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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 960, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075960

RESUMO

The functional organization of the hippocampus is distributed as a gradient along its longitudinal axis that explains its differential interaction with diverse brain systems. We show that the location of human tissue samples extracted along the longitudinal axis of the adult human hippocampus can be predicted within 2mm using the expression pattern of less than 100 genes. Futhermore, this model generalizes to an external set of tissue samples from prenatal human hippocampi. We examine variation in this specific gene expression pattern across the whole brain, finding a distinct anterioventral-posteriodorsal gradient. We find frontal and anterior temporal regions involved in social and motivational behaviors, and more functionally connected to the anterior hippocampus, to be clearly differentiated from posterior parieto-occipital regions involved in visuospatial cognition and more functionally connected to the posterior hippocampus. These findings place the human hippocampus at the interface of two major brain systems defined by a single molecular gradient.

2.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091549

RESUMO

Importance: Better understanding is needed of the degree to which individuals tolerate Alzheimer disease (AD)-like pathological tau with respect to brain structure (brain resilience) and cognition (cognitive resilience). Objective: To examine the demographic (age, sex, and educational level), genetic (APOE-ε4 status), and neuroimaging (white matter hyperintensities and cortical thickness) factors associated with interindividual differences in brain and cognitive resilience to tau positron emission tomography (PET) load and to changes in global cognition over time. Design, Setting, an Participants: In this cross-sectional, longitudinal study, tau PET was performed from June 1, 2014, to November 30, 2017, and global cognition monitored for a mean [SD] interval of 2.0 [1.8] years at 3 dementia centers in South Korea, Sweden, and the United States. The study included amyloid-ß-positive participants with mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia. Data analysis was performed from October 26, 2018, to December 11, 2019. Exposures: Standard dementia screening, cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, amyloid-ß PET and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and flortaucipir (tau) labeled with fluor-18 (18F) PET. Main Outcomes and Measures: Separate linear regression models were performed between whole cortex [18F]flortaucipir uptake and cortical thickness, and standardized residuals were used to obtain a measure of brain resilience. The same procedure was performed for whole cortex [18F]flortaucipir uptake vs Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as a measure of cognitive resilience. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression models were conducted with age, sex, educational level, APOE-ε4 status, white matter hyperintensity volumes, and cortical thickness as independent variables and brain and cognitive resilience measures as dependent variables. Linear mixed models were performed to examine whether changes in MMSE scores over time differed as a function of a combined brain and cognitive resilience variable. Results: A total of 260 participants (145 [55.8%] female; mean [SD] age, 69.2 [9.5] years; mean [SD] MMSE score, 21.9 [5.5]) were included in the study. In multivariable models, women (standardized ß = -0.15, P = .02) and young patients (standardized ß = -0.20, P = .006) had greater brain resilience to pathological tau. Higher educational level (standardized ß = 0.23, P < .001) and global cortical thickness (standardized ß = 0.23, P < .001) were associated with greater cognitive resilience to pathological tau. Linear mixed models indicated a significant interaction of brain resilience × cognitive resilience × time on MMSE (ß [SE] = -0.235 [0.111], P = .03), with steepest slopes for individuals with both low brain and cognitive resilience. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study suggest that women and young patients with AD have relative preservation of brain structure when exposed to neocortical pathological tau. Interindividual differences in resilience to pathological tau may be important to disease progression because participants with both low brain and cognitive resilience had the most rapid cognitive decline over time.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(524)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894103

RESUMO

ß-Amyloid plaques and tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles are the two neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are thought to play crucial roles in a neurodegenerative cascade leading to dementia. Both lesions can now be visualized in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers, opening new opportunities to study disease mechanisms and improve patients' diagnostic and prognostic evaluation. In a group of 32 patients at early symptomatic AD stages, we tested whether ß-amyloid and tau-PET could predict subsequent brain atrophy measured using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging acquired at the time of PET and 15 months later. Quantitative analyses showed that the global intensity of tau-PET, but not ß-amyloid-PET, signal predicted the rate of subsequent atrophy, independent of baseline cortical thickness. Additional investigations demonstrated that the specific distribution of tau-PET signal was a strong indicator of the topography of future atrophy at the single patient level and that the relationship between baseline tau-PET and subsequent atrophy was particularly strong in younger patients. These data support disease models in which tau pathology is a major driver of local neurodegeneration and highlight the relevance of tau-PET as a precision medicine tool to help predict individual patient's progression and design future clinical trials.

4.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904765

RESUMO

Importance: Biomarkers for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are currently lacking. The radiotracer fluorine F 18-labeled (18F)-flortaucipir (FTP) detects tau pathology in Alzheimer disease, and positron emission tomography (PET) with FTP shows elevated binding in individuals at risk for CTE. No study, however, has assessed the correlation between in vivo FTP PET and postmortem tau in CTE. Objective: To assess the regional association between in vivo FTP binding and postmortem tau pathology in a patient with pathologically confirmed CTE. Design, Setting, and Participants: A white male former National Football League player with 17 years of US football exposure was clinically diagnosed with traumatic encephalopathy syndrome at a neurology tertiary referral center. 18F-Fludeoxyglucose, carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B, and FTP PET were performed 52 months prior to death, and magnetic resonance imaging, 50 months prior to death. Brain images were assessed qualitatively for abnormalities blinded to autopsy data. Autopsy was performed using a neurodegenerative research protocol. The FTP standardized uptake value ratios (inferior cerebellar gray reference region) and W-score (age-adjusted z-score) maps were compared with phosphorylated tau immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibody CP13. Main Outcomes and Measures: Qualitative and quantitative comparisons between antemortem FTP PET and tau pathology at autopsy. Results: Flortaucipir uptake was distributed in a patchy, frontotemporal-predominant pattern that overlapped with regions showing neurodegeneration on magnetic resonance imaging and hypometabolism on 18F-fludeoxyglucose PET. Pathological assessment revealed stage 4 CTE; limbic argyrophilic grain disease; stage 2 limbic-predominant, age-related transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 encephalopathy; and Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage 3. 18F-Flortaucipir W-maps matched areas of high postmortem tau burden in left fusiform and inferior temporal gyri and juxtacortical frontal white matter. High FTP W-scores with low tau burden were found in the basal ganglia, thalamus, motor cortex, and calcarine cortex. No regions with low FTP W-scores corresponded to areas with high pathological tau burden. A modest correlation, which did not reach statistical significance (ρ = 0.35, P = .17), was found between FTP standardized uptake value ratio and tau area fraction at the regional level. Conclusions and Relevance: In this patient, FTP PET findings during life showed a modest correspondence with postmortem pathology in CTE. These findings suggest that FTP may have limited utility as a tau biomarker in CTE.

6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated plasma proteomic markers of astrocytopathy, brain degeneration, plasticity, and inflammation in sporadic early-onset versus late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD and LOAD). METHODS: Plasma was analyzed using ultra-sensitive immuno-based assays from 33 EOAD, 30 LOAD, and 36 functionally normal older adults. RESULTS: Principle component analyses identified 3 factors: trophic (BDNF, VEGF, TGFß), degenerative (GFAP, NfL), and inflammatory (TNFα, IL-6, IP-10, IL-10). Trophic factor was elevated in both AD groups and associated with cognition and gray matter volumes. Degenerative factor was elevated in EOAD, with higher levels associated with worse functioning in this group. Biomarkers of inflammation were not significantly different between groups and were only associated with age. DISUCSSION: Plasma proteomic biomarkers provide novel means of investigating molecular processes in vivo and their contributions to clinical outcomes. We present initial investigations of several of these fluid biomarkers, capturing aspects of astrocytopathy, neuronal injury, cellular plasticity, and inflammation in EOAD versus LOAD.

7.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860018

RESUMO

Importance: Individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex can develop a progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome known as tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. Tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders symptoms overlap with clinical criteria for frontotemporal dementia, yet the association between the 2 has not been explored. Objective: To investigate the potential association between tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders and frontotemporal dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case-control study that enrolled patients with tuberous sclerosis complex with normal IQs in an observational clinical study at the University of California, San Francisco, from 2017 to 2019 where they underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation including neuropsychologic testing, cerebral spinal fluid biomarker profiling, and structural neuroimaging. The study included adults who fulfilled the clinical criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex and had normal IQs, had frontotemporal dementia, or were healthy control individuals. Main Outcomes and Measures: Tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders checklist severity score, neuropsychologic test scores, cerebral spinal fluid concentrations of phosphorylated tau181, total tau, amyloid-ß 42, and neurofilament light chain. Amyloid and tau positron emission tomography scans were obtained in a subset of patients. Results: Eighteen patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (mean [SD] age, 48 years [9.54]; 13 women [72%]), 16 with frontotemporal dementia (60 [6.93] years; 7 women [44%]) and 18 healthy control individuals (63 [3.85] years; 9 women [50%]) were included. The tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders checklist and neuropsychological test results were not significantly different when the tuberous sclerosis complex and frontotemporal dementia cohorts were compared. The tuberous sclerosis complex cohort exhibited elevated cerebral spinal fluid phosphorylated tau181 and neurofilament light chain with a mean of 32 pg/mL and 2300 pg/mL, respectively, when compared to healthy control individuals. All 3 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex who underwent fluorine 1B-labeled flortaucipir tau positron emission tomographic neuroimaging showed punctate foci of elevated [18F]flortaucipir binding in the frontal and temporal regions. Conclusions and Relevance: Adults with tuberous sclerosis complex showed phenotypic overlap with frontotemporal dementia. The results support a possible clinical continuum between tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders and frontotemporal dementia and highlights a potential pathophysiological link between neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. Quantitative neuropsychological testing and the tuberous sclerosis-associated neuropsychiatric disorders checklist, potentially supplemented by cerebral spinal fluid and imaging biomarkers, could be used to screen and prognosticate for risk of a neurodegenerative process in adult patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.

8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 102025, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize individual and group-level neuroimaging findings in patients at risk for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). METHODS: Eleven male patients meeting criteria for Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome (TES, median age: 64) underwent neurologic evaluation, 3-Tesla MRI, and PET with [18F]-Flortaucipir (FTP, tau-PET) and [11C]-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB, amyloid-PET). Six patients underwent [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (FDG, glucose metabolism). We assessed imaging findings at the individual patient level, and in group-level comparisons with modality-specific groups of cognitively normal older adults (CN). Tau-PET findings in patients with TES were also compared to a matched group of patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). RESULTS: All patients with TES sustained repetitive head injury participating in impact sports, ten in American football. Three patients met criteria for dementia and eight had mild cognitive impairment. Two patients were amyloid-PET positive and harbored the most severe MRI atrophy, FDG hypometabolism, and FTP-tau PET binding. Among the nine amyloid-negative patients, tau-PET showed either mildly elevated frontotemporal binding, a "dot-like" pattern, or no elevated binding. Medial temporal FTP was mildly elevated in a subset of amyloid-negative patients, but values were considerably lower than in AD. Voxelwise analyses revealed a convergence of imaging abnormalities (higher FTP binding, lower FDG, lower gray matter volumes) in frontotemporal areas in TES compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated tau-PET binding was observed in a subset of amyloid-negative patients at risk for CTE, in a distribution consistent with CTE pathology stages III-IV. FTP-PET may be useful as a biomarker of tau pathology in CTE but is unlikely to be sensitive to early disease stages.

9.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Differential patterns of brain atrophy on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed four reproducible subtypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD): (1) "typical", (2) "limbic-predominant", (3) "hippocampal-sparing", and (4) "mild atrophy". We examined the neurobiological characteristics and clinical progression of these atrophy-defined subtypes. METHODS: The four subtypes were replicated using a clustering method on MRI data in 260 amyloid-ß-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment or AD dementia, and we subsequently tested whether the subtypes differed on [18F]flortaucipir (tau) positron emission tomography, white matter hyperintensity burden, and rate of global cognitive decline. RESULTS: Voxel-wise and region-of-interest analyses revealed the greatest neocortical tau load in hippocampal-sparing (frontoparietal-predominant) and typical (temporal-predominant) patients, while limbic-predominant patients showed particularly high entorhinal tau. Typical patients with AD had the most pronounced white matter hyperintensity load, and hippocampal-sparing patients showed the most rapid global cognitive decline. DISCUSSION: Our data suggest that structural MRI can be used to identify biologically and clinically meaningful subtypes of AD.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710340

RESUMO

Importance: Basket-design clinical trials that allow investigation of treatment effects on different clinical syndromes that share the same molecular pathophysiology have not previously been attempted in neurodegenerative disease. Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of the microtubule stabilizer TPI-287 (abeotaxane) in Alzheimer disease (AD) or the 4-repeat tauopathies (4RT) progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Design, Setting, and Participants: Two parallel-design, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 randomized clinical trials in AD and 4RT were conducted from December 20, 2013, through May 4, 2017, at the University of California, San Francisco, and University of Alabama at Birmingham. A total of 94 patients with clinically diagnosed AD (n = 39) and 4RT (n = 55) were screened; of these, 3 refused to participate, and 10 with AD and 11 with 4RT did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of 29 patients with AD, 14 with PSP, and 30 with ß-amyloid-negative CBS (determined on positron emission tomography findings) were enrolled. Data were analyzed from December 20, 2013, through May 4, 2017, based on modified intention to treat. Interventions: Randomization was 8:3 drug to placebo in 3 sequential dose cohorts receiving 2.0, 6.3, or 20.0 mg/m2 of intravenous TPI-287 once every 3 weeks for 9 weeks, with an optional 6-week open-label extension. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end points were safety and tolerability (maximal tolerated dose) of TPI-287. Secondary and exploratory end points included TPI-287 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and changes on biomarker, clinical, and neuropsychology measures. Results: A total of 68 participants (38 men [56%]; median age, 65 [range, 50-85] years) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, of whom 26 had AD (14 women [54%]; median age, 63 [range, 50-76] years), and 42 had 4RT (16 women [38%]; median age, 69 [range, 54-83] years). Three severe anaphylactoid reactions occurred in TPI-287-treated patients with AD, whereas none were seen in patients with 4RT, leading to a maximal tolerated dose of 6.3 mg/m2 for AD and 20.0 mg/m2 for 4RT. More falls (3 in the placebo group vs 11 in the TPI-287 group) and a dose-related worsening of dementia symptoms (mean [SD] in the CDR plus NACC FTLD-SB [Clinical Dementia Rating scale sum of boxes with frontotemporal dementia measures], 0.5 [1.8] in the placebo group vs 0.7 [1.6] in the TPI-287 group; median difference, 1.5 [95% CI, 0-2.5]; P = .03) were seen in patients with 4RT. Despite undetectable TPI-287 levels in CSF, CSF biomarkers demonstrated decreased chitinase-3-like protein-1 (YKL-40) levels in the 4RT treatment arm (mean [SD], -8.4 [26.0] ng/mL) compared with placebo (mean [SD], 10.4 [42.3] ng/mL; median difference, -14.6 [95% CI, -30.0 to 0.2] ng/mL; P = .048, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, TPI-287 was less tolerated in patients with AD than in those with 4RT owing to the presence of anaphylactoid reactions. The ability to reveal different tau therapeutic effects in various tauopathy syndromes suggests that basket trials are a valuable approach to tau therapeutic early clinical development. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT019666666 and NCT02133846.

11.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2467-2468, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237635
12.
Brain ; 142(8): 2492-2509, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199481

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease researchers have been intrigued by the selective regional vulnerability of the brain to amyloid-ß plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. Post-mortem studies indicate that in ageing and Alzheimer's disease tau tangles deposit early in the transentorhinal cortex, a region located in the anterior-temporal lobe that is critical for object memory. In contrast, amyloid-ß pathology seems to target a posterior-medial network that subserves spatial memory. In the current study, we tested whether anterior-temporal and posterior-medial brain regions are selectively vulnerable to tau and amyloid-ß deposition in the progression from ageing to Alzheimer's disease and whether this is reflected in domain-specific behavioural deficits and neural dysfunction. 11C-PiB PET and 18F-flortaucipir uptake was quantified in a sample of 131 cognitively normal adults (age: 20-93 years; 47 amyloid-ß-positive) and 20 amyloid-ß-positive patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease dementia (65-95 years). Tau burden was relatively higher in anterior-temporal regions in normal ageing and this difference was further pronounced in the presence of amyloid-ß and cognitive impairment, indicating exacerbation of ageing-related processes in Alzheimer's disease. In contrast, amyloid-ß deposition dominated in posterior-medial regions. A subsample of 50 cognitively normal older (26 amyloid-ß-positive) and 25 young adults performed an object and scene memory task while functional MRI data were acquired. Group comparisons showed that tau-positive (n = 18) compared to tau-negative (n = 32) older adults showed lower mnemonic discrimination of object relative to scene images [t(48) = -3.2, P = 0.002]. In a multiple regression model including regional measures of both pathologies, higher anterior-temporal flortaucipir (tau) was related to relatively worse object performance (P = 0.010, r = -0.376), whereas higher posterior-medial PiB (amyloid-ß) was related to worse scene performance (P = 0.037, r = 0.309). The functional MRI data revealed that tau burden (but not amyloid-ß) was associated with increased task activation in both systems and a loss of functional specificity, or dedifferentiation, in posterior-medial regions. The loss of functional specificity was related to worse memory. Our study shows a regional dissociation of Alzheimer's disease pathologies to distinct memory networks. While our data are cross-sectional, they indicate that with ageing, tau deposits mainly in the anterior-temporal system, which results in deficits in mnemonic object discrimination. As Alzheimer's disease develops, amyloid-ß deposits preferentially in posterior-medial regions additionally compromising scene discrimination and anterior-temporal tau deposition worsens further. Finally, our findings propose that the progression of tau pathology is linked to aberrant activation and dedifferentiation of specialized memory networks that is detrimental to memory function.

13.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(4): 597-612, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250152

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) extends well beyond the classic amnestic-predominant syndrome. The previous studies have suggested differential neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) burden between amnestic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia presentations of AD. In this study, we explored the regional distribution of NFT pathology and its relationship to AD presentation across five different clinical syndromes. We assessed NFT density throughout six selected neocortical and hippocampal regions using thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy in a well-characterized clinicopathological cohort of pure AD cases enriched for atypical clinical presentations. Subjects underwent apolipoprotein E genotyping and neuropsychological testing. Main cognitive domains (executive, visuospatial, language, and memory function) were assessed using an established composite z score. Our results showed that NFT regional burden aligns with the clinical presentation and region-specific cognitive scores. Cortical, but not hippocampal, NFT burden was higher among atypical clinical variants relative to the amnestic syndrome. In analyses of specific clinical variants, logopenic primary progressive aphasia showed higher NFT density in the superior temporal gyrus (p = 0.0091), and corticobasal syndrome showed higher NFT density in the primary motor cortex (p = 0.0205) relative to the amnestic syndrome. Higher NFT burden in the angular gyrus and CA1 sector of the hippocampus were independently associated with worsening visuospatial dysfunction. In addition, unbiased hierarchical clustering based on regional NFT densities identified three groups characterized by a low overall NFT burden, high overall burden, and cortical-predominant burden, respectively, which were found to differ in sex ratio, age, disease duration, and clinical presentation. In comparison, the typical, hippocampal sparing, and limbic-predominant subtypes derived from a previously proposed algorithm did not reproduce the same degree of clinical relevance in this sample. Overall, our results suggest domain-specific functional consequences of regional NFT accumulation. Mapping these consequences presents an opportunity to increase understanding of the neuropathological framework underlying atypical clinical manifestations.

14.
Brain ; 142(7): 2082-2095, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219516

RESUMO

Posterior cortical atrophy is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing and atrophy of posterior brain regions. With the majority of cases attributable to Alzheimer's disease and recent evidence for genetic risk factors specifically related to posterior cortical atrophy, the syndrome can provide important insights into selective vulnerability and phenotypic diversity. The present study describes the first major longitudinal investigation of posterior cortical atrophy disease progression. Three hundred and sixty-one individuals (117 posterior cortical atrophy, 106 typical Alzheimer's disease, 138 controls) fulfilling consensus criteria for posterior cortical atrophy-pure and typical Alzheimer's disease were recruited from three centres in the UK, Spain and USA. Participants underwent up to six annual assessments involving MRI scans and neuropsychological testing. We constructed longitudinal trajectories of regional brain volumes within posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease using differential equation models. We compared and contrasted the order in which regional brain volumes become abnormal within posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease using event-based models. We also examined trajectories of cognitive decline and the order in which different cognitive tests show abnormality using the same models. Temporally aligned trajectories for eight regions of interest revealed distinct (P < 0.002) patterns of progression in posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy showed early occipital and parietal atrophy, with subsequent higher rates of temporal atrophy and ventricular expansion leading to tissue loss of comparable extent later. Hippocampal, entorhinal and frontal regions underwent a lower rate of change and never approached the extent of posterior cortical involvement. Patients with typical Alzheimer's disease showed early hippocampal atrophy, with subsequent higher rates of temporal atrophy and ventricular expansion. Cognitive models showed tests sensitive to visuospatial dysfunction declined earlier in posterior cortical atrophy than typical Alzheimer's disease whilst tests sensitive to working memory impairment declined earlier in typical Alzheimer's disease than posterior cortical atrophy. These findings indicate that posterior cortical atrophy and typical Alzheimer's disease have distinct sites of onset and different profiles of spatial and temporal progression. The ordering of disease events both motivates investigation of biological factors underpinning phenotypic heterogeneity, and informs the selection of measures for clinical trials in posterior cortical atrophy.

15.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077982

RESUMO

According to the network model of neurodegeneration, the spread of pathogenic proteins occurs selectively along connected brain regions. We tested in vivo whether the distribution of filamentous tau (measured with [18F]flortaucipir-PET), fibrillar amyloid-ß ([11C]PIB-PET) and glucose hypometabolism ([18F]FDG-PET) follows the intrinsic functional organization of the healthy brain. We included 63 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; 30 male, 63 ±â€¯8 years) who underwent [18F]flortaucipir, [11C]PIB and [18F]FDG PET, and 1000 young adults (427 male, 21 ±â€¯3 years) who underwent task-free fMRI. We selected six predefined disease epicenters as seeds for whole-brain voxelwise covariance analyses to compare correlated patterns of tracer uptake across AD patients against fMRI intrinsic connectivity patterns in young adults. We found a striking convergence between [18F]flortaucipir covariance patterns and intrinsic connectivity maps (range Spearman rho's: 0.32-0.78, p < .001), which corresponded with expected functional networks (range goodness-of-fit: 3.8-8.2). The topography of amyloid-ß covariance patterns was more diffuse and less network-specific, while glucose hypometabolic patterns were more spatially restricted than tau but overlapped with functional networks. These findings suggest that the spatial patterns of tau and glucose hypometabolism observed in AD resemble the functional organization of the healthy brain, supporting the notion that tau pathology spreads through circumscribed brain networks and drives neurodegeneration.

16.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(7): 809-817, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135820

RESUMO

Importance: Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) is a rare form of Alzheimer disease (AD) with a large genetic basis that is only partially understood. In late-onset AD, elevated circulating cholesterol levels increase AD risk even after adjusting for the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE E4) allele, a major genetic factor for AD and elevated cholesterol levels; however, the role of circulating cholesterol levels in EOAD is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between circulating cholesterol levels and EOAD and to identify genetic variants underlying this possible association. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, plasma cholesterol levels were directly measured in 267 samples from the AD research centers (ADRCs) of Emory University and University of California, San Francisco, collected from January 21, 2009, through August 21, 2014. The association between cholesterol and EOAD was examined using multiple linear regression. To determine the underlying genetic variants, APOB, APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 were sequenced in samples from 2125 EOAD cases and controls recruited from 29 ADRCs from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 2015. Data were analyzed from November 23, 2016, through April 10, 2018. Exposures: Clinical diagnosis, age at clinical diagnosis, plasma cholesterol measures (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B), and genetic variants in APOE, APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and APOB. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the association between EOAD and plasma cholesterol measures. The secondary outcome was the association between EOAD and the burden of genetic variants in APOB. Results: Of the 2125 samples that underwent genetic sequencing, 1276 were from women (60.0%) and 654 (30.8%) were from patients with EOAD (mean [SD] ages, 55.6 [4.3] years for cases and 72.0 [9.6] years for controls). APOE E4 explained 10.1% of the variance of EOAD. After controlling for APOE E4, EOAD cases had higher levels of total cholesterol (mean difference [SE], 21.9 [5.2] mg/dL; P = 2.9 × 10-5), LDL-C (mean difference [SE], 22.0 [4.5] mg/dL; P = 1.8 × 10-6), and ApoB (mean difference [SE], 12.0 [2.4] mg/dL; P = 2.0 × 10-6) than controls in 267 frozen samples. Approximately 3% of EOAD cases carried known AD-causing mutations. Gene-based rare variant burden testing in 2066 samples showed that rare APOB coding variants were significantly more abundant in EOAD cases after adjusting for sex, APOE E4, genetic principal components, ADRC center, and batch (effect size, 0.20; P = 4.20 × 10-4). Conclusions and Relevance: Elevated LDL-C levels were associated with higher probability of having EOAD, and EOAD cases were enriched for rare coding variants in APOB, which codes for the major protein of LDL-C. Collectively, these novel findings highlight the important role of LDL-C in EOAD pathogenesis and suggest a direct link of APOB variants to AD risk.

17.
JAMA ; 321(13): 1286-1294, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938796

RESUMO

Importance: Amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) detects amyloid plaques in the brain, a core neuropathological feature of Alzheimer disease. Objective: To determine if amyloid PET is associated with subsequent changes in the management of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia of uncertain etiology. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Imaging Dementia-Evidence for Amyloid Scanning (IDEAS) study was a single-group, multisite longitudinal study that assessed the association between amyloid PET and subsequent changes in clinical management for Medicare beneficiaries with MCI or dementia. Participants were required to meet published appropriate use criteria stating that etiology of cognitive impairment was unknown, Alzheimer disease was a diagnostic consideration, and knowledge of PET results was expected to change diagnosis and management. A total of 946 dementia specialists at 595 US sites enrolled 16 008 patients between February 2016 and September 2017. Patients were followed up through January 2018. Dementia specialists documented their diagnosis and management plan before PET and again 90 (±30) days after PET. Exposures: Participants underwent amyloid PET at 343 imaging centers. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was change in management between the pre- and post-PET visits, as assessed by a composite outcome that included Alzheimer disease drug therapy, other drug therapy, and counseling about safety and future planning. The study was powered to detect a 30% or greater change in the MCI and dementia groups. One of 2 secondary end points is reported: the proportion of changes in diagnosis (from Alzheimer disease to non-Alzheimer disease and vice versa) between pre- and post-PET visits. Results: Among 16 008 registered participants, 11 409 (71.3%) completed study procedures and were included in the analysis (median age, 75 years [interquartile range, 71-80]; 50.9% women; 60.5% with MCI). Amyloid PET results were positive in 3817 patients with MCI (55.3%) and 3154 patients with dementia (70.1%). The composite end point changed in 4159 of 6905 patients with MCI (60.2% [95% CI, 59.1%-61.4%]) and 2859 of 4504 patients with dementia (63.5% [95% CI, 62.1%-64.9%]), significantly exceeding the 30% threshold in each group (P < .001, 1-sided). The etiologic diagnosis changed from Alzheimer disease to non-Alzheimer disease in 2860 of 11 409 patients (25.1% [95% CI, 24.3%-25.9%]) and from non-Alzheimer disease to Alzheimer disease in 1201 of 11 409 (10.5% [95% CI, 10.0%-11.1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among Medicare beneficiaries with MCI or dementia of uncertain etiology evaluated by dementia specialists, the use of amyloid PET was associated with changes in clinical management within 90 days. Further research is needed to determine whether amyloid PET is associated with improved clinical outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02420756.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência/diagnóstico por imagem , Nootrópicos/uso terapêutico , Placa Amiloide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Amiloide , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Medicare , Estados Unidos
18.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 13, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tau positron emission tomography (PET) ligand 18F-flortaucipir binds to paired helical filaments of tau in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its utility in detecting tau aggregates in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is uncertain. METHODS: We performed 18F-flortaucipir imaging in patients with the FTD syndromes (n = 45): nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) (n = 11), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) (n = 10), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 10), semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) (n = 2) and FTD associated pathogenic genetic mutations microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) (n = 6), chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) (n = 5), and progranulin (GRN) (n = 1). All patients underwent MRI and ß-amyloid biomarker testing via 11C-PiB or cerebrospinal fluid. 18F-flortaucipir uptake in patients was compared to 53 ß-amyloid negative normal controls using voxelwise and pre-specified region of interest approaches. RESULTS: On qualitative assessment, patients with nfvPPA showed elevated 18F-flortacupir binding in the left greater than right inferior frontal gyrus. Patients with CBS showed elevated binding in frontal white matter, with higher cortical gray matter uptake in a subset of ß-amyloid-positive patients. Five of ten patients with sporadic bvFTD demonstrated increased frontotemporal binding. MAPT mutation carriers had elevated 18F-flortaucipir retention primarily, but not exclusively, in mutations with Alzheimer's-like neurofibrillary tangles. However, tracer retention was also seen in patients with svPPA, and the mutations C9ORF72, GRN predicted to have TDP-43 pathology. Quantitative region-of-interest differences between patients and controls were seen only in inferior frontal gyrus in nfvPPA and left insula and bilateral temporal poles in MAPT carriers. No significant regional differences were found in CBS or sporadic bvFTD. Two patients underwent postmortem neuropathological examination. A patient with C9ORF72, TDP-43-type B pathology, and incidental co-pathology of scattered neurofibrillary tangles in the middle frontal, inferior temporal gyrus showed corresponding mild 18F-flortaucipir retention without additional uptake matching the widespread TDP-43 type B pathology. A patient with sporadic bvFTD demonstrated punctate inferior temporal and hippocampus tracer retention, corresponding to the area of severe argyrophilic grain disease pathology. CONCLUSIONS: 18F-flortaucipir in patients with FTD and predicted tauopathy or TDP-43 pathology demonstrated limited sensitivity and specificity. Further postmortem pathological confirmation and development of FTD tau-specific ligands are needed.

19.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 25(1): 14-33, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707185

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of late-onset dementia. This article describes the epidemiology, genetic and environmental risk factors, clinical diagnosis, biomarkers, and treatment of late-onset AD, defined by age of onset of 65 years or older. RECENT FINDINGS: An estimated 5.7 million Americans are living with AD dementia, with the number of affected individuals growing rapidly because of an aging population. Vascular risk factors, sleep disorders, and traumatic brain injury are associated with an increased risk of AD, while increased cognitive and physical activity throughout the lifespan reduce the risk of disease. The primary genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. AD typically presents with early and prominent episodic memory loss, although this clinical syndrome is neither sensitive nor specific for underlying AD neuropathology. Emerging CSF and imaging biomarkers can now detect the key neuropathologic features of the disease (amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neurodegeneration) in living people, allowing for characterization of patients based on biological measures. A comprehensive treatment plan for AD includes use of symptomatic medications, optimal treatment of comorbid conditions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, counseling about safety and future planning, and referrals to community resources. SUMMARY: AD is very common in older neurologic patients. Neurologists should set the standard for the diagnosis and care of patients with AD and should be familiar with emerging biomarkers that have transformed AD research and are primed to enter the clinical arena.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Transtornos de Início Tardio/genética , Atividades Cotidianas , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/genética
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