Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 518
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SMART (Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy) is a rare, delayed complication of brain radiation. In this study we wanted to review the spectrum of symptoms, neuroradiological findings, autoimmune status, and outcomes in SMART syndrome patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all consecutive adult patients (≥18 years) diagnosed with SMART syndrome at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between January 1995 and December 2018. RESULTS: We identified 25 unique patients with SMART syndrome and a total of 31 episodes and 15 (60%) were male. The median age at onset was 46 (IQR 43-55) years and the median latency of onset after the initial radiation was 21.6 (IQR 14.4-28.2) years. MRI showed gyral edema and enhancement in all cases with the temporal 25(80.6%) and parietal 23(74.2%) lobes being the most commonly affected. The median follow up of the patients in our cohort was 10(IQR 6-32) weeks. On univariate analyses, factors associated with an increased risk of recurrent SMART episodes were female gender [Odds Ratio (OR) 8.1 (95% CI 1.1-52.6), p=0.019] and absence of electrographic seizure discharges during initial symptoms [OR 7.4(95% CI 1.1-45.9), p=0.032]. We could not identify an autoimmune etiology. Longer duration of symptoms (>10 weeks) correlated with an older age (p=0.049), temporal lobe involvement (p<0.001) and diffusion restriction (p=0.043). CONCLUSION: SMART is a syndrome with characteristic imaging findings and clinical features. Incomplete recovery by 10 weeks occurred in one third of individuals and was associated with older age, temporal lobe involvement, and restricted diffusion on the MRI.

2.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide clinical practice recommendations and generate a research agenda on mechanical ventilation and respiratory support in patients with acute brain injury (ABI). METHODS: An international consensus panel was convened including 29 clinician-scientists in intensive care medicine with expertise in acute respiratory failure, neurointensive care, or both, and two non-voting methodologists. The panel was divided into seven subgroups, each addressing a predefined clinical practice domain relevant to patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with ABI, defined as acute traumatic brain or cerebrovascular injury. The panel conducted systematic searches and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method was used to evaluate evidence and formulate questions. A modified Delphi process was implemented with four rounds of voting in which panellists were asked to respond to questions (rounds 1-3) and then recommendation statements (final round). Strong recommendation, weak recommendation, or no recommendation were defined when > 85%, 75-85%, and < 75% of panellists, respectively, agreed with a statement. RESULTS: The GRADE rating was low, very low, or absent across domains. The consensus produced 36 statements (19 strong recommendations, 6 weak recommendations, 11 no recommendation) regarding airway management, non-invasive respiratory support, strategies for mechanical ventilation, rescue interventions for respiratory failure, ventilator liberation, and tracheostomy in brain-injured patients. Several knowledge gaps were identified to inform future research efforts. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus provides guidance for the care of patients admitted to the ICU with ABI. Evidence was generally insufficient or lacking, and research is needed to demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of different management approaches.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185118

RESUMO

Background - An artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm applied to electrocardiography (ECG) during sinus rhythm (SR) has recently been shown to detect concurrent episodic atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to characterize the value of AI-ECG as a predictor of future AF and assess its performance compared to the CHARGE-AF score in a population-based sample. Methods - We calculated the probability of AF using AI-ECG, among participants in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who had no history of AF at the time of the baseline study visit. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to assess the independent prognostic value and interaction between AI-ECG AF model output and CHARGE-AF score. Concordance (C) statistics were calculated for AI-ECG AF model output, CHARGE-AF score and combined AI-ECG and CHARGE-AF score. Results - A total of 1,936 participants with median age 75.8 (interquartile range [IQR] 70.4, 81.8) years and median CHARGE-AF score 14.0 (IQR 13.2, 14.7) were included in the analysis. Participants with AI-ECG AF model output of >0.5 at the baseline visit had cumulative incidence of AF 21.5% at 2 years and 52.2% at 10 years. When included in the same model, both AI-ECG AF model output (hazard ratio [HR] 1.76 per standard deviation (SD) after logit transformation, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51, 2.04) and CHARGE-AF score (HR 1.90 per SD, 95% CI 1.58, 2.28) independently predicted future AF without significant interaction (p=0.54). C statistics were 0.69 (95% CI 0.66, 0.72) for AI-ECG AF model output, 0.69 (95% CI 0.66, 0.71) for CHARGE-AF and 0.72 (95% CI 0.69, 0.75) for combined AI-ECG and CHARGE-AF score. Conclusions - In the present study, both the AI-ECG AF model output and CHARGE-AF score independently predicted incident AF. The AI-ECG may offer a means to assess risk with a single test and without requiring manual or automated clinical data abstraction.

5.
Neurol Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of disability among ICU survivors one year after admission, and which factors influence functional outcome. METHODS: We examined consecutive patients enrolled in the population-based Mayo Clinic Olmsted Study of Aging and then admitted to medical or surgical adult ICUs at Mayo Clinic, Rochester between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014 to determine one-year functional outcomes. RESULTS: 831cases were included. Mean age was 84 years (IQR 79-88). 569 (68.5%) patients were alive one year after ICU admission. Of them, 546 patients had functional assessment at one year and 367 (67.2%) had good functional outcome. On multivariable analysis, poor one-year functional outcome (death or disability) was more common among women, older patients, and patients with baseline cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment or dementia), higher Carlson scores, and longer ICU stay (all P <.01). After excluding deceased patients, these associations remained unchanged. In addition, 120 (32.3%) of 372 patients who had post-ICU cognitive evaluation experienced cognitive decline after the ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: On a population-based cohort of older, predominantly elderly patients, approximately two-thirds of survivors maintained or regained good functional status 1 year after ICU hospitalization. However, older age, female sex, greater comorbidities, abnormal baseline cognition, and longer ICU stay were associated with poor functional recovery and cognitive decline was common.

6.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865551

RESUMO

Importance: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is usually considered a benign event with a low recurrence rate. However, recurrence rates vary considerably among studies and there are no known risk factors for TGA. Objective: To examine risk factors for the recurrence of TGA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study involved medical record review of patients with isolated or recurrent TGA presenting to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, between August 1, 1992, and February 28, 2018. A total of 1491 cases were reviewed and 1044 met diagnostic inclusion criteria for TGA, with the remainder excluded owing to indeterminate or alternate diagnoses or limited information available in the medical record. Exposures: Single vs recurrent episodes of TGA. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographics, precipitating factors, migraine history, imaging and electrodiagnostic findings, and family history of TGA were collected. The main outcome measure was TGA recurrence. Results: Of 1044 included patients, 575 (55.1%) were male, and the mean (SD) age at inclusion was 75.0 (11.5) years. A total of 901 patients (86.3%) had a single episode of TGA and 143 (13.7%) had recurrent episodes of TGA. The 2 groups were similar in age at inclusion, sex, identifiable triggers, and duration of anterograde amnesia. The number of recurrences ranged from 1 to 9, with 137 individuals (95.8%) having 3 or fewer recurrences. The mean (SD) age at first episode of TGA was 65.2 (10.0) years for individuals with a single episode vs 58.8 (10.3) years for those with recurrent episodes (P < .001). There was a personal history of migraine in 180 individuals (20.0%) with a single episode of TGA and 52 individuals (36.4%) with recurrent episodes of TGA (P < .001), and a family history of migraine in 167 individuals (18.5%) with a single episode of TGA and 44 individuals (30.8%) with recurrent episodes of TGA (P = .001). There were no electroencephalographic findings associated with increased risk of TGA recurrence. Acute and subacute temporal lobe abnormalities on results of magnetic resonance imaging were seen rarely and did not require intervention. A family history of TGA was identified in 12 individuals (1.3%) with a single episode of TGA and 4 individuals (2.8%) with recurrent episodes of TGA. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that, in this large cohort of patients with TGA, recurrent TGA was associated with earlier age at the time of first TGA episode and higher prevalence of both personal and family history of migraine compared with isolated cases. These results can be used to counsel patients about risks of recurrence and may have implications for the understanding of TGA pathophysiology.

7.
Semin Neurol ; 40(5): 485-491, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906174

RESUMO

Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a relatively common, but often unrecognized, complication of acute diffuse or multifocal brain diseases, most frequently encountered in young comatose patients with severe traumatic brain injury. It is presumed to be caused by loss of cortical inhibitory modulation of diencephalic and brain stem centers and possible additional maladaptive changes in the spinal cord that combine to produce exaggerated sympathetic responses to stimulation. The syndrome consists of repeated sudden episodes of tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, sweating, and sometimes fever and dystonic posturing. The diagnosis is clinical. Treatment includes reducing any external stimulation that can trigger the episodes, and starting abortive (e.g., intravenous morphine) and preventive medications (e.g., gabapentin, propranolol, clonidine). Prompt and adequate treatment of PSH may reduce the likelihood of secondary complications, such as dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition, and muscle contractures.

8.
Neurocrit Care ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959201

RESUMO

Effective treatment options for patients with life-threatening neurological disorders are limited. To address this unmet need, high-impact translational research is essential for the advancement and development of novel therapeutic approaches in neurocritical care. "The Neurotherapeutics Symposium 2019-Neurological Emergencies" conference, held in Rochester, New York, in June 2019, was designed to accelerate translation of neurocritical care research via transdisciplinary team science and diversity enhancement. Diversity excellence in the neuroscience workforce brings innovative and creative perspectives, and team science broadens the scientific approach by incorporating views from multiple stakeholders. Both are essential components needed to address complex scientific questions. Under represented minorities and women were involved in the organization of the conference and accounted for 30-40% of speakers, moderators, and attendees. Participants represented a diverse group of stakeholders committed to translational research. Topics discussed at the conference included acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, neurogenic respiratory dysregulation, seizures and status epilepticus, brain telemetry, neuroprognostication, disorders of consciousness, and multimodal monitoring. In these proceedings, we summarize the topics covered at the conference and suggest the groundwork for future high-yield research in neurologic emergencies.

11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2090-2098, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of the HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs/alcohol concomitantly) and CHA2DS2-VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes, previous Stroke/transient ischemic attack-VAScular disease) scores among patients on anticoagulation (AC) therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) who have evidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients older than 55 years with a diagnosis of AF who had a nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) while on AC therapy between 1995 and 2016 were identified using the Rochester Epidemiology Project Database. Medical records were reviewed, including imaging of the brain, to identify baseline characteristics, AC use, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients were identified (mean age, 81.3 years); 35 (53.8%) had evidence of possible/probable CAA. Mean HAS-BLED score in the CAA group was significantly lower (2.1) than that of the non-CAA group (2.9; P<.001). Mortality after ICH, adjusted for HAS-BLED scores, was not significantly different among patients with and without CAA. Sixteen patients restarted on AC therapy after ICH; CHA2DS2-VASc scores were no different between this group and those who were not restarted. Among patients with CAA, the overall rate of ICH recurrence was 8.6% over 93.5 person-years of follow-up. Among patients with CAA, the rate of ICH recurrence was 3.2 per 100 patient-years, higher than their HAS-BLED scores would predict (1.9 bleeds/100 patient-years). CONCLUSION: HAS-BLED scores were lower in patients who had evidence of CAA compared with those without, suggesting underestimation of ICH risk in patients with CAA. CHA2DS2-VASc scores did not affect resumption of AC therapy. ICH recurrence was higher in patients with CAA than their HAS-BLED scores predicted. Current risk assessment scoring systems do not accurately account for CAA in patients with AF on AC.

12.
CNS Drugs ; 34(10): 1009-1014, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785891

RESUMO

Tenecteplase offers pharmacological advantages over alteplase, and growing evidence supports its consideration for the treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Its ease of administration as a single bolus makes it a preferable agent for patients who need to be urgently transported to a comprehensive stroke center for endovascular therapy (drip and ship) and for patients first evaluated at comprehensive stroke centers who are eligible for endovascular intervention (combined intravenous and endovascular approach). Recent randomized controlled trials indicated that the efficacy of tenecteplase may be similar to that of alteplase in patients with mild strokes and that it is superior to alteplase for patients with more severe strokes from a large vessel occlusion. Cumulative evidence currently favors the use of the 0.25 mg/kg dose. While tenecteplase has not been approved by regulatory agencies in the USA or the EU for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, ongoing trials and additional clinical experience from countries where it is already being used in practice will likely clarify the role of tenecteplase for the acute management of ischemic stroke in the near future.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(15): e016893, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715895

RESUMO

Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk is higher in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation on antithrombotic therapy as well as those with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We investigated if mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation on antithrombotic therapy presenting with non-traumatic ICH was influenced by underlying CAA. Methods and Results We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 6045 patients with atrial fibrillation aged >55 years on anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy from 1995 to 2016. Seventy-four patients in this cohort presented with non-traumatic ICH. Medical records including imaging data were reviewed to identify those with CAA and record baseline variables and outcomes of interest; 38 of our 74 patients (51.4%) (mean age 81.5 years) met Modified Boston Criteria for possible or probable CAA. Twenty-six of 74 patients (35%) died during the first 30 days while 56 of the 74 (76%) patients died by 10 years follow-up after index ICH. Overall mortality was not significantly different between the CAA and non-CAA groups at any point of time during follow-up (P=0.89) even amongst patients restarted on anticoagulation +/- antiplatelet (n=19) (P=0.46) or those patients restarted only on antiplatelet therapy (n=22) (P=0.66). Three of the 41 patients who restarted on antithrombotic therapy had a recurrent ICH; these 3 patients met criteria for possible or probable CAA. Conclusions Although more than half of our patients with atrial fibrillation on antithrombotic therapy and non-traumatic ICH met Modified Boston Criteria for CAA, CAA did not significantly influence the high mortality seen in this cohort.

14.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) has traditionally discounted the significance of internal carotid artery stenosis of <50%; however, recent studies have examined the role of carotid artery intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) as an etiology in nonstenotic carotid arteries. We performed a systemic review of the literature to determine the prevalence of carotid artery IPH on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the vessel wall in patients with ESUS. METHODS: We used PubMed, Epub ahead of print, Ovid MEDLINE in-process and other non-indexed citations, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Ovid Cochrane database of systematic reviews and Scopus. Our study consisted of all case series with >10 patients with IPH and ESUS published through October 2018. Additionally, we included 123 patients from an institutional database from 2015-2019. Random effects meta-analysis was used for pooling across studies. Meta-analysis results were expressed as odds ratio (OR) with respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 7 studies with 354 patients were included. The mean age was 67.5 years old. The overall prevalence estimate for prevalence of IPH ipsilateral to the ischemic lesion was 25.8% (95% CI 13.1-38.5). The odds of having IPH on the ipsilateral side versus the contralateral side was 6.92 (95% CI 3.04-15.79). CONCLUSION: Patients with ESUS have IPH in the carotid artery ipsilateral to the ischemic stroke in 25.8% of cases. Carotid artery vessel wall MRI should be considered as part of the standard work-up in patients with ESUS.

15.
Neurocrit Care ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute encephalopathy (AE) is a common complication of critical illness and is associated with increased short and long-term mortality. In this study, we evaluated the role of cefepime in causing AE. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study involving consecutive patients enrolled in the intensive care units (ICUs) of Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN between July 1, 2004 and December 31, 2015. AE was defined by the presence of delirium or depressed level of consciousness in the absence of deep sedation. Controls were identified as patients not developing AE and were matched by propensity score for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, 24-h Apache III score and invasive ventilation use. RESULTS: The total number of eligible ICU admissions during our study period was 152,999. AE was present in 57,726 (37.7%) with a median AE duration of 17 (interquartile range [IQR] 4.0-51.8) hours. We matched 14,645 cases with AE with the same number of controls. Cefepime was used in 1241 (4.2%) patients and its use was associated with greater incidence of AE [713 (4.9%) vs 528 (3.6%), p < 0.001] and duration [unit estimate 0.73; (95% CI 0.542-0.918)]. On multivariate analysis, cefepime was associated with an increased likelihood of AE after controlling for shock, midazolam infusion and acute kidney injury [OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.10-1.27)]. These associations were also present after controlling for prior chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: The use of cefepime is associated with increased likelihood and duration of AE. These associations are stronger among patients with impaired renal function, but can also occur in patients without renal impairment.

16.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess if leukoaraiosis severity is associated with outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) following endovascular thrombectomy, and to propose a leukoaraiosis-related modification to the ASPECTS score. METHODS: A retrospective review was completed of AIS patients that underwent mechanical thrombectomy for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion. The primary outcome measure was 90-day mRS. A proposed Leukoaraiosis-ASPECTS ("L-ASPECTS") was calculated by subtracting from the traditional ASPECT based on leukoaraiosis severity (1 point subtracted if mild, 2 if moderate, 3 if severe). L-ASEPCTS score performance was validated using a consecutive cohort of 75 AIS LVO patients. RESULTS: 174 patients were included in this retrospective analysis: average age: 68.0±9.1. 28 (16.1%) had no leukoaraiosis, 66 (37.9%) had mild, 62 (35.6%) had moderate, and 18 (10.3%) had severe. Leukoaraiosis severity was associated with worse 90-day mRS among all patients (P=0.0005). Both L-ASPECTS and ASPECTS were associated with poor outcomes, but the area under the curve (AUC) was higher with L-ASPECTS (P<0.0001 and AUC=0.7 for L-ASPECTS; P=0.04 and AUC=0.59 for ASPECTS). In the validation cohort, the AUC for L-ASPECTS was 0.79 while the AUC for ASPECTS was 0.70. Of patients that had successful reperfusion (mTICI 2b/3), the AUC for traditional ASPECTS in predicting good functional outcome was 0.80: AUC for L-ASPECTS was 0.89. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis severity on pre-mechanical thrombectomy NCCT is associated with worse 90-day outcome in patients with AIS following endovascular recanalization, and is an independent risk factor for worse outcomes. A proposed L-ASPECTS score had stronger association with outcome than the traditional ASPECTS score.

18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1195-1205, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report population age-specific prevalence of core cerebrovascular disease lesions (infarctions, cerebral microbleeds, and white-matter hyperintensities detected with magnetic resonance imaging); estimate cut points for white-matter hyperintensity positivity; investigate sex differences in prevalence; and estimate prevalence of any core cerebrovascular disease features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging aged 50 to 89 years underwent fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2* gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging to assess cerebrovascular disease between October 10, 2011, and September 29, 2017. We characterized each participant as having infarct, normal versus abnormal white-matter hyperintensity, cerebral microbleed, or a combination of lesions. Prevalence of cerebrovascular disease biomarkers was derived through adjustment for nonparticipation and standardization to the population of Olmsted County, Minnesota. RESULTS: Among 1462 participants without dementia (median [range] age, 68 [50 to 89] y; men, 52.7%), core cerebrovascular disease features increased with age. Prevalence (95% CI) of cerebral microbleeds was 13.6% (11.6%-15.6%); infarcts, 11.7% (9.7%-13.8%); and abnormal white-matter hyperintensity, 10.7% (8.7%-12.6%). Infarcts and cerebral microbleeds were more common among men. In contrast, abnormal white-matter hyperintensity was more common among women ages 60 to 79 y and men, ages 80 y and older. Prevalence of any core cerebrovascular disease feature determined by presence of at least one cerebrovascular disease feature increased from 9.5% (ages 50 to 59 y) to 73.8% (ages 80 to 89 y). CONCLUSION: Whereas this study focused on participants without dementia, the high prevalence of cerebrovascular disease imaging lesions in elderly persons makes assignment of clinical relevance to cognition and other downstream manifestations more probabilistic than deterministic.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
19.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 26(4): 396-404, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compare functional outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing embolectomy with either local anesthesia or conscious sedation. Secondarily, identify differences in hemodynamic parameters and complication rates between groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single institution, retrospective review of all acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing embolectomy between January 2014 and July 2018 (n = 185). Patients receiving general anesthesia (n = 27) were excluded. One-hundred and eleven of 158 (70.3%) composed the local anesthesia group, and 47 (29.7%) composed the conscious sedation group. Median age was 71 years (interquartile range 59-79). Seventy-eight (49.4%) were male. The median National Institute of Health stroke scale score was 17.5 (interquartile range 11-21). Hemodynamic, medication, complication, and functional outcome data were collected from the anesthesia protocol and medical records. Good functional outcome was defined as a three-month modified Rankin Scale < 2. A multivariate analysis was performed to estimate the association of anesthesia type on three-month modified Rankin Scale score. RESULTS: Three-month modified Rankin Scale score <2 was similar between groups (p = 0.5). Patients receiving conscious sedation were on average younger than patients receiving local anesthesia (p = 0.01). Conscious sedation patients were more likely to receive intravenous thrombolytic prior to embolectomy (p = 0.025). The complication rate and hemodynamic parameters were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing embolectomy appears to be similar for patients receiving local anesthesia and conscious sedation. This similarity may be beneficial to a future study comparing general anesthesia to local anesthesia and conscious sedation. The use of local anesthesia or conscious sedation does not significantly impact hemodynamic status.

20.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 26(2): 268-286, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224752

RESUMO

EDITOR'S NOTE: The article "Update on Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke" by Dr Rabinstein was first published in the February 2017 Cerebrovascular Disease issue of Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology as "Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke" and has been updated by Dr Rabinstein for this issue at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEWThis article provides an update on the state of the art of the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with particular emphasis on the indications for reperfusion therapy.RECENT FINDINGSIn addition to the previously established indications for intravenous (IV) thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) within 4.5 hours of stroke symptom onset and endovascular therapy with mechanical thrombectomy for patients with large artery occlusion who can be treated within 6 hours of symptom onset, recent randomized controlled trials have now established new indications for emergency reperfusion in patients with wake-up stroke or delayed presentation (up to 24 hours from last known well in the case of mechanical thrombectomy). Identification of patients who may benefit from acute reperfusion therapy within this extended time window requires screening with perfusion brain imaging or, in the case of IV thrombolysis for wake-up strokes, emergency brain MRI. Collateral status and time to reperfusion remain the primary determinants of outcome.SUMMARYTimely successful reperfusion is the most effective treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Recent evidence supports the expansion of the time window for reperfusion treatment in carefully selected patients.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA