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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060676

RESUMO

In this work, we analyze the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of epigenetic inhibitors (lysine mimetics) against lysine methyltransferase (G9a or EHMT2) using a combined activity landscape, molecular docking and molecular dynamics approach. The study was based on a set of 251 G9a inhibitors with reported experimental activity. The activity landscape analysis rapidly led to the identification of activity cliffs, scaffolds hops and other active an inactive molecules with distinct SAR. Structure-based analysis of activity cliffs, scaffold hops and other selected active and inactive G9a inhibitors by means of docking followed by molecular dynamics simulations led to the identification of interactions with key residues involved in activity against G9a, for instance with ASP 1083, LEU 1086, ASP 1088, TYR 1154 and PHE 1158. The outcome of this work is expected to further advance the development of G9a inhibitors.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 1-13, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593801

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease associated with very poor prognosis. Most patients are older than 60 years, and in this group only 5-15% of cases survive over 5 years. Therefore, it is urgent to develop more effective targeted therapies. Inactivation of protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) is a recurrent event in AML, and overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor SET is detected in ~30% of patients. The PP2A activating drug FTY720 has potent anti-leukemic effects; nevertheless, FTY720 induces cardiotoxicity at the anti-neoplastic dose. Here, we have developed a series of non-phosphorylable FTY720 analogues as a new therapeutic strategy for AML. Our results show that the lead compound CM-1231 re-activates PP2A by targeting SET-PP2A interaction, inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary patient samples. Notably, CM-1231 did not induce cardiac toxicity, unlike FTY720, in zebrafish models, and reduced the invasion and aggressiveness of AML cells more than FTY720 in zebrafish xenograft models. In conclusion, CM-1231 is safer and more effective than FTY720; therefore, this compound could represent a novel and promising approach for treating AML patients with SET overexpression.

3.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 10(9): 4076-4101, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441641

RESUMO

Here, we present a series of dual-target phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors devised as pharmacological tool compounds for assessing the implications of these two targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These novel inhibitors were designed taking into account the key pharmacophoric features of known selective PDE9 inhibitors as well as privileged chemical structures, bearing zinc binding groups (hydroxamic acids and ortho-amino anilides) that hit HDAC targets. These substituents were selected according to rational criteria and previous knowledge from our group to explore diverse HDAC selectivity profiles (pan-HDAC, HDAC6 selective, and class I selective) that were confirmed in biochemical screens. Their functional response in inducing acetylation of histone and tubulin and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) was measured as a requisite for further progression into complete in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and in vivo brain penetration profiling. Compound 31b, a selective HDAC6 inhibitor with acceptable brain permeability, was chosen for assessing in vivo efficacy of these first-in-class inhibitors, as well as studying their mode of action (MoA).

4.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1073-1081, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270502

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is lethal in its advanced, muscle-invasive phase with very limited therapeutic advances1,2. Recent molecular characterization has defined new (epi)genetic drivers and potential targets for bladder cancer3,4. The immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown remarkable efficacy but only in a limited fraction of bladder cancer patients5-8. Here, we show that high G9a (EHMT2) expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in bladder cancer and that targeting G9a/DNMT methyltransferase activity with a novel inhibitor (CM-272) induces apoptosis and immunogenic cell death. Using an immunocompetent quadruple-knockout (PtenloxP/loxP; Trp53loxP/loxP; Rb1loxP/loxP; Rbl1-/-) transgenic mouse model of aggressive metastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer, we demonstrate that CM-272 + cisplatin treatment results in statistically significant regression of established tumors and metastases. The antitumor effect is significantly improved when CM-272 is combined with anti-programmed cell death ligand 1, even in the absence of cisplatin. These effects are associated with an endogenous antitumor immune response and immunogenic cell death with the conversion of a cold immune tumor into a hot tumor. Finally, increased G9a expression was associated with resistance to programmed cell death protein 1 inhibition in a cohort of patients with bladder cancer. In summary, these findings support new and promising opportunities for the treatment of bladder cancer using a combination of epigenetic inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/fisiologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
5.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281249

RESUMO

The discouraging results with therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinical trials, highlights the urgent need to adopt new approaches. Like other complex diseases, it is becoming clear that AD therapies should focus on the simultaneous modulation of several targets implicated in the disease. Recently, using reference compounds and the first-in class CM-414, we demonstrated that the simultaneous inhibition of histone deacetylases [class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) and HDAC6] and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) has a synergistic therapeutic effect in AD models. To identify the best inhibitory balance of HDAC isoforms and PDEs that provides a safe and efficient therapy to combat AD, we tested the compound CM-695 in the Tg2576 mouse model of this disease. CM-695 selectively inhibits HDAC6 over class I HDAC isoforms, which largely overcomes the toxicity associated with HDAC class 1 inhibition. Furthermore, CM-695 inhibits PDE9, which is expressed strongly in the brain and has been proposed as a therapeutic target for AD. Chronic treatment of aged Tg2576 mice with CM-695 ameliorates memory impairment and diminishes brain Aß, although its therapeutic effect was no longer apparent 4 weeks after the treatment was interrupted. An increase in the presence of 78-KDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) chaperones may underlie the therapeutic effect of CM-695. In summary, chronic treatment with CM-695 appears to reverse the AD phenotype in a safe and effective manner. Taking into account that AD is a multifactorial disorder, the multimodal action of these compounds and the different events they affect may open new avenues to combat AD.

6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 168: 87-109, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802730

RESUMO

PIM kinase family (PIM-1, PIM-2 and PIM-3) is an appealing target for the discovery and development of selective inhibitors, useful in various disease conditions in which these proteins are highly expressed, such as cancer. The significant effort put, in the recent years, towards the development of small molecules exhibiting inhibitory activity against this protein family has ended up with several molecules entering clinical trials. As part of our ongoing exploration for potential drug candidates that exhibit affinity towards this protein family, we have generated a novel chemical series of triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine based tricycles by applying a scaffold hopping strategy over our previously reported potent pan-PIM inhibitor ETP-47453 (compound 2). The structure-activity relationship studies presented herein demonstrate a rather selective PIM-1/PIM-3 biochemical profile for this novel series of tricycles, although pan-PIM and PIM-1 inhibitors have also been identified. Selected examples show significant inhibition of the phosphorylation of BAD protein in a cell-based assay. Moreover, optimized and highly selective compounds, such as 42, did not show significant hERG inhibition at 20 µM concentration, and proved its antiproliferative activity and utility in combination with particular antitumoral agents in several tumor cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/metabolismo , Piridazinas/síntese química , Piridazinas/química , Quinolinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/síntese química , Triazóis/química
7.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 10(3): 1765-1782, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525452

RESUMO

In order to determine the contributions of histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoforms to the beneficial effects of dual phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) and pan-HDAC inhibitors on in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have designed, synthesized, and tested novel chemical probes with the desired target compound profile of PDE5 and class I HDAC selective inhibitors. Compared to previous hydroxamate-based series, these molecules exhibit longer residence times on HDACs. In this scenario, shorter or longer preincubation times may have a significant impact on the IC50 values of these compounds and therefore on their corresponding selectivity profiles on the different HDAC isoforms. On the other hand, different chemical series have been explored and, as expected, some pairwise comparisons show a clear impact of the scaffold on biological responses (e.g., 35a vs 40a). The lead identification process led to compound 29a, which shows an adequate ADME-Tox profile and in vivo target engagement (histone acetylation and cAMP/cGMP response element-binding (CREB) phosphorylation) in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting that this compound represents an optimized chemical probe; thus, 29a has been assayed in a mouse model of AD (Tg2576).

8.
Transl Stroke Res ; 10(4): 389-401, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051168

RESUMO

Diabetes is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS). Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) has been associated with less successful revascularization and poor functional outcome in diabetes. We assessed whether a new thrombolytic strategy based on MMP10 was more effective than tPA in a murine IS model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Wild-type mice were administered a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (180 mg/kg) to develop STZ-induced diabetes mellitus. Two weeks later, IS was induced by thrombin injection into the middle cerebral artery and the effect of recombinant MMP10 (6.5 µg/kg), tPA (10 mg/kg) or tPA/MMP10 on brain damage and functional outcome were analysed. Motor activity was assessed using the open field test. Additionally, we studied plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels (TAT) by ELISA and oxidative stress and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity by immunohistochemistry and western blot. MMP10 treatment was more effective at reducing infarct size and neurodegeneration than tPA 24 h and 3 days after IS in diabetic mice. Locomotor activity was impaired by hyperglycemia and ischemic injury, but not by the thrombolytic treatments. Additionally, TAT, oxidative stress and BBB permeability were reduced by MMP10 treatment, whereas brain bleeding or PAI-1 expression did not differ between treatments. Thrombolytic treatment with MMP10 was more effective than tPA at reducing stroke and neurodegeneration in a diabetic murine model of IS, without increasing haemorrhage. Thus, we propose MMP10 as a potential candidate for the clinical treatment of IS in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Metaloproteinase 10 da Matriz/administração & dosagem , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem
9.
Hepatology ; 69(2): 587-603, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014490

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation functionally cooperate in fostering tumor growth, including that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pharmacological targeting of these mechanisms may open new therapeutic avenues. We aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of action of our dual G9a histone-methyltransferase and DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor in human HCC cells and their crosstalk with fibrogenic cells. The expression of G9a and DNMT1, along with that of their molecular adaptor ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains-1 (UHRF1), was measured in human HCCs (n = 268), peritumoral tissues (n = 154), and HCC cell lines (n = 32). We evaluated the effect of individual and combined inhibition of G9a and DNMT1 on HCC cell growth by pharmacological and genetic approaches. The activity of our lead compound, CM-272, was examined in HCC cells under normoxia and hypoxia, human hepatic stellate cells and LX2 cells, and xenograft tumors formed by HCC or combined HCC+LX2 cells. We found a significant and correlative overexpression of G9a, DNMT1, and UHRF1 in HCCs in association with poor prognosis. Independent G9a and DNMT1 pharmacological targeting synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth. CM-272 potently reduced HCC and LX2 cells proliferation and quelled tumor growth, particularly in HCC+LX2 xenografts. Mechanistically, CM-272 inhibited the metabolic adaptation of HCC cells to hypoxia and induced a differentiated phenotype in HCC and fibrogenic cells. The expression of the metabolic tumor suppressor gene fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), epigenetically repressed in HCC, was restored by CM-272. Conclusion: Combined targeting of G9a/DNMT1 with compounds such as CM-272 is a promising strategy for HCC treatment. Our findings also underscore the potential of differentiation therapy in HCC.

10.
J Chem Inf Model ; 58(8): 1596-1609, 2018 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010337

RESUMO

Molecular alignment is a standard procedure for three-dimensional (3D) similarity measurements and pharmacophore elucidation. This process is influenced by several factors, such as the physicochemical descriptors utilized to account for the molecular determinants of biological activity and the reference templates. Relying on the hypothesis that the maximal achievable binding affinity for a drug-like molecule is largely due to desolvation, we explore a novel strategy for 3D molecular overlays that exploits the partitioning of molecular hydrophobicity into atomic contributions in conjunction with information about the distribution of hydrogen-bond (HB) donor/acceptor groups. A brief description of the method, as implemented in the software package PharmScreen, including the derivation of the fractional hydrophobic contributions within the quantum mechanical version of the Miertus-Scrocco-Tomasi (MST) continuum model, and the procedure utilized for the optimal superposition between molecules, is presented. The computational procedure is calibrated by using a data set of 402 molecules pertaining to 14 distinct targets taken from the literature and validated against the AstraZeneca test, which comprises 121 experimentally derived sets of molecular overlays. The results point out the suitability of the MST-based hydrophobic parameters for generating molecular overlays, as correct predictions were obtained for 94%, 79%, and 54% of the molecules classified into easy, moderate, and hard sets, respectively. Moreover, the results point out that this accuracy is attained at a much lower degree of identity between the templates used by hydrophobic/HB fields and electrostatic/steric ones. These findings support the usefulness of the hydrophobic/HB descriptors to generate complementary overlays that may be valuable to rationalize structure-activity relationships and for virtual screening campaigns.


Assuntos
Projeto Auxiliado por Computador , Desenho de Drogas , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Animais , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Proteínas/metabolismo , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática
11.
J Cheminform ; 10(1): 32, 2018 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032331

RESUMO

Epigenetic therapies are being investigated for the treatment of cancer, cognitive disorders, metabolic alterations and autoinmune diseases. Among the different epigenetic target families, protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs), are especially interesting because it is believed that their inhibition may be highly specific at the functional level. Despite its relevance, there are currently known inhibitors against only 10 out of the 50 SET-domain containing members of the PKMT family. Accordingly, the identification of chemical probes for the validation of the therapeutic impact of epigenetic modulation is key. Moreover, little is known about the mechanisms that dictate their substrate specificity and ligand selectivity. Consequently, it is desirable to explore novel methods to characterize the pharmacological similarity of PKMTs, going beyond classical phylogenetic relationships. Such characterization would enable the prediction of ligand off-target effects caused by lack of ligand selectivity and the repurposing of known compounds against alternative targets. This is particularly relevant in the case of orphan targets with unreported inhibitors. Here, we first perform a systematic study of binding modes of cofactor and substrate bound ligands with all available SET domain-containing PKMTs. Protein ligand interaction fingerprints were applied to identify conserved hot spots and contact-specific residues across subfamilies at each binding site; a relevant analysis for guiding the design of novel, selective compounds. Then, a recently described methodology (GPCR-CoINPocket) that incorporates ligand contact information into classical alignment-based comparisons was applied to the entire family of 50 SET-containing proteins to devise pharmacological similarities between them. The main advantage of this approach is that it is not restricted to proteins for which crystallographic data with bound ligands is available. The resulting family organization from the separate analysis of both sites (cofactor and substrate) was retrospectively and prospectively validated. Of note, three hits (inhibition > 50% at 10 µM) were identified for the orphan NSD1.

12.
J Med Chem ; 61(15): 6518-6545, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953809

RESUMO

Using knowledge- and structure-based approaches, we designed and synthesized reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the activity of two epigenetic targets, histone 3 lysine 9 methyltransferase (G9a) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), at nanomolar ranges. Enzymatic competition assays confirmed our design strategy: substrate competitive inhibitors. Next, an initial exploration around our hit 11 was pursued to identify an adequate tool compound for in vivo testing. In vitro treatment of different hematological neoplasia cell lines led to the identification of molecules with clear antiproliferative efficacies (GI50 values in the nanomolar range). On the basis of epigenetic functional cellular responses (levels of lysine 9 methylation and 5-methylcytosine), an acceptable therapeutic window (around 1 log unit) and a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, 12 was selected for in vivo proof-of-concept ( Nat. Commun. 2017 , 8 , 15424 ). Herein, 12 achieved a significant in vivo efficacy: 70% overall tumor growth inhibition of a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenograft in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/química , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
J Med Chem ; 61(15): 6546-6573, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890830

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulators that exhibit aberrant enzymatic activities or expression profiles are potential therapeutic targets for cancers. Specifically, enzymes responsible for methylation at histone-3 lysine-9 (like G9a) and aberrant DNA hypermethylation (DNMTs) have been implicated in a number of cancers. Recently, molecules bearing a 4-aminoquinoline scaffold were reported as dual inhibitors of these targets and showed a significant in vivo efficacy in animal models of hematological malignancies. Here, we report a detailed exploration around three growing vectors born by this chemotype. Exploring this chemical space led to the identification of features to navigate G9a and DNMT1 biological spaces: not only their corresponding exclusive areas, selective compounds, but also common spaces. Thus, we identified from selective G9a and first-in-class DNMT1 inhibitors, >1 log unit between their IC50 values, with IC50 < 25 nM (e.g., 43 and 26, respectively) to equipotent inhibitors with IC50 < 50 nM for both targets (e.g., 13). Their ADME/Tox profiling and antiproliferative efficacies, versus some cancer cell lines, are also reported.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/química , Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Drogas , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminoquinolinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/química , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica
14.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(5): 428-433, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795754

RESUMO

In an effort to find novel chemical series as antifibrinolytic agents, we explore α-phenylsulfonyl-α-spiropiperidines bearing different zinc-binding groups (ZBGs) to target those metalloproteinases involved in the fibrinolytic process: MMP3 and MMP10. Surprisingly, all these new chemical series were inactive against these metalloproteinases; however, several new molecules retained the antifibrinolytic activity in a phenotypic functional assay using thromboelastometry and human whole blood. Further optimization led to compound 38 as a potent antifibrinolytic agent in vivo, three times more efficacious than the current standard-of-care (tranexamic acid, TXA) at 300 times lower dose. Finally, in order to decipher the underlying mode-of-action leading to this phenotypic response, an affinity-based probe 39 was successfully designed to identify the target involved in this response: a potentially unknown mechanism-of-action in the fibrinolytic process.

15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 150: 506-524, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549837

RESUMO

We have identified chemical probes that act as dual phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-selective inhibitors (>1 log unit difference versus class I HDACs) to decipher the contribution of HDAC isoforms to the positive impact of dual-acting PDE5 and HDAC inhibitors on mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fine-tune this systems therapeutics approach. Structure- and knowledge-based approaches led to the design of first-in-class molecules with the desired target compound profile: dual PDE5 and HDAC6-selective inhibitors. Compound 44b, which fulfilled the biochemical, functional and ADME-Tox profiling requirements and exhibited adequate pharmacokinetic properties, was selected as pharmacological tool compound and tested in a mouse model of AD (Tg2576) in vivo.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Desenho de Drogas , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/síntese química , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 68, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422905

RESUMO

A complex network of interactions exists between the immune, the olfactory, and the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of different fragrances can affect immunological reactions in response to an antigen but also may have effects on the CNS and cognitive activity. We performed an exploratory study of the immunomodulatory ability of a series of compounds representing each of the 10 odor categories or clusters described previously. We evaluated the impact of each particular odor on the immune response after immunization with the model antigen ovalbumin in combination with the TLR3 agonist poly I:C. We found that some odors behave as immunostimulatory agents, whereas others might be considered as potential immunosuppressant odors. Interestingly, the immunomodulatory capacity was, in some cases, strain-specific. In particular, one of the fragrances, carvone, was found to be immunostimulatory in BALB/c mice and immunosuppressive in C57BL/6J mice, facilitating or impairing viral clearance, respectively, in a model of a viral infection with a recombinant adenovirus. Importantly, inhalation of the odor improved the memory capacity in BALB/c mice in a fear-conditioning test, while it impaired this same capacity in C57BL/6J mice. The improvement in memory capacity in BALB/c was associated with higher CD3+ T cell infiltration into the hippocampus and increased local expression of mRNA coding for IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 cytokines. In contrast, the memory impairment in C57BL/6 was associated with a reduction in CD3 numbers and an increase in IFN-γ. These data suggest an association between the immunomodulatory capacity of smells and their impact on the cognitive functions of the animals. These results highlight the potential of studying odors as therapeutic agents for CNS-related diseases.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Cognição , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunomodulação/genética , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Odorantes , Viroses/etiologia
17.
Haematologica ; 103(6): 1065-1072, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191842

RESUMO

Regulatory T (Treg) cells can weaken antitumor immune responses, and inhibition of their function appears to be a promising therapeutic approach in cancer patients. Mice with targeted deletion of the gene encoding the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger AE2 (also termed SLC4A2), a membrane-bound carrier involved in intracellular pH regulation, showed a progressive decrease in the number of Treg cells. We therefore challenged AE2 as a potential target for tumor therapy, and generated linear peptides designed to bind the third extracellular loop of AE2, which is crucial for its exchange activity. Peptide p17AE2 exhibited optimal interaction ability and indeed promoted apoptosis in mouse and human Treg cells, while activating effector T-cell function. Interestingly, this linear peptide also induced apoptosis in different types of human leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cell lines and primary malignant samples, while it showed only moderate effects on normal B lymphocytes. Finally, a macrocyclic AE2 targeting peptide exhibiting increased stability in vivo was effective in mice xenografted with B-cell lymphoma. These data suggest that targeting the anion exchanger AE2 with specific peptides may represent an effective therapeutic approach in B-cell malignancies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antiportadores de Cloreto-Bicarbonato/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Ânions/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Leucemia de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0190275, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281720

RESUMO

The combination of defined factors with small molecules targeting epigenetic factors is a strategy that has been shown to enhance optimal derivation of iPSCs and could be used for disease modelling, high throughput screenings and/or regenerative medicine applications. In this study, we showed that a new first-in-class reversible dual G9a/DNMT1 inhibitor compound (CM272) improves the efficiency of human cell reprogramming and iPSC generation from primary cells of healthy donors and patient samples, using both integrative and non-integrative methods. Moreover, CM272 facilitates the generation of human iPSC with only two factors allowing the removal of the most potent oncogenic factor cMYC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mechanistically, treatment with CM272 induces heterochromatin relaxation, facilitates the engagement of OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors to OSKM refractory binding regions that are required for iPSC establishment, and enhances mesenchymal to epithelial transition during the early phase of cell reprogramming. Thus, the use of this new G9a/DNMT reversible dual inhibitor compound may represent an interesting alternative for improving cell reprogramming and human iPSC derivation for many different applications while providing interesting insights into reprogramming mechanisms.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Genoma Humano , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Oncotarget ; 8(42): 71709-71724, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069740

RESUMO

Although T regulatory cells (Treg) are essential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases, their immunoregulatory function restrains the induction of immune responses against cancer. Thus, development of inhibitors of FOXP3, a key transcription factor for the immunosuppressive activity of Treg, might give new therapeutic opportunities. In a previous work we identified a peptide (named P60) able to enter into the cells, bind to FOXP3, and impair Treg activity in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that P60 binds to the intermediate region of FOXP3 and inhibits its homodimerization as well as its interaction with the transcription factor AML1. Alanine-scanning of P60 revealed the relevance of each position on FOXP3 binding, homodimerization, association with AML1 and inhibition of Treg activity. Introduction of alanine at positions 2, 5 and 11 improved the activity of the original P60, whereas alanine mutations at positions 1, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 were detrimental. Multiple mutation experiments allowed us to identify peptides with higher FOXP3 binding affinity and stronger biological activity than the original P60. Head to tail macrocyclization of peptide P60-D2A-S5A improved Treg inhibition and enhanced anti-tumor activity of anti-PD1 antibodies in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Introduction of a D-aminoacid at position 2 augmented significantly microsomal stability while maintained FOXP3 binding capacity and Treg inhibition in vitro. In vivo, when combined with the cytotoxic T-cell epitope AH1, it induced protection against CT26 tumor implantation. This study provides important structure-function relationships essential for further drug design to inhibit Treg cells in cancer.

20.
Mol Cell Oncol ; 4(4): e1342748, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868353

RESUMO

Epigenetic drug discovery is an emerging strategy for the treatment of cancer and other pathologies. Here, we discuss our recent discovery of first-in-class dual reversible inhibitors of the histone methyltransferase activity of G9a/EHMT2 and DNA methyltransferases showing in vivo efficacy in human tumors. Current and future investigation lines are presented.

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