitudinal design adjusted for familial confounding. METHODS: The sample comprised 11,599 families including 17,830 siblings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported depressive symptoms at gestational weeks 17 and 30, as well as 6 months, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Fathers' depression was measured at gestational week 17. At the last three time-points, child internalizing and externalizing problems were concurrently assessed. We performed multilevel analyses for internalizing and externalizing problems separately, using parental depression as predictors. Analyses were repeated using a sibling comparison design to adjust for familial confounding. RESULTS: All parental depressive time-points were significantly and positively associated with child internalizing and externalizing problems. After sibling comparison, however, only concurrent maternal depression was significantly associated with internalizing [estimate = 2.82 (1.91-3.73, 95% CI)] and externalizing problems [estimate = 2.40 (1.56-3.23, 95% CI)]. The effect of concurrent maternal depression on internalizing problems increased with child age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support the notion that perinatal maternal depression is particularly detrimental to children's psychological development, as the most robust effects were found for maternal depression occurring during preschool years.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez
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