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Presse Med ; 48(12): 1507-1519, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767248


Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an old, yet new, option for treatment-resistant depression. Despite several clinical trials over the last 15 years showing a consistent benefit-risk balance of the technic, VNS still struggles to find its place in our therapeutic algorithms. This is especially true in France, where only a few surgeries have been performed nationwide, all in the last year. The reasons behind this lag are manifolds; (1) psychiatrists usually do not consider surgical treatments, even when they are minimally invasive and reversible, (2) early VNS trials stumbled on methodological difficulties that are common to all invasive neurostimulation technics, and initially failed to provide strong evidence for its efficacy, and (3) VNS requires multidisciplinary teams involving psychiatrists and neurosurgeons that did not exist then. Nevertheless, studies of the past twenty years support VNS as a treatment of depression endowed with a unique efficacy profile: a long runner best at maintaining remission in hard-to-stabilize depression, even in the context of ECT withdrawal, and irrespective of whether it is unipolar or bipolar. Thus, VNS potentially addresses the unmet medical needs of some of the most severe and chronic patients with depression. This review aims at introducing VNS as a treatment option for depression, summarizing available evidence for its efficacy and tolerance, and delineating patient profiles that might benefit the most of such treatment.

Depressão/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/efeitos adversos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/tendências
Front Psychiatry ; 8: 244, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225582


Background: Major depression is characterized by (i) a high lifetime prevalence of 16-17% in the general population; (ii) a high frequency of treatment resistance in around 20-30% of cases; (iii) a recurrent or chronic course; (iv) a negative impact on the general functioning and quality of life; and (v) a high level of comorbidity with various psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, high occurrence of completed suicide, significant burden along with the personal, societal, and economic costs. In this context, there is an important need for the development of a network of expert centers for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), as performed under the leadership of the Fondation FondaMental. Methods: The principal mission of this national network is to establish a genuine prevention, screening, and diagnosis policy for TRD to offer a systematic, comprehensive, longitudinal, and multidimensional evaluation of cases. A shared electronic medical file is used referring to a common exhaustive and standardized set of assessment tools exploring psychiatric, non-psychiatric, metabolic, biological, and cognitive dimensions of TRD. This is paralleled by a medico-economic evaluation to examine the global economic burden of the disease and related health-care resource utilization. In addition, an integrated biobank has been built by the collection of serum and DNA samples for the measurement of several biomarkers that could further be associated with the treatment resistance in the recruited depressed patients. A French observational long-term follow-up cohort study is currently in progress enabling the extensive assessment of resistant depressed patients. In those unresponsive cases, each expert center proposes relevant therapeutic options that are classically aligned to the international guidelines referring to recognized scientific societies. Discussion: This approach is expected to improve the overall clinical assessments and to provide evidence-based information to those clinicians most closely involved in the management of TRD thereby facilitating treatment decisions and choice in everyday clinical practice. This could contribute to significantly improve the poor prognosis, the relapsing course, daily functioning and heavy burden of TRD. Moreover, the newly created French network of expert centers for TRD will be particularly helpful for a better characterization of sociodemographic, clinical, neuropsychological, and biological markers of treatment resistance required for the further development of personalized therapeutic strategies in TRD.

Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1791, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176681


The identification of circulating autoantibodies against neuronal receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders has fostered new conceptual and clinical frameworks. However, detection reliability, putative presence in different diseases and in health have raised questions about potential pathogenic mechanism mediated by autoantibodies. Using a combination of single molecule-based imaging approaches, we here ascertain the presence of circulating autoantibodies against glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR-Ab) in about 20% of psychotic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and very few healthy subjects. NMDAR-Ab from patients and healthy subjects do not compete for binding on native receptor. Strikingly, NMDAR-Ab from patients, but not from healthy subjects, specifically alter the surface dynamics and nanoscale organization of synaptic NMDAR and its anchoring partner the EphrinB2 receptor in heterologous cells, cultured neurons and in mouse brain. Functionally, only patients' NMDAR-Ab prevent long-term potentiation at glutamatergic synapses, while leaving NMDAR-mediated calcium influx intact. We unveil that NMDAR-Ab from psychotic patients alter NMDAR synaptic transmission, supporting a pathogenically relevant role.

Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia , Esquizofrenia/imunologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Efrina-B2/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/sangue , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Sinapses/imunologia , Transmissão Sináptica/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 50(3): 258-60, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27540431


A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac (123)I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation. Alzheimer's disease was excluded by a normal (18)F-florbetaben PET/CT. This report suggests a rare case of α-synucleinopathy without brainstem involvement, referred to as "cerebral type" of Lewy body disease.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 231(18): 3663-76, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25038867


INTRODUCTION: Ketamine's efficacy in depressive disorders has been established in several controlled trials. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not ketamine administration significantly improves depressive symptomatology in depression and more specifically in major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depression, resistant depression (non-ECT studies), and as an anesthetic agent in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for resistant depression (ECT studies). Secondary outcomes were the duration of ketamine's effect, the efficacy on suicidal ideations, the existence of a dose effect, and the safety/tolerance of the treatment. METHODS: Studies were included if they met the following criteria (without any language or date restriction): design: randomized controlled trials, intervention: ketamine administration, participants: diagnosis of depression, and evaluation of severity based on a validated scale. We calculated standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for each study. We used fixed and random effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. RESULTS: We included nine non-ECT studies in our quantitative analysis (192 patients with major depressive disorder and 34 patients with bipolar depression). Overall, depression scores were significantly decreased in the ketamine groups compared to those in the control groups (SMD = -0.99; 95 % CI -1.23, -0.75; p < 0.01). Ketamine's efficacy was confirmed in MDD (resistant to previous pharmacological treatments or not) (SMD = -0.91; 95 % CI -1.19,-0.64; p < 0.01), in bipolar depression (SMD = -1.34; 95 % CI -1.94, -0.75), and in drug-free patients as well as patients under medication. Four ECT trials (118 patients) were included in our quantitative analysis. One hundred and three patients were diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 15 with bipolar depression. Overall, depression scores were significantly improved in the 58 patients receiving ketamine in ECT anesthesia induction compared to the 60 patients (SMD = -0.56; 95 % CI -1.10, -0.02; p = 0.04; I2 = 52.4 %). The duration of ketamine's effects was assessed in only two non-ECT studies and seemed to persist for 2-3 days; this result needs to be confirmed. Three of four studies found significant decrease of suicidal thoughts and one found no difference between groups, but suicidal ideations were only studied by the suicide item of the depressive scales. It was not possible to determine a dose effect; 0.5 mg/kg was used in the majority of the studies. Some cardiovascular events were described (mostly transient blood pressure elevation that may require treatment), and ketamine's use should remain cautious in patients with a cardiovascular history. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis confirms ketamine's efficacy in depressive disorders in non-ECT studies, as well as in ECT studies. The results of this first meta-analysis are encouraging, and further studies are warranted to detail efficacy in bipolar disorders and other specific depressed populations. Middle- and long-term efficacy and safety have yet to be explored. Extrapolation should be cautious: Patients included had no history of psychotic episodes and no history of alcohol or substance use disorders, which is not representative of all the depressed patients that may benefit from this therapy.

Anestésicos Dissociativos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Humanos