Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 41
Filtrar
1.
J Psychosom Res ; 111: 133-139, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was a detailed comparison of the level of anxiety about surgery and anesthesia. Other objectives included the assessment of the prevalence and intensity of preoperative anxiety. METHODS: This cross-sectional single-center survey used the validated Amsterdam anxiety and information scale (APAIS) and a modified numeric rating scale (mNRS) to assess preoperative anxiety, anxiety about surgery and anxiety about anesthesia. Prevalences and intensities of anxieties were predominantly analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: 3200 patients were enrolled and 3087 (57% females) were analyzed. 92.6% reported preoperative anxiety according to APAIS scores. The average total APAIS anxiety score (APAIS-A-T) was 9.9 (SD 3.6). 40.5% reported high anxiety (defined as APAIS-A-T > 10). Mean anxiety about surgery (APAIS-A-Su) was higher than mean anxiety about anesthesia (APAIS-A-An): 5.5 (SD 2.1) vs. 4.3 (SD 1.9), p < 0.0001. Accordingly, more patients were substantially more afraid (score difference > 2) of surgery (642, 20.8%, 95% CI 19.4-22.3) than of anesthesia (48, 1.6%, 95% CI 1.2-2.1). CONCLUSION: Preoperative anxiety is still very common among adult patients scheduled to undergo an elective procedure. Therefore, it should be evaluated routinely. Anxiety about surgery and anxiety about anesthesia differ in many patients. For this reason, anxiety about surgery and anxiety about anesthesia should be assessed separately. This would allow providing a more individualized support of patients to cope with their anxiety and could require particular attention by the surgeon or the anesthetist.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Prevalência
2.
Oncogenesis ; 4: e168, 2015 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436950

RESUMO

Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also known as serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers including breast. Low LKB1 expression has been associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients, and we report here a significant association between loss of LKB1 expression and reduced patient survival specifically in the basal subtype of breast cancer. Owing to the aggressive nature of the basal subtype as evidenced by high incidences of metastasis, the purpose of this study was to determine if LKB1 expression could regulate the invasive and metastatic properties of this specific breast cancer subtype. Induction of LKB1 expression in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC)/triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and BT-549, inhibited invasiveness in vitro and lung metastatic burden in an orthotopic xenograft model. Further analysis of BLBC cells overexpressing LKB1 by unbiased whole transcriptomics (RNA-sequencing) revealed striking regulation of metastasis-associated pathways, including cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodeling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, LKB1 overexpression inhibited EMT-associated genes (CDH2, Vimentin, Twist) and induced the epithelial cell marker CDH1, indicating reversal of the EMT phenotype in the MDA-MB-231 cells. We further demonstrated marked inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression and activity via regulation of c-Jun through inhibition of p38 signaling in LKB1-expressing cells. Taken together, these data support future development of LKB1 inducing therapeutics for the suppression of invasion and metastasis of BLBC.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 80(1): 294-305, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24162572

RESUMO

High-temperature (>70°C) ecosystems in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) provide an unparalleled opportunity to study chemotrophic archaea and their role in microbial community structure and function under highly constrained geochemical conditions. Acidilobus spp. (order Desulfurococcales) comprise one of the dominant phylotypes in hypoxic geothermal sulfur sediment and Fe(III)-oxide environments along with members of the Thermoproteales and Sulfolobales. Consequently, the primary goals of the current study were to analyze and compare replicate de novo sequence assemblies of Acidilobus-like populations from four different mildly acidic (pH 3.3 to 6.1) high-temperature (72°C to 82°C) environments and to identify metabolic pathways and/or protein-encoding genes that provide a detailed foundation of the potential functional role of these populations in situ. De novo assemblies of the highly similar Acidilobus-like populations (>99% 16S rRNA gene identity) represent near-complete consensus genomes based on an inventory of single-copy genes, deduced metabolic potential, and assembly statistics generated across sites. Functional analysis of coding sequences and confirmation of gene transcription by Acidilobus-like populations provide evidence that they are primarily chemoorganoheterotrophs, generating acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via the degradation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and auxotrophic with respect to several external vitamins, cofactors, and metabolites. No obvious pathways or protein-encoding genes responsible for the dissimilatory reduction of sulfur were identified. The presence of a formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) and other protein-encoding genes involved in mixed-acid fermentation supports the hypothesis that Acidilobus spp. function as degraders of complex organic constituents in high-temperature, mildly acidic, hypoxic geothermal systems.


Assuntos
Biota , Crenarchaeota/isolamento & purificação , Crenarchaeota/metabolismo , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , DNA Arqueal/química , DNA Arqueal/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fontes Termais/química , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estados Unidos
4.
Anaesthesist ; 62(5): 365-79, 2013 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23657533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Internal Medicine and Surgery have recently published for the first time joint recommendations for the evaluation of adult patients prior to elective non-cardiac surgery. In these recommendations indications for preoperative diagnostic procedures were critically revised and updated. It was unclear to what extent these recommendations were known among German anesthesiologists, how the recommendations were perceived and to what extent they were put into practice. The indications of five common diagnostic procedures in the context of the preoperative evaluation were also unknown. METHODS: Three months after publication of the recommendations, all anesthesiologists employed at hospitals in the state of Hessen were requested to take part in an online survey (OS). In the first part of the OS participants were asked about familiarity with the recommendations, opinions concerning the utility of the recommendations and to what extent they were implemented. In the second part of the OS participants were questioned in general and in the context of two common case scenarios about indications for electrocardiograms (ECG), chest radiographs (chest x-ray), echocardiograms, spirometry and extended cardiac diagnostics, such as stress ECG. In addition, participants of the OS were requested to take part in an interview survey (IS) addressing the same topics. The purpose of the IS was to detect any bias caused by the anonymous character of the OS which could lead to an overestimated self-assessment. Answers of the IS were not compared to the results of the corresponding answers given online by the same anesthesiologist but only analyzed together with the other results of the IS for comparison with the results of the OS. RESULTS: Of the contacted anesthesiologists 396 (29 %) took part in the OS of which 100 took part in the IS. According to the OS 30 % were familiar and 34 % were partially familiar with the recommendations, 20 % just knew that recommendations had been published and 16 % did not even know about the publication. The corresponding results of the IS were 16 %, 36 %, 28 % and 20 %, respectively. Of the participants 90 % (OS) and 89 % (IS) considered the recommendations at least to be predominantly reasonable and useful and 66 % (OS) of the participants tried to implement or at least to partially implement the recommendations (IS only 33 %). Concerning the indications for the different diagnostic procedures, the results of the OS showed that hospital guidelines (44 %) and patient age (32 %) were the most frequent indications for a preoperative ECG. Hospital guidelines (40 %) and own judgement (39 %) were the most common indications for a preoperative chest x-ray and patient age still accounted for 18 % of the indications. In contrast, echocardiography (67 %), spirometry (61 %) and extended cardiac diagnostics (70 %) were primarily indicated based on own judgement. However, reasons given in this context were frequently (77 %) not in agreement with the recommendations. Comparing the results of the OS to those of the IS with respect to the indications of the different diagnostic procedures for the common case scenarios showed a varying degree of consistency with the recommendations. In both cases responses to the IS concerning the indications for the different diagnostic procedures were mostly in accordance with the recommendations compared to answers obtained in the OS. Indications for the chest x-ray showed the worst degree of consistency with the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Corresponding to the high significance of local standards for the decision of indicating preoperative diagnostic procedures, the development of local standards that are in agreement with the recommendations seems to be a reasonable way to facilitate the implementation of the recommendations.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Coleta de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Alemanha , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Radiografia Torácica , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Anaesthesist ; 62(3): 201-12, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23392217

RESUMO

The routine administration of supplemental oxygen to women undergoing elective caesarean section under regional anesthesia in order to optimize oxygen supply to the fetus is common anesthetic practice in many German hospitals. However, this practice has been controversially discussed in the non-German literature for many years. This review presents and discusses the pros and cons of routinely providing supplemental oxygen to a parturient during caesarean section on the basis of the literature published over the last 30 years. Proponents of routine oxygen administration point to potential and unforeseeable risks of caesarean sections and consider the prophylactic administration of oxygen based on physiological considerations to be advantageous in terms of patient safety. Interestingly, data regarding the effects of an increased maternal FIO2 on improvement of fetal oxygenation are inconsistent, therefore, no unambiguous recommendation concerning which FIO2 to choose can be given. Opponents of routine oxygen supplementation allude above all to an increase in free radical activity in both mother and fetus; however, data in this respect are not consistent either. As supplemental oxygen to patients undergoing elective caesarean section without any risk factors under regional anesthesia is associated with potential risks while no advantage has so far been demonstrated, routine administration of oxygen has to be challenged and is no longer considered to be indicated by many. On the contrary, in cases of emergency with a concomitant risk of hypoxia for mother and fetus, administration of oxygen is indispensable in the light of present data.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Oxigenoterapia , Adulto , Feminino , Hipóxia Fetal/terapia , Feto/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipóxia/terapia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Gravidez
6.
Genome Announc ; 1(1)2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23405308

RESUMO

SAR86 denotes a 16S clade of gammaproteobacteria that are ubiquitous in ocean surface waters. So far, SAR86 is resistant to cultivation; thus, little is known about the genome contents or physiology of this clade. Recently, four partial genome sequences for SAR86 subclades I and II were published. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of a single cell from SAR86 subgroup IIIa isolated from coastal waters in San Diego, CA.

7.
Anaesthesist ; 61(4): 299-309, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22526741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies conducted shortly after the implementation of pulse oximetry (PO) into clinical practice 20-25 years ago revealed that many patients breathing room air during transfer from the operating room (OR) to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) directly after general anesthesia (GA) had a peripheral oxygen saturation (S(p)O(2)) below 90%. Moreover, it was shown that the detection of hypoxemia by clinical criteria is extremely unreliable. Meanwhile, the use of PO has become part of the obligatory standard monitoring during GA in Germany and many other countries. Likewise, the use of PO is standard care in the PACU although there are no official recommendations. However, for the time period in between, i.e. immediately after GA during transportation of patients from the OR to the PACU, monitoring of the S(p)O(2) in patients breathing room air is neither obligatory in Germany nor are there any official recommendations or guidelines in this respect. Given the introduction of shorter acting anesthetic agents within the last 25 years, the main goal of this study was to explore whether the incidence of hypoxemia in the immediate period after GA is still so high. Additional aims of this study were to examine whether the detection of hypoxemia based on clinical criteria can be confirmed to be very unreliable, what the risk factors for hypoxemia following GA are and how common it is in Germany to transport patients from the OR to the PACU without PO and supplemental oxygen. METHODS: In a prospective observational study 970 patients who underwent a broad spectrum of elective surgery under GA in a university hospital setting were included. The S(p)O(2) was measured at the end of the transfer from the OR to the PACU immediately after the anesthetist who had taken care of the patient during the operation had estimated the S(p)O(2). The association between biometric, surgical and anesthesiological variables on the one hand and hypoxemia as well as a decrease of S(p)O(2) on the other hand were studied using multivariate methods. Finally, a survey including all university hospitals was carried out to find out about the use of PO and oxygen during patient transfer from the OR to the PACU. RESULTS: Of the 959 patients who were eligible for analysis 17% had a S(p)O(2) < 90% and 6.6% a S(p)O(2) < 85%. Hypoxemia was not recognized in 82% of the patients in whom an assessment based on clinical grounds was carried out. Variables with an independent influence on hypoxemia and decrease of S(p)O(2) were as follows: saturation before induction of GA, body mass index, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, difference between maximum and minimum inspiratory pressure, mode of ventilation, the choice of opioid and muscle relaxant as well as the use of nitrous oxide. Patient-dependent risk factors had the strongest impact on hypoxemia. In about 80% of the university hospitals neither PO nor supplemental oxygen is used during transportation of the patient from the OR to the PACU. CONCLUSIONS: The use of opioids and relaxants with short duration of action may have favorable effects on preventing hypoxemia and decreases of S(p)O(2). These measures will, however, not be sufficient to solve this problem because the highest risk factors for hypoxemia are patient-related. Despite knowing risk factors for oxygen desaturation, it is currently not possible to reliably predict which patients will become hypoxemic or have a decrease of S(p)O(2). Therefore, transportation of patients breathing room air from the OR to the PACU directly after GA without use of PO or supplemental oxygen seems to be questionable in terms of patient safety.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria , Oxigênio/sangue , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Anaesthesist ; 60(5): 432-40, 442-5, 2011 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21153527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the results from randomized controlled trials investigating the relative efficacy of droperidol versus metoclopramide for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). METHODS: A systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials comparing droperidol and metoclopramide for the prevention of PONV was performed according to the PRISMA recommendations. The incidence of PONV within the early (0-6 h) and cumulative postoperative periods (0-48 h) was collated and the pooled relative risk (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results from a subgroup analysis are presented excluding the data of a Japanese group (Fujii et al.) which are given in parentheses. RESULTS: A total of 41 (30) trials with a total number of 3,491 (2,721) patients were included and of these 12 (8) trials with 1,403 (1,083) patients reported data of the early period and 32 (21) studies with 2,656 (1,836) patients comprised data of the cumulative period. A total of 1,797 (1,309) patients were treated with droperidol (0.25-5 mg) and 1,694 (1,412) with metoclopramide (5-50 mg). In the early period the risk for PONV after metoclopramide was 35% (95%-CI: 17-57%) higher than after prophylaxis with droperidol (without Fujii data: 46%; 23-73%). During the cumulative period the risk for PONV after metoclopramide was increased by 20% (95%-CI: 7-37%) compared to droperidol (without Fujii data: 25%; 4-50%). Due to heterogenous dosing of both drugs subgroup analyses with distinct dose intervals were performed with increments of 0.75 mg for droperidol and 7 mg for metoclopramide. Droperidol was superior in 17 (12) out of 19 (14) subgroup analyses. Comparing recommended doses of droperidol (0.75-1.5 mg) with low doses of metoclopramide (7-14 mg) and medium metoclopramide doses (14-21 mg) PONV was increased by 12% (95%-CI: -11% to 42%) and 32% (95%-CI: 4%-66%), respectively when metoclopramide instead of droperidol was used. When higher doses of metoclopramide (>20 mg) were used the superiority of droperidol was less pronounced and did not reach statistical significance due to the limited numbers of trials included in this analysis (3 studies, 662 patients). The risk for PONV after high-dose metoclopramide was increased by 13% (95%-CI: -21% to +61%) for the early period and by 19% (95%-CI: -11% to +57%) for the cumulative observation period. CONCLUSION: For the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting droperidol is significantly superior to metoclopramide doses below 20 mg. There was no obvious positive dose response with respect to increasing doses of metoclopramide. There was also a trend towards higher efficacy of droperidol compared to higher doses of metoclopramide (≥20 mg). However, there were not enough comparative studies to show a statistically significant result in this subgroup analysis. These data support the notion that droperidol in low doses may represent the more effective D(2)-antagonist for a pharmacological armamentarium to cope with PONV.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Droperidol/uso terapêutico , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Intervalos de Confiança , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Droperidol/administração & dosagem , Droperidol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Metoclopramida/administração & dosagem , Metoclopramida/efeitos adversos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Risco
9.
Anaesthesist ; 60(5): 414-20, 2011 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21153798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to a variety of reasons (e.g. increase in outpatient surgery and legal restrictions related to working hours) it has become increasingly more difficult to have the pre-anesthesia visit and the anesthesia carried out by the same anesthetist. In the light of these organizational changes as well as increasing economical pressure it has become common practice to implement pre-anesthesia assessment clinics. It is unclear, however, if these changes in anesthetic patient care respect patient needs. METHODS: By means of a survey using the willingness to pay method, the relative significance of five quality aspects (location of pre-anesthesia visit, waiting time, patient-physician relationship, use of multimedia and ambience) were studied. Participation during a 12-month study period was on a voluntary basis. RESULTS: Of the 1,058 questionnaires, 1,014 were eligible for analysis. A pre-anesthesia visit performed by the anesthetist who would deliver anesthesia was the most important aspect for almost two thirds (624 out of 1,014) of the patients with on average more than one third of the money available spent on this item. Waiting time was the second most important factor with about one third of the patients rating this item as the most relevant factor and on average approximately one quarter of the total money available spent on it. Location of the pre-anesthesia visit, use of multimedia and ambience were considered least important. The order of these preferences was regardless of age and gender of subjects. However, there was a trend to age and gender-specific differences concerning the amount of money spent on these five items. For instance, with increasing age, patient-physician relationship and location of the pre-anesthesia visit become more important. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the integration of a pre-anesthesia assessment clinic in anesthetic patient care is not favorable from the patients' point of view because getting to know the anesthetist who will deliver anesthesia is of paramount importance to most patients. In cases where a pre-anesthetic assessment clinic is indispensable, other measures to build up confidence compensating for the lack of personal patient-physician relationship should be developed. In this respect, the promotion of a corporate identity of the whole anesthesia department may be beneficial. Furthermore, keeping the waiting time as short as possible should be a high priority as this item was rated the second most important factor.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia/economia , Feminino , Alemanha , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Medicação Pré-Anestésica , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Anaesthesist ; 56(11): 1170-80, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17726590

RESUMO

There are no consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in German speaking countries. This meeting was intended to develop such guidelines on which individual health care facilities can derive their specific standard operating procedures (SOPs). Anesthesiologists reviewed published literature on key topics which were subsequently discussed during two meetings. It was emphasized that recommendations were based on the best available evidence. The clinical relevance of individual risk factors should be viewed with caution since even well proven risk factors, such as the history of PONV, do not allow the identification of patients at risk for PONV with a satisfactory sensitivity or specificity. A more useful approach is the use of simplified risk scores which consider the presence of several risk factors simultaneously. Most individual antiemetic interventions for the prevention of PONV have comparable efficacy with a relative risk reduction of about 30%. This appears to be true for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) as well as for dexamethasone and other antiemetics; assuming a sufficiently high, adequate and equipotent dosage which should be weight-adjusted in children. As the relative risk reduction is context independent and similar between the interventions, the absolute risk reduction of prophylactic interventions is mainly dependent on the patient's individual baseline risk. Prophylaxis is thus rarely warranted in patients at low risk, generally needed in patients with a moderate risk and should include a multimodal approach in patients at high risk for PONV. Therapeutic interventions of PONV should be administered promptly using an antiemetic which has not been used before. The group suggests algorithms where prophylactic interventions are mainly dependent on the patient's risk for PONV. These algorithms should provide evidence-based guidelines allowing the development of SOPs/policies which take local circumstances into account.


Assuntos
Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/terapia , Acupuntura , Adulto , Algoritmos , Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Propofol , Fatores de Risco
11.
Anaesthesia ; 62(8): 810-7, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17635430

RESUMO

It is not known whether dexamethasone increases the effectiveness of anti-emetics when given to treat postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In a randomised study, 242 patients who were experiencing PONV received dolasetron and placebo, haloperidol and placebo, dolasetron and dexamethasone, or haloperidol and dexamethasone. The results from 228 patients were suitable for analysis. PONV recurred significantly less frequently in patients treated with additional dexamethasone (33%) than in patients treated without additional dexamethasone (51%). The combination of dexamethasone with dolasetron or dexamethasone with haloperidol is superior to dolasetron or haloperidol alone for the treatment of PONV.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/etiologia , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Antagonistas da Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Inflamm Res ; 53 Suppl 2: S148-53, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15338067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms leading to the high incidence of postoperative vomiting (POV) after gynaecological laparoscopic surgery are still unknown. The effectiveness of POV-prophylaxis using H1 + H2-receptor antagonists has been demonstrated, suggesting a role for histamine in the pathogenesis of POV. However, histamine levels were not measured in these studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of plasma histamine release and its association with POV after gynaecological laparoscopic surgery. MATERIAL OR SUBJECTS: Twenty-two female patients, aged 20-56 y, classified ASA physical status I or II, undergoing elective gynaecological laparoscopic surgery were enrolled in the study. Blood samples for plasma histamine measurements were drawn at defined time points perioperatively. Emetic symptoms were recorded within the first 24 h after operation. A standardized balanced anaesthesia without any prophylactic antiemetic medication was applied. Formal causality analysis for histamine as a determinant for POV was performed. RESULTS: The overall incidence of POV was 40.9% (9 out of 22 patients). Twelve out of 22 patients (54.5%) demonstrated a histamine release reaction during the whole observation period. Six out of 9 patients with POV (66.7%) had a histamine release. There was no difference in mean plasma histamine levels between POV-positive and POV-negative patients. The conditional probability for POV with histamine release was 6/12 = 0.5, in contrast to 3/10 = 0.3 for POV without histamine release. CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence of plasma histamine release was demonstrated in most but not all patients with POV. The probability of POV with histamine release (0.5) was higher than without histamine release (0.3), thus histamine release was shown to be one of the contributory determinants for POV in this clinical study. Thus, patients at risk for POV may benefit from a H1 + H2-receptor antagonists prophylaxis alone or in combination with other antiemetic strategies.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Liberação de Histamina/fisiologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Histamina/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Anaesthesist ; 53(3): 228-34, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15021954

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonists suggests a role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, studies investigating the relationship between the turnover of serotonin and PONV were contradictory. Therefore we carried out a pilot study in order to find out whether results can be obtained that would justify further studies on a larger scale. METHODS: A total of 22 patients scheduled for elective gynaecological laparoscopy were enrolled. A balanced anaesthesia using sufentanil, etomidate, cisatracurium, isoflurane and nitrous oxide was administered and 5-hydroxyindoleaceticacid (5-HIAA) concentrations in the urine were measured within the 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: Only the patients that vomited postoperatively had a significant change in the concentrations of 5-HIAA over the time course investigated. However, comparison of urinary 5-HIAA concentrations of the group comprising patients that vomited with those that had no PONV did not reveal a significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study support further investigation of the relationship between serotonin and PONV and suggest that there may in fact be an association between PONV and increased serotonin turnover.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/urina , Laparoscopia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia
14.
Anaesthesist ; 52(7): 586-95, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12898043

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND AND STUDY GOALS: Strabismus surgery in children is frequently associated with a very high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this study we investigated, whether TIVA is superior to inhalation anaesthesia concerning PONV when a prophylaxis using dimenhydrinate (diphenhydramine chlorotheophyllate) is administered in both groups. METHODS: 110 patients (3-10 years) were prospectively and randomly allocated to one of the following groups: Group TD (TIVA/dimenhydrinate; n= 55): anaesthesia was induced and maintained using remifentanil and propofol in common clinical dosages. Patients were ventilated with 30% O(2) in air. Group VD (Volatile/ dimenhydrinate; n= 55): anaesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in common clinical concentrations together with N(2)O in 30% O(2). All patients received dimenhydrinate 1 mg.kg(-1) i.v. after induction. PONV was recorded within the first 24 h postoperatively. The chi-square test and a multivariate analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: 52 patients of group TD and 54 of group VD were analysed. There was a trend in the incidence of postoperative nausea (PN): group TD 17%, 95% CI: 8-30%) compared to group VD 31%, 95% CI: 20-46%), p = 0.09. No difference was seen for PV and PONV: 21% (95% CI: 11-35%) in group TD vs. 35% (95% CI: 23-49%) in group VD, p = 0.109. These non-significant results can be easily attributed to the lack of power about 30%) of this study. According to the results of the multivariate analysis volatile anaesthesia was identified as an independent risk factor for PONV (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.02-8.36). Other variables that were found to be an independent risk factor included history of PONV (OR: 8.19, 95% CI: 1.84-36.43), surgery lasting longer than 30 min (OR: 5.89, 95% CI: 1.82-19.82) and "Faden-operations" (retroequatorial myopexy) (OR: 5.48, 95% CI: 1.74-17.21). CONCLUSIONS: TD only showed a trend to lower PN incidences and no differences as for PV and PONV incidences, most likely due to a lack of power of this study. However, according to the results of the multivariate analysis, inhalation anaesthesia was shown to be an independent risk factor for PONV, as were history of PONV, surgery >30 min and "Faden-operations".


Assuntos
Anestesia por Inalação , Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Dimenidrinato/uso terapêutico , Éteres Metílicos , Óxido Nitroso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Piperidinas , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Propofol , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Remifentanil , Fatores de Risco , Sevoflurano
15.
An. psiquiatr ; 18(9): 411-418, oct. 2002.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-18359

RESUMO

En un trabajo previo se plantearon los lineamientos teóricos acerca del trabajo con pacientes internados, con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria graves, en una Sala de Psiquiatría de un hospital general. En esta comunicación se desarrolla dicho sistema de trabajo a partir de la introducción de un caso clínico. A través del mismo puede evidenciarse el abordaje multidisciplinario de estos pacientes, la metodología, los objetivos y las etapas de internación y como esto repercute en el paciente (AU)


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hospitalização , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos
16.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11845375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compared to other procedures, gynaecological laparoscopies are followed rather frequently by postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Therefore, we investigated the prophylactic antiemetic efficacy of metoclopramide and droperidol under general anaesthesia with isoflurane (part 1). Given the rather unsatisfying results of this monoprophylaxis we examined the effects of a quintuple prophylaxis in this setting (part 2). METHODS: Part 1: Following ethical committee approval and written informed consent 120 patients scheduled for elective gynaecological laparoscopy were allocated prospectively, randomly and observer-blinded to the following groups: group P (placebo): 2 ml NaCl 0.9 %, group D: 2.5 mg droperidol, group M: 10 mg metoclopramide. Part 2: Subsequently 50 patients scheduled for elective gynaecological laparoscopy and bearing a minimum risk of 25 % to experience postoperative vomiting were allocated prospectively and blinded to the observers to a quintuple prophylaxis group: group X: 10 mg metoclopramide, 2.5 mg droperidol, 12.5 mg dolasetron, 62.5 mg dimenhydrinate, 8mg dexamethasone. Part 1 and 2: Anaesthesia was induced with fentanyl, etomidate and succinycholine and maintained with isoflurane/N2O, fentanyl and cisatracurium. The antiemetics were applied intravenously 20 min prior to end of surgery. RESULTS: Within the first 24 h postoperatively vomiting occurred more frequently in group P (44 %) compared to group D (21 %, p = 0.046) and group M (33 %, n. s.). Nausea also occurred more frequently in group P (61 %) compared to group D (24 %, p = 0.003) and group M (48 %, n. s.). Intensity of nausea was reduced both in group D and group M compared to group P (p = 0.03). Likewise the requirements for antiemetics as a rescue medication were reduced in group D (p = 0.02) and group M (p = 0.047) compared to group P. In group X no patient suffered from postoperative vomiting, no patient required a rescue antiemetic. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas droperidol provides a reliable antiemetic effect, the prophylactic effect of metoclopramide is rather uncertain. Therefore, further studies regarding a dose response-relationship for metoclopramide are deemed necessary. Since a monoprophylaxis with droperidol or metoclopramide failed to attain a satisfying PONV-prophylaxis in patients at high risk for PONV, the quintuple antiemetic combination might be an effective and safe solution.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Droperidol/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Laparoscopia , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Droperidol/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Metoclopramida/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Genetics ; 156(1): 183-94, 2000 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10978284

RESUMO

The gene proboscipedia (pb) is a member of the Antennapedia complex in Drosophila and is required for the proper specification of the adult mouthparts. In the embryo, pb expression serves no known function despite having an accumulation pattern in the mouthpart anlagen that is conserved across several insect orders. We have identified several of the genes necessary to generate this embryonic pattern of expression. These genes can be roughly split into three categories based on their time of action during development. First, prior to the expression of pb, the gap genes are required to specify the domains where pb may be expressed. Second, the initial expression pattern of pb is controlled by the combined action of the genes Deformed (Dfd), Sex combs reduced (Scr), cap'n'collar (cnc), and teashirt (tsh). Lastly, maintenance of this expression pattern later in development is dependent on the action of a subset of the Polycomb group genes. These interactions are mediated in part through a 500-bp regulatory element in the second intron of pb. We further show that Dfd protein binds in vitro to sequences found in this fragment. This is the first clear demonstration of autonomous positive cross-regulation of one Hox gene by another in Drosophila melanogaster and the binding of Dfd to a cis-acting regulatory element indicates that this control might be direct.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila/genética , Genes Homeobox , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA/genética , Drosophila/embriologia , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Reporter , Insetos/genética , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação
19.
Z Rheumatol ; 59 Suppl 2: II/131-5, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11155795

RESUMO

Thermography in rheumatology is most often used in a static manner: after having fulfilled the conditions of standardized preparation of the patient in a cold examination room one or more thermograms are taken in standard positions for the respective joints. In our hospital the thermograms are more or less supplementary. The main examination result is a rewarming curve of the skin over the knee joints. The rewarming is provoked by dry cooling of the skin for one minute. Calculation of the slope of the rewarming curve and plotting the slope on a logarithmic scale shows two different rewarming processes in the skin overlying inflamed joints. The faster one is the rewarming by the arterial blood flow in the skin and the slower one is an additional rewarming by a pathological venous skin blood flow originating from deeper tissues under the skin. One has to suppose that the occurrence of excessive nitric oxide production in inflamed tissues is responsible for this pathological venous skin blood flow. Until now only nine patients receiving for the first time methylprednisolone could be included in a therapy study. Therefore only slight indications can be seen in the results. Whereas the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR [mm/h] becomes more homogeneous (lower confidence interval CI 95) over the course of the treatment with decreasing drug dose, the thermal signs of inflammatory activity as measured by dynamic thermography have greater CI 95 values at the end than at the beginning of the treatment under study. This indicates that not all patients had sufficient antiinflammatory medication with the final 6 mg/d of methylprednisolone as measured by dynamic thermography but not by ESR or CRP.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Termografia , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Temperatura Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Anaesthesist ; 48(10): 705-12, 1999 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10551919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gynaecological surgery including laparoscopy is frequently associated with PONV. Therefore, choosing an anaesthetic with only little side effects in operations eligible for outpatient surgery is at least as important as applying anaesthetics that enable fast-tracking. STUDY GOAL: To assess the incidence and severity of PONV after balanced desflurane-N(2)O-anaesthesia and to compare the antiemetic efficacy of dolasetron or metoclopramide versus placebo. METHODS: 120 ASA physical status I and II women aged 18 to 55 scheduled for elective laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. Anaesthesia was standardized: fentanyl (2 microg/kg), etomidate (0. 25 mg/kg) and succinylcholine (1 mg/kg) for induction and desflurane 3-5% et along with 30% O(2) in N(2)O, fentanyl (max. 0.1 mg/h) and cis-atracurium for maintenance. Patients were randomly allocated to receive one of the following: dolasetron 12.5 mg (group-D), metoclopramide 10 mg (group-M) or placebo (group-P). RESULTS: Within the first 24 h, postoperative nausea (PON) and postoperative vomiting (POV) were reduced significantly in group D (38%/19%) and group M (36%/27%) compared to group P (69%/56%). Furthermore, PON and POV proved to be less intense in groups D and -M compared to group P: Episodes of severe nausea were recorded 17 times in 10 patients (17/10) in group P, compared to 5/4 in group M and 5/3 in group D, episodes of repeated vomiting 13 times in 8 patients (13/8) in group P, compared to 2/2 in group M and 2/1 in group D. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the increased incidence of PONV after gynaecological laparoscopic surgery under balanced anaesthesia compared to the predicted rates. Both dolasetron and metoclopramide proved to be effective prophylactic measures. Given a PONV-incidence of 38% in group D and 39% in group M, it is doubtful, whether the anaesthetic technique chosen in this study is the most suitable regimen for ambulatory gynaecological laparoscopies.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Pelve , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Anestesia por Inalação , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Desflurano , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflurano/análogos & derivados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nitroso
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...