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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4655, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604937

RESUMO

Nanoparticles offer unique properties as photocatalysts with large surface areas. Under irradiation with light, the associated near-fields can induce, enhance, and control molecular adsorbate reactions on the nanoscale. So far, however, there is no simple method available to spatially resolve the near-field induced reaction yield on the surface of nanoparticles. Here we close this gap by introducing reaction nanoscopy based on three-dimensional momentum-resolved photoionization. The technique is demonstrated for the spatially selective proton generation in few-cycle laser-induced dissociative ionization of ethanol and water on SiO2 nanoparticles, resolving a pronounced variation across the particle surface. The results are modeled and reproduced qualitatively by electrostatic and quasi-classical mean-field Mie Monte-Carlo (M3C) calculations. Reaction nanoscopy is suited for a wide range of isolated nanosystems and can provide spatially resolved ultrafast reaction dynamics on nanoparticles, clusters, and droplets.

2.
J Chem Phys ; 151(11): 114201, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542036

RESUMO

The application of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to liquid cells based on microfluidics for chemical state analysis of light elements is much more difficult than hard X-ray absorption since soft X-rays cannot deeply penetrate a microfluidic cell. In this study, we have newly developed a microfluidic cell for spatially resolved XAS, where a 100 nm thick Si3N4 membrane is used for the measurement window to transmit soft X-rays for keeping the microfluidic flow at a width and depth of 50 µm. The π* peak of pyridine near the N K-edge XAS shows characteristic energy shifts near the liquid-liquid interface in a laminar flow of pyridine and water. The distributions of the molar fractions of pyridine and water near the liquid-liquid interface have been determined from the energy shifts of the π* peak probed at different geometric positions, where pyridine is mixed in the water part of the laminar flow and vice versa. The spatial distribution of both species has also been studied by infrared microscopy, using the same microfluidic setup. The present work clearly shows that these spectroscopic techniques are easily applicable to chemical and biological reactions prepared by microfluidics.

3.
Biophys J ; 117(5): 998-1008, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400921

RESUMO

Based on experimental drug concentration profiles in healthy as well as tape-stripped ex vivo human skin, we model the penetration of the antiinflammatory drug dexamethasone into the skin layers by the one-dimensional generalized diffusion equation. We estimate the position-dependent free-energy and diffusivity profiles by solving the conjugated minimization problem, in which the only inputs are concentration profiles of dexamethasone in skin at three consecutive penetration times. The resulting free-energy profiles for damaged and healthy skin show only minor differences. In contrast, the drug diffusivity in the first 10 µm of the upper skin layer of damaged skin is 200-fold increased compared to healthy skin, which reflects the corrupted barrier function of tape-stripped skin. For the case of healthy skin, we examine the robustness of our method by analyzing the behavior of the extracted skin parameters when the number of input and output parameters are reduced. We also discuss techniques for the regularization of our parameter extraction method.

4.
Langmuir ; 35(26): 8667-8680, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173693

RESUMO

The adsorption thermodynamics of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) and its five divalent derivatives di-DMAP- n (2 ≤ n ≤ 6) with gradually increasing methylene-spacer lengths n binding to planar gold surfaces has been studied by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and density functional theory (DFT). SERS intensities of the totally symmetrical breathing mode of the pyridine ring at approximately 1007 cm-1 are used to monitor the surface coverage of the DMAP and di-DMAP- n ligands on gold surfaces at different concentrations. The equilibrium constant as a measure of the binding affinity is obtained from these measurements by using a modified Langmuir isotherm. Due to multivalent binding to the gold substrate, a characteristic enhancement of the binding affinity of di-DMAP- n compared to the monovalent DMAP is observed for all divalent species. First principles calculations of the di-DMAP- n ligands on an ideal Au(111) surface model as well as step terrace models have been performed to understand the adsorption structures and the multivalent binding enhancements. Furthermore, Raman spectra of the adsorbed molecules have been studied by first principles calculations to correlate the binding affinities to experimentally determined adsorption constants. The joint experimental and theoretical investigation of an oscillatory behavior of the binding affinity as a function of the methylene-spacer length in mono- and divalent 4-(dimethylamino)pyridines reveals that the molecular architecture plays an important role for the structure-function interplay of multivalently bound adsorbates.

5.
Anal Chem ; 91(11): 7208-7214, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090401

RESUMO

Research on topical drug delivery relies on reconstructed human skin (RHS) in addition to ex vivo human and animal skin, each with specific physiological features. Here, we compared the penetration of dexamethasone from an ethanolic hydroxyethyl cellulose gel into ex vivo human skin, murine skin, and RHS. For comprehensive insights into skin morphology and penetration enhancing mechanisms, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and stimulated Raman spectromicroscopy (SRS) were combined. STXM offers high spatial resolution with label-free drug detection and is therefore sensitive to tissue damage. Despite differences in sample preparation and data analysis, the amounts of dexamethasone in RHS, detected and quantified by STXM and LC-MS/MS, were very similar and increased during the first 100 min of exposure. SRS revealed interactions between the gel and the stratum corneum or, more specifically, its protein and lipid structures. Similar to both types of ex vivo skin, higher protein-to-lipid ratios within the stratum corneum of RHS indicated reduced lipid amounts after 30 min of ethanol exposure. Extended ethanol exposure led to a continued reduction of lipids in the ex vivo matrixes, while protein integrity appeared to be compromised in RHS, which led to declining protein signals. In conclusion, LC-MS/MS proved the predictive capability of STXM for label-free drug detection. Combining STXM with SRS precisely dissected the penetration enhancing effects of ethanol. Further studies on topical drug delivery should consider the potential of these complementary techniques.

6.
ACS Nano ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499656

RESUMO

Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) materials enjoy growing interest due to their unusual physical properties and promise for miniature electronic devices. However, the mechanical exfoliation of quasi-1D materials into thin flakes and nanoribbons received considerably less attention from researchers than the exfoliation of conventional layered crystals. In this study, we investigated the micromechanical exfoliation of representative quasi-1D crystals, TiS3 whiskers, and demonstrate that they typically split into narrow nanoribbons with very smooth, straight edges and clear signatures of 1D TiS3 chains. Theoretical calculations show that the energies required for breaking weak interactions between the two-dimensional (2D) layers and between 1D chains within the layers are comparable and, in turn, are considerably lower than those required for breaking the covalent bonds within the chains. We also emulated macroscopic exfoliation experiments on the nanoscale by applying a local shear force to TiS3 crystals in different crystallographic directions using a tip of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. In the AFM experiments, it was possible to slide the 2D TiS3 layers relative to each other as well as to remove selected 1D chains from the layers. We systematically studied the exfoliated TiS3 crystals by Raman spectroscopy and identified the Raman peaks whose spectral positions were most dependent on the crystals' thickness. These results could be used to distinguish between TiS3 crystals with thickness ranging from one to about seven monolayers. The conclusions established in this study for the exfoliated TiS3 crystals can be extended to a variety of transition metal trichalcogenide materials as well as other quasi-1D crystals. The possibility of exfoliation of TiS3 into narrow (few-nm wide) crystals with smooth edges could be important for the future realization of miniature device channels with reduced edge scattering of charge carriers.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(19): 5827-5832, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234991

RESUMO

Benzene is the simplest aromatic molecule with intermolecular π-π interactions. Because ordered liquids are key structures used to study chemical and biological phenomena in the liquid state, ordered structures of benzene confined in nanopores have been extensively studied, whereas those in the liquid state are still unknown. In this study, we address fundamental questions regarding whether ordered structures of benzene are formed in the liquid state by using carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a sensitive local probe. By comparing unexpected temperature behaviors of the π* peak in XAS spectra with model calculations, we have investigated temperature-dependent changes of ordered structures in liquid benzene caused by the increase in abundance of the parallel sandwich orientation relative to parallel displaced structures for the higher temperature. These results are confirmed by infrared spectroscopy with additional support of vibrational mode calculations.

8.
ACS Omega ; 3(4): 4141-4147, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30023886

RESUMO

A main challenge in understanding the structure of a cell membrane and its interactions with drugs is the ability to chemically study the different molecular species on the nanoscale. We have achieved this for a model system consisting of mixed monolayers (MLs) of the biologically relevant phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine and the antibiotic surfactin. By employing nano-infrared (IR) microscopy and spectroscopy in combination with atomic force microscopy imaging, it was possible to identify and chemically detect domain formation of the two constituents as well as to obtain IR spectra of these species with a spatial resolution on the nanoscale. A novel method to enhance the near-field imaging contrast of organic MLs by plasmon interferometry is proposed and demonstrated. In this technique, the organic layer is deposited on gold and ML graphene substrates, the latter of which supports propagating surface plasmons. Plasmon reflections arising from changes in the dielectric environment provided by the organic layer lead to an additional contrast mechanism. Using this approach, the interfacial region between surfactin and the phospholipid has been mapped and a transition region is identified.

9.
Nanoscale ; 10(25): 12123-12132, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915820

RESUMO

Recrystallization of bulk materials is a well-known phenomenon, which is widely used in commercial manufacturing. However, for low-dimensional materials like graphene, this process still remains an unresolved puzzle. Thus, the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the required conditions for recrystallization in low dimensions is essential for the elaboration of routes towards the inexpensive and reliable production of high-quality nanomaterials. Here, we unveil the details of the efficient recrystallization of one-atom-thick pure and boron-doped polycrystalline graphene layers on a Co(0001) surface. By applying photoemission and electron diffraction, we show how more than 90% of the initially misoriented graphene grains can be reconstructed into a well-oriented and single-crystalline layer. The obtained recrystallized graphene/Co interface exhibits high structural quality with a pronounced sublattice asymmetry, which is important for achieving an unbalanced sublattice doping of graphene. By exploring the kinetics of recrystallization for native and B-doped graphene on Co, we were able to estimate the activation energy and propose a mechanism of this process.

10.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol ; 31(2): 87-94, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Airborne pollutants, such as nano-sized soot particles, are increasingly being released into the environment as a result of growing population densities and industrialization. They can absorb organic and metal compounds with potential biological activity, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and airborne pollen allergens. Local and systemic toxicities may be induced in the skin if the particulates release their harmful components upon dermal contact. METHODS: In the present study, skin pretreatments with serum and/or shield as barrier formulations prior to exposure and washing with a cleanser subsequent to exposure were evaluated as a protection and decontamination strategy using laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The results indicate that while the application of serum and a cleanser was insufficient for decontamination, the pretreatment with shield prior to nanoparticle exposure followed by washing led to the removal of a considerable amount of the carbon black particles. The combined application of serum and shield before the administration of carbon black particles and subsequent washing led to their elimination from the skin samples. CONCLUSION: The application of barrier-enhancing formulations in combination with a cleanser may reduce the penetration of harmful airborne particulates by preventing their adhesion to the skin and facilitating their removal by subsequent washing with the cleanser.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Pele/química , Fuligem/química , Alérgenos/química , Animais , Descontaminação/métodos , Humanos , Lasers , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pólen/química , Suínos
11.
Langmuir ; 34(4): 1506-1519, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272915

RESUMO

The cellular uptake and dissolution of trigonal silver nanoprisms (edge length 42 ± 15 nm, thickness 8 ± 1 nm) and mostly spherical silver nanoparticles (diameter 70 ± 25 nm) in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC's) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were investigated. Both particles are stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with the prisms additionally stabilized by citrate. The nanoprisms dissolved slightly in pure water but strongly in isotonic saline or at pH 4, corresponding to the lowest limit for the pH during cellular uptake. The tips of the prisms became rounded within minutes due to their high surface energy. Afterward, the dissolution process slowed down due to the presence of both PVP stabilizing Ag{100} sites and citrate blocking Ag{111} sites. On the contrary, nanospheres, solely stabilized by PVP, dissolved within 24 h. These results correlate with the finding that particles in both cell types have lost >90% of their volume within 24 h. hMSC's took up significantly more Ag from nanoprisms than from nanospheres, whereas HaCaT cells showed no preference for one particle shape. This can be rationalized by the large cellular interaction area of the plateletlike nanoprisms and the bending stiffness of the cell membranes. hMSC's have a highly flexible cell membrane, resulting in an increased uptake of plateletlike particles. HaCaT cells have a membrane with a 3 orders of magnitude higher Young's modulus than for hMSC. Hence, the energy gain due to the larger interaction area of the nanoprisms is compensated for by the higher energy needed for cell membrane deformation compared to that for spheres, leading to no shape preference.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(36): 6790-6799, 2017 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812902

RESUMO

The influence of electrical excess charges on the crystallization from supersaturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions is reported. This is accomplished by efflorescence studies on single levitated microdroplets using optical and electrodynamic levitation. Specifically, a strong increase in efflorescence humidity is observed as a function of the droplet's negative excess charge, ranging up to -2.1 pC, with a distinct threshold behavior, increasing the relative efflorescence humidity, at which spontaneous nucleation occurs, from 44% for the neutral microparticle to 60%. These findings are interpreted by using molecular dynamics simulations for determining plausible structural patterns located near the particle surface that could serve as suitable precursors for the formation of critical clusters overcoming the nucleation barrier. These results, facilitating heterogeneous nucleation in the case of negatively charged microparticles, are compared to recent work on charge-induced nucleation of neat supercooled water, where a distinctly different nucleation behavior as a function of droplet charge has been observed.

13.
Opt Express ; 25(14): 16574-16588, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789160

RESUMO

Synchrotron radiation-based nano-FTIR spectroscopy utilizes the highly brilliant and ultra-broadband infrared (IR) radiation provided by electron storage rings for the infrared spectroscopic characterization of samples at the nanoscale. In order to exploit the full potential of this approach we investigated the influence of the properties of the radiation source, such as the electron bunch shape and spectral bandwidth of the emitted radiation, on near-field infrared spectra of silicon-carbide (SiC). The adapted configuration of the storage ring optics enables a modification of the transverse electron bunch profile allowing an increase of the measured near-field signal amplitude. Additionally, the decay of the signal amplitude due to the decreasing storage ring current is also eliminated. Further options for improving the sensitivity of nano-FTIR spectroscopy, which can also be applied to other broadband radiation sources, are the adaption of the spectral bandwidth to the wavelength range of interest or the use of polarization optics. The sensitivity enhancement emerging from these options is verified by comparing near-field spectra collected from crystalline SiC samples. The improvement in sensitivity by combining these approaches is demonstrated by acquiring nano-FTIR spectra from thin organic films, which show weak resonances in the IR-regime.

14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4341, 2017 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659574

RESUMO

All over the world, different types of nanomaterials with a diversified spectrum of applications are designed and developed, especially in the field of nanomedicine. The great variety of nanoparticles (NPs), in vitro test systems and cell lines led to a vast amount of publications with conflicting data. To identify the decisive principles of these variabilities, we conducted an intercomparison study of collaborating laboratories within the German DFG Priority Program SPP1313, using well-defined experimental parameters and well-characterized NPs. The participants analyzed the in vitro biocompatibility of silica and polymer NPs on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nanoparticle mediated effects on cell metabolism, internalization, and inflammation were measured. All laboratories showed that both nanoparticle formulations were internalized and had a low cytotoxicity profile. Interestingly, small variations in nanoparticle preparation, cell handling and the type of culture slide influenced the nanoparticle stability and the outcomes of cell assays. The round robin test demonstrated the importance of the use of clearly defined and characterized NPs and parameters for reproducible results across laboratories. Comparative analyses of in vitro screening methods performed in multiple laboratories are absolutely essential to establish robust standard operation procedure as a prerequisite for sound hazard assessment of nanomaterials.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(14): 3631-3636, 2017 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320932

RESUMO

Based on experimental concentration depth profiles of the antiinflammatory drug dexamethasone in human skin, we model the time-dependent drug penetration by the 1D general diffusion equation that accounts for spatial variations in the diffusivity and free energy. For this, we numerically invert the diffusion equation and thereby obtain the diffusivity and the free-energy profiles of the drug as a function of skin depth without further model assumptions. As the only input, drug concentration profiles derived from X-ray microscopy at three consecutive times are used. For dexamethasone, skin barrier function is shown to rely on the combination of a substantially reduced drug diffusivity in the stratum corneum (the outermost epidermal layer), dominant at short times, and a pronounced free-energy barrier at the transition from the epidermis to the dermis underneath, which determines the drug distribution in the long-time limit. Our modeling approach, which is generally applicable to all kinds of barriers and diffusors, allows us to disentangle diffusivity from free-energetic effects. Thereby we can predict short-time drug penetration, where experimental measurements are not feasible, as well as long-time permeation, where ex vivo samples deteriorate, and thus span the entire timescales of biological barrier functioning.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Epiderme/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Difusão , Humanos , Microscopia , Modelos Químicos , Absorção Cutânea , Raios X
17.
Int J Pharm ; 521(1-2): 156-166, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223247

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine, in situ, the saturation solubility and dissolution rate of nanocrystals of three poorly water-soluble drugs for dermal application. The nanocrystals were prepared by wet bead milling. Their size could be controlled by various process parameters. The saturation solubility was measured in water or in the presence of surfactant at 32°C with a Sirius® inForm based on in situ UV-vis spectroscopy. The saturation solubility of nanocrystals with sizes of ∼300nm increased for each drug in comparison to non-milled drug powders, with factors of increase in the range 1.3-2.8. The tacrolimus solubility was further analyzed with excess nanocrystal amounts four and ten times higher than the drug powder solubility. The corresponding solubility increases were 2.8 and 6.6 and thus dependent on the amount of excess nanocrystals. The higher increase was due to the presence of a larger fraction of small size particles, and only crystals far below 1µm showed supersaturation. The solubility increase for nanocrystals determined in situ was remarkably lower than the one previously reported with the use of non in situ methods. Nanomilling increased the drug dissolution rates: the highest increase was obtained with ibuprofen (rate increase ∼30).


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Cutânea , Dexametasona/química , Ibuprofeno/química , Solubilidade , Difração de Raios X
18.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 116: 31-37, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012989

RESUMO

Bacterial biosurfactants are nature's strategy to solubilize and ingest hydrophobic molecules and nutrients using a fully biodegradable transport system. Eight structurally defined rhamnolipids were selected and investigated as potential drug carrier systems. Depending on the molecular structures defining their packing parameters, the rhamnolipids were found to form spherical nanoparticles with precisely defined average sizes between 5 and 100nm, low polydispersity, and stability over a broad concentration range as revealed from dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. As rhamnolipids were tolerated well by the human skin, rhamnolipid nanoparticles were considered for dermal drug delivery and thus loaded with hydrophobic drug molecules. Using the drug model, Nile red, dexamethasone, and tacrolimus nanoparticles charged with up to 30% drug loading (w/w) were obtained. Nanoparticles loaded with Nile red were investigated for dermal drug delivery in a Franz cell using human skin. Fluoresence microscopy of skin slices indicated the efficient penetration of the model drug into human skin, both into the stratum corneum and although to a lesser extent into the lower epidermis. Rhamnolipid nanocarriers were found to be non-toxic to primary human fibroblasts in a proliferation assay and thus are considered candidates for the dermal delivery of drugs.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/química , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicolipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Oxazinas/química , Pele/metabolismo , Tacrolimo/química , Administração Cutânea , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem
19.
J Control Release ; 246: 174-182, 2017 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27641832

RESUMO

More and more investigations confirm that nanoparticles are incapable of overcoming the intact skin barrier in vivo. Do nanoparticles still have a future in dermal drug delivery? Unlike many other topically applied substances, nanoparticles have not been reported to utilize the intercellular penetration pathway and preferentially make use of the follicular penetration pathway. Deep penetration into the follicular ducts has been described for a variety of particles and appears to be strongly influenced by particle size. For targeted drug delivery, smart nanoparticles are required which are able to release their loaded drugs subsequent to internal or external trigger stimuli, and thereby enable the translocation of the active agents into the viable epidermis. In the recent manuscript, three nanoparticles systems are summarized and compared which release their model drugs upon different trigger mechanisms. The BSA hydrogel nanoparticles release their model drug TRITC-dextran by passive diffusion due to a concentration gradient via a porous surface. The protease-triggered controlled release BSA nanoparticles release their model drug if they are applied simultaneously with protease nanoparticles, resulting in an enzymatic degradation of the particles and a release of the model drug FITC. Finally, the IR-triggered controlled release AuNP-doped BSA nanoparticles release their model drug FITC after photoactivation with wIRA. For all three nanoparticle systems, the release of their model drugs could be observed. For the first nanoparticle system, only low follicular penetration depths were found which might by due do an agglomeration effect. For the last two nanoparticle systems, deep follicular penetration and even an uptake by the sebaceous glands were verified. In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that nanoparticles do have a future in dermal drug delivery if smart nanoparticle systems are utilized which are able to release their drug at specific times and locations within the hair follicle.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Bovinos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ouro/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Suínos
20.
J Control Release ; 243: 323-332, 2016 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793686

RESUMO

In this paper we present a comprehensive study for the ability of thermoresponsive nanogels (tNG) to act as cutaneous penetration enhancers. Given the unique properties of such molecular architectures with regard to their chemical composition and thermoresponsive properties, we propose a particular mode of penetration enhancement mechanism, i.e. hydration of the stratum corneum. Different tNG were fabricated using dendritic polyglycerol as a multifunctional crosslinker and three different kinds of thermoresponsive polymers as linear counterpart: poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM), p(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate - co - oligo ethylene glycol methacrylate) (DEGMA-co-OEGMA475), and poly(glycidyl methyl ether - co - ethyl glycidyl ether) (tPG). Excised human skin was investigated by means of fluorescence microscopy, which enabled the detection of significant increment in the penetration of tNG as well as the encapsulated fluorescein. The morphology of the treated skin samples was thoroughly investigated by transmission electron microscopy and stimulated Raman spectromicroscopy. We found that tNG can perturbate the organization of both proteins and lipids in the skin barrier, which was attributed to tNG hydration effects. Interestingly, different drug delivery properties were detected and the ability of each investigated tNG to enhance skin penetration correlated well with the degree of induced stratum corneum hydration. The differences in the penetration enhancements could be attributed to the chemical structures of the nanogels used in this study. The most effective stratum corneum hydration was detected for nanogels having additional or more exposed polyether structure in their chemical composition.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fluoresceína/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas , Polímeros/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fluoresceína/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Temperatura Ambiente
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