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1.
Immunity ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562377

RESUMO

Innate-like T cell populations expressing conserved TCRs play critical roles in immunity through diverse developmentally acquired effector functions. Focusing on the prototypical lineage of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, we sought to dissect the mechanisms and timing of fate decisions and functional effector differentiation. Utilizing induced expression of the semi-invariant NKT cell TCR on double positive thymocytes, an initially highly synchronous wave of iNKT cell development was triggered by brief homogeneous TCR signaling. After reaching a uniform progenitor state characterized by IL-4 production potential and proliferation, effector subsets emerged simultaneously, but then diverged toward different fates. While NKT17 specification was quickly completed, NKT1 cells slowly differentiated and expanded. NKT2 cells resembled maturing progenitors, which gradually diminished in numbers. Thus, iNKT subset diversification occurs in dividing progenitor cells without acute TCR input but utilizes multiple active cytokine signaling pathways. These data imply a two-step model of iNKT effector differentiation.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoantigens derived from somatic mutations correlate with therapeutic responses mediated by treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Neoantigens are therefore highly attractive targets for the development of therapeutic approaches in personalized medicine, although many aspects of their quality and associated immune responses are not yet well understood. In a case study of metastatic malignant melanoma, we aimed to perform an in-depth characterization of neoantigens and respective T-cell responses in the context of immune checkpoint modulation. METHODS: Three neoantigens, which we identified either by immunopeptidomics or in silico prediction, were investigated using binding affinity analyses and structural simulations. We isolated seven T-cell receptors (TCRs) from the patient's immune repertoire recognizing these antigens. TCRs were compared in vitro by multiparametric analyses including functional avidity, multicytokine secretion, and cross-reactivity screenings. A xenograft mouse model served to study in vivo functionality of selected TCRs. We investigated the patient's TCR repertoire in blood and different tumor-related tissues over 3 years using TCR beta deep sequencing. RESULTS: Selected mutated peptide ligands with proven immunogenicity showed similar binding affinities to the human leukocyte antigen complex and comparable disparity to their wild-type counterparts in molecular dynamic simulations. Nevertheless, isolated TCRs recognizing these antigens demonstrated distinct patterns in functionality and frequency. TCRs with lower functional avidity showed at least equal antitumor immune responses in vivo. Moreover, they occurred at high frequencies and particularly demonstrated long-term persistence within tumor tissues, lymph nodes and various blood samples associated with a reduced activation pattern on primary in vitro stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We performed a so far unique fine characterization of neoantigen-specific T-cell responses revealing defined reactivity patterns of neoantigen-specific TCRs. Our data highlight qualitative differences of these TCRs associated with function and longevity of respective T cells. Such features need to be considered for further optimization of neoantigen targeting including adoptive T-cell therapies using TCR-transgenic T cells.

3.
Leukemia ; 35(10): 2895-2905, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363012

RESUMO

Aberrant CXCR4 activity has been implicated in lymphoma pathogenesis, disease progression, and resistance to therapies. Using a mouse model with a gain-of-function CXCR4 mutation (CXCR4C1013G) that hyperactivates CXCR4 signaling, we identified CXCR4 as a crucial activator of multiple key oncogenic pathways. CXCR4 hyperactivation resulted in an expansion of transitional B1 lymphocytes, which represent the precursors of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Indeed, CXCR4 hyperactivation led to a significant acceleration of disease onset and a more aggressive phenotype in the murine Eµ-TCL1 CLL model. Hyperactivated CXCR4 signaling cooperated with TCL1 to cause a distinct oncogenic transcriptional program in B cells, characterized by PLK1/FOXM1-associated pathways. In accordance, Eµ-TCL1;CXCR4C1013G B cells enriched a transcriptional signature from patients with Richter's syndrome, an aggressive transformation of CLL. Notably, MYC activation in aggressive lymphoma was associated with increased CXCR4 expression. In line with this finding, additional hyperactive CXCR4 signaling in the Eµ-Myc mouse, a model of aggressive B-cell cancer, did not impact survival. In summary, we here identify CXCR4 hyperactivation as a co-driver of an aggressive lymphoma phenotype.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Promoted by pancreatitis, oncogenic KrasG12D triggers acinar cells' neoplastic transformation through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Anterior gradient 2 (Agr2), a known inhibitor of p53, is detected at early stage of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development. RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a key nuclear enzyme; regulation of its nuclear localization in mammalian cells represents a potential therapeutic target. METHODS: A mouse model of inflammation-accelerated KrasG12D-driven ADM and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia development was used. Pancreas-specific Agr2 ablation was performed to access its role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Hydrophobic hexapeptides loaded in liposomes were developed to disrupt Agr2-RNAPII complex. RESULTS: We found that Agr2 is up-regulated in ADM-to-pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia transition in inflammation and KrasG12D-driven early pancreatic carcinogenesis. Genetic ablation of Agr2 specifically blocks this metaplastic-to-neoplastic process. Mechanistically, Agr2 directs the nuclear import of RNAPII via its C-terminal nuclear localization signal, undermining the ATR-dependent p53 activation in ADM lesions. Because Agr2 binds to the largest subunit of RNAPII in a peptide motif-dependent manner, we developed a hexapeptide to interfere with the nuclear import of RNAPII by competitively disrupting the Agr2-RNAPII complex. This novel hexapeptide leads to dysfunction of RNAPII with concomitant activation of DNA damage response in early neoplastic lesions; hence, it dramatically compromises PDAC initiation in vivo. Moreover, the hexapeptide sensitizes PDAC cells and patient-derived organoids harboring wild-type p53 to RNAPII inhibitors and first-line chemotherapeutic agents in vivo. Of note, this therapeutic effect is efficient across various cancer types. CONCLUSIONS: Agr2 is identified as a novel adaptor protein for nuclear import of RNAPII in mammalian cells. Also, we provide genetic evidence defining Agr2-dependent nuclear import of RNAPII as a pharmaceutically accessible target for prevention and treatment in PDAC in the context of wild-type p53.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(14): 2100626, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306986

RESUMO

Somatic cell reprogramming and tissue repair share relevant factors and molecular programs. Here, Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) is identified as novel factor for organ regeneration using combined transcription-factor-induced reprogramming and RNA-interference techniques. Loss of Dkk3 enhances the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells but does not affect de novo derivation of embryonic stem cells, three-germ-layer differentiation or colony formation capacity of liver and pancreatic organoids. However, DKK3 expression levels in wildtype animals and serum levels in human patients are elevated upon injury. Accordingly, Dkk3-null mice display less liver damage upon acute and chronic failure mediated by increased proliferation in hepatocytes and LGR5+ liver progenitor cell population, respectively. Similarly, recovery from experimental pancreatitis is accelerated. Regeneration onset occurs in the acinar compartment accompanied by virtually abolished canonical-Wnt-signaling in Dkk3-null animals. This results in reduced expression of the Hedgehog repressor Gli3 and increased Hedgehog-signaling activity upon Dkk3 loss. Collectively, these data reveal Dkk3 as a key regulator of organ regeneration via a direct, previously unacknowledged link between DKK3, canonical-Wnt-, and Hedgehog-signaling.

6.
Cancer Discov ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282029

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancer ranks among the most lethal human malignancies, representing an unmet clinical need. Its abysmal prognosis is tied to an increasing incidence and a fundamental lack of mechanistic knowledge regarding the molecular basis of the disease. Here, we show that the Pdx1-positive extrahepatic biliary epithelium is highly susceptible towards transformation by activated Pik3caH1047R, but refractory to oncogenic KrasG12D. Using genome-wide transposon screens and genetic loss-of-function experiments, we discover context-dependent genetic interactions that drive extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) and show that PI3K-signaling output strength and repression of the tumor-suppressor p27Kip1 are critical context-specific determinants of tumor formation. This contrasts the pancreas, where oncogenic Kras in concert with Trp53-loss are key cancer-drivers. Notably, inactivation of p27Kip1 permits KrasG12D-driven ECC development. These studies provide a mechanistic link between PI3K-signaling, tissue-specific tumor suppressor barriers, and ECC pathogenesis, and present a novel genetic model of autochthonous ECC and genes driving this highly lethal tumor-subtype.

7.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 880-892, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099917

RESUMO

Multidimensional single-cell analyses of T cells have fueled the debate about whether there is extensive plasticity or 'mixed' priming of helper T cell subsets in vivo. Here, we developed an experimental framework to probe the idea that the site of priming in the systemic immune compartment is a determinant of helper T cell-induced immunopathology in remote organs. By site-specific in vivo labeling of antigen-specific T cells in inguinal (i) or gut draining mesenteric (m) lymph nodes, we show that i-T cells and m-T cells isolated from the inflamed central nervous system (CNS) in a model of multiple sclerosis (MS) are distinct. i-T cells were Cxcr6+, and m-T cells expressed P2rx7. Notably, m-T cells infiltrated white matter, while i-T cells were also recruited to gray matter. Therefore, we propose that the definition of helper T cell subsets by their site of priming may guide an advanced understanding of helper T cell biology in health and disease.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Encéfalo/imunologia , Linhagem da Célula , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/imunologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Codificadores dos Receptores de Linfócitos T , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Intravital , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/genética , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA-Seq , Receptores CXCR6/genética , Receptores CXCR6/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/transplante , Transcriptoma
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3526, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112805

RESUMO

Current therapeutic approaches for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) focus on the suppression of oncogenic kinase signaling. Here, we test the hypothesis that targeted hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate/AKT (PI3K/AKT)-signaling pathway may be leveraged to trigger CLL cell death. Though counterintuitive, our data show that genetic hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT-signaling or blocking the activity of the inhibitory phosphatase SH2-containing-inositol-5'-phosphatase-1 (SHIP1) induces acute cell death in CLL cells. Our mechanistic studies reveal that increased AKT activity upon inhibition of SHIP1 leads to increased mitochondrial respiration and causes excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in cell death in CLL with immunogenic features. Our results demonstrate that CLL cells critically depend on mechanisms to fine-tune PI3K/AKT activity, allowing sustained proliferation and survival but avoid ROS-induced cell death and suggest transient SHIP1-inhibition as an unexpectedly promising concept for CLL therapy.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/enzimologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno , RNA-Seq , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transplante Homólogo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3346, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099720

RESUMO

Characterizing the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) bound ligandome by mass spectrometry (MS) holds great promise for developing vaccines and drugs for immune-oncology. Still, the identification of non-tryptic peptides presents substantial computational challenges. To address these, we synthesized and analyzed >300,000 peptides by multi-modal LC-MS/MS within the ProteomeTools project representing HLA class I & II ligands and products of the proteases AspN and LysN. The resulting data enabled training of a single model using the deep learning framework Prosit, allowing the accurate prediction of fragment ion spectra for tryptic and non-tryptic peptides. Applying Prosit demonstrates that the identification of HLA peptides can be improved up to 7-fold, that 87% of the proposed proteasomally spliced HLA peptides may be incorrect and that dozens of additional immunogenic neo-epitopes can be identified from patient tumors in published data. Together, the provided peptides, spectra and computational tools substantially expand the analytical depth of immunopeptidomics workflows.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Peptídeos/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Epitopos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligantes , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica
10.
Blood Adv ; 5(9): 2412-2425, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956058

RESUMO

Advances in cancer genomics have revealed genomic classes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by class-defining mutations, such as chimeric fusion genes or in genes such as NPM1, MLL, and CEBPA. These class-defining mutations frequently synergize with internal tandem duplications in FLT3 (FLT3-ITDs) to drive leukemogenesis. However, ∼20% of FLT3-ITD-positive AMLs bare no class-defining mutations, and mechanisms of leukemic transformation in these cases are unknown. To identify pathways that drive FLT3-ITD mutant AML in the absence of class-defining mutations, we performed an insertional mutagenesis (IM) screening in Flt3-ITD mice, using Sleeping Beauty transposons. All mice developed acute leukemia (predominantly AML) after a median of 73 days. Analysis of transposon insertions in 38 samples from Flt3-ITD/IM leukemic mice identified recurrent integrations at 22 loci, including Setbp1 (20/38), Ets1 (11/38), Ash1l (8/38), Notch1 (8/38), Erg (7/38), and Runx1 (5/38). Insertions at Setbp1 led exclusively to AML and activated a transcriptional program similar, but not identical, to those of NPM1-mutant and MLL-rearranged AMLs. Guide RNA targeting of Setbp1 was highly detrimental to Flt3ITD/+/Setbp1IM+, but not to Flt3ITD/+/Npm1cA/+, AMLs. Also, analysis of RNA-sequencing data from hundreds of human AMLs revealed that SETBP1 expression is significantly higher in FLT3-ITD AMLs lacking class-defining mutations. These findings propose that SETBP1 overexpression collaborates with FLT3-ITD to drive a subtype of human AML. To identify genetic vulnerabilities of these AMLs, we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening in Flt3ITD/+/Setbp1IM+ AMLs and identified potential therapeutic targets, including Kdm1a, Brd3, Ezh2, and Hmgcr. Our study gives new insights into epigenetic pathways that can drive AMLs lacking class-defining mutations and proposes therapeutic approaches against such cases.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Doença Aguda , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(8): 1068-1078, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878160

RESUMO

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the main known precursor condition of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). BE is defined by the presence of metaplasia above the normal squamous columnar junction and has mainly been attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease and chronic reflux esophagitis. Thus, the rising incidence of EAC in the Western world is probably mediated by chronic esophageal inflammation, secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease in combination with environmental risk factors such as a Western diet and obesity. However, (at present) risk prediction tools and endoscopic surveillance have shown limited effectiveness. Chemoprevention as an adjunctive approach remains an attractive option to reduce the incidence of neoplastic disease. Here, we investigate the feasibility of chemopreventive approaches in BE and EAC via inhibition of inflammatory signaling in a transgenic mouse model of BE and EAC (L2-IL1B mice), with accelerated tumor formation on a high-fat diet (HFD). L2-IL1B mice were treated with the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) aspirin or Sulindac. Interleukin-1b antagonism reduced tumor progression in L2-IL1B mice with or without a HFD, whereas both NSAIDs were effective chemoprevention agents in the accelerated HFD-fed L2-IL1B mouse model. Sulindac treatment also resulted in a marked change in the immune profile of L2-IL1B mice. In summary, anti-inflammatory treatment of HFD-treated L2-IL1B mice acted protectively on disease progression. These results from a mouse model of BE support results from clinical trials that suggest that anti-inflammatory medication may be effective in the chemoprevention of EAC.

13.
Blood ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908607

RESUMO

Cancer cells are in most instances characterized by rapid proliferation and uncontrolled cell division. Hence, they must adapt to proliferation-induced metabolic stress through intrinsic or acquired anti-metabolic stress responses to maintain homeostasis and survival. One mechanism to achieve this is to reprogram gene expression in a metabolism-dependent manner. MondoA (also known as MLXIP), a member of the MYC interactome, has been described as an example of such a metabolic sensor. However, the role of MondoA in malignancy is not fully understood and the underlying mechanism in metabolic responses remains elusive. By assessing patient data sets we found that MondoA overexpression is associated with a worse survival in pediatric common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Using CRISPR/Cas9 and RNA interference approaches, we observed that MondoA depletion reduces transformational capacity of B-ALL cells in vitro and dramatically inhibits malignant potential in an in vivo mouse model. Interestingly, reduced expression of MondoA in patient data sets correlated with enrichment in metabolic pathways. The loss of MondoA correlated with increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. Mechanistically, MondoA senses metabolic stress in B-ALL cells by restricting oxidative phosphorylation through reduced PDH activity. Glutamine starvation conditions greatly enhance this effect and highlight the inability to mitigate metabolic stress upon loss of MondoA in B-ALL. Our findings give a novel insight into the function of MondoA in pediatric B-ALL and support the notion that MondoA inhibition in this entity offers a therapeutic opportunity and should be further explored.

14.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(6): 1105-1124.e19, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915078

RESUMO

Personalized in vitro models for dysplasia and carcinogenesis in the pancreas have been constrained by insufficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into the exocrine pancreatic lineage. Here, we differentiate hPSCs into pancreatic duct-like organoids (PDLOs) with morphological, transcriptional, proteomic, and functional characteristics of human pancreatic ducts, further maturing upon transplantation into mice. PDLOs are generated from hPSCs inducibly expressing oncogenic GNAS, KRAS, or KRAS with genetic covariance of lost CDKN2A and from induced hPSCs derived from a McCune-Albright patient. Each oncogene causes a specific growth, structural, and molecular phenotype in vitro. While transplanted PDLOs with oncogenic KRAS alone form heterogenous dysplastic lesions or cancer, KRAS with CDKN2A loss develop dedifferentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. In contrast, transplanted PDLOs with mutant GNAS lead to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia-like structures. Conclusively, PDLOs enable in vitro and in vivo studies of pancreatic plasticity, dysplasia, and cancer formation from a genetically defined background.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Organoides , Ductos Pancreáticos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteômica
15.
Pancreatology ; 21(5): 912-919, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncogenic Kras initiates and drives carcinogenesis in the pancreas by complex signaling networks, including activation of the NFκB pathway. Although recent evidence has shown that oncogenic gains in Nfκb2 collaborate with Kras in the carcinogenesis, no data at the level of genetics for the contribution of Nfκb2 is available so far. METHODS: We used Nfkb2 knock-out mice to decipher the role of the gene in Kras-driven carcinogenesis in vivo. RESULTS: We show that the Nfkb2 gene is needed for cancer initiation and progression in KrasG12D-driven models and this requirement of Nfkb2 is mechanistically connected to proliferative pathways. In contrast, Nfκb2 is dispensable in aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) models relying on the simultaneous expression of the Kras oncogene and the mutated tumor suppressor p53. CONCLUSIONS: Our data add to the understanding of context-dependent requirements of oncogenic Kras signaling during pancreatic carcinogenesis.

16.
Nature ; 594(7862): 246-252, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845483

RESUMO

The emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the urgent need for an in-depth understanding of molecular functions of viral proteins and their interactions with the host proteome. Several individual omics studies have extended our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology1-10. Integration of such datasets to obtain a holistic view of virus-host interactions and to define the pathogenic properties of SARS-CoV-2 is limited by the heterogeneity of the experimental systems. Here we report a concurrent multi-omics study of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Using state-of-the-art proteomics, we profiled the interactomes of both viruses, as well as their influence on the transcriptome, proteome, ubiquitinome and phosphoproteome of a lung-derived human cell line. Projecting these data onto the global network of cellular interactions revealed crosstalk between the perturbations taking place upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV at different levels and enabled identification of distinct and common molecular mechanisms of these closely related coronaviruses. The TGF-ß pathway, known for its involvement in tissue fibrosis, was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 and autophagy was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF3. The extensive dataset (available at https://covinet.innatelab.org ) highlights many hotspots that could be targeted by existing drugs and may be used to guide rational design of virus- and host-directed therapies, which we exemplify by identifying inhibitors of kinases and matrix metalloproteases with potent antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma/química , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Viroporinas/metabolismo
17.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Molecular taxonomy of tumours is the foundation of personalised medicine and is becoming of paramount importance for therapeutic purposes. Four transcriptomics-based classification systems of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exist, which consistently identified a subtype of highly aggressive PDACs with basal-like features, including ΔNp63 expression and loss of the epithelial master regulator GATA6. We investigated the precise molecular events driving PDAC progression and the emergence of the basal programme. DESIGN: We combined the analysis of patient-derived transcriptomics datasets and tissue samples with mechanistic experiments using a novel dual-recombinase mouse model for Gata6 deletion at late stages of KRasG12D-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis (Gata6LateKO). RESULTS: This comprehensive human-to-mouse approach showed that GATA6 loss is necessary, but not sufficient, for the expression of ΔNp63 and the basal programme in patients and in mice. The concomitant loss of HNF1A and HNF4A, likely through epigenetic silencing, is required for the full phenotype switch. Moreover, Gata6 deletion in mice dramatically increased the metastatic rate, with a propensity for lung metastases. Through RNA-Seq analysis of primary cells isolated from mouse tumours, we show that Gata6 inhibits tumour cell plasticity and immune evasion, consistent with patient-derived data, suggesting that GATA6 works as a barrier for acquiring the fully developed basal and metastatic phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: Our work provides both a mechanistic molecular link between the basal phenotype and metastasis and a valuable preclinical tool to investigate the most aggressive subtype of PDAC. These data, therefore, are important for understanding the pathobiological features underlying the heterogeneity of pancreatic cancer in both mice and human.

18.
Nature ; 592(7854): 444-449, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762736

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a manifestation of systemic metabolic disease related to obesity, and causes liver disease and cancer1,2. The accumulation of metabolites leads to cell stress and inflammation in the liver3, but mechanistic understandings of liver damage in NASH are incomplete. Here, using a preclinical mouse model that displays key features of human NASH (hereafter, NASH mice), we found an indispensable role for T cells in liver immunopathology. We detected the hepatic accumulation of CD8 T cells with phenotypes that combined tissue residency (CXCR6) with effector (granzyme) and exhaustion (PD1) characteristics. Liver CXCR6+ CD8 T cells were characterized by low activity of the FOXO1 transcription factor, and were abundant in NASH mice and in patients with NASH. Mechanistically, IL-15 induced FOXO1 downregulation and CXCR6 upregulation, which together rendered liver-resident CXCR6+ CD8 T cells susceptible to metabolic stimuli (including acetate and extracellular ATP) and collectively triggered auto-aggression. CXCR6+ CD8 T cells from the livers of NASH mice or of patients with NASH had similar transcriptional signatures, and showed auto-aggressive killing of cells in an MHC-class-I-independent fashion after signalling through P2X7 purinergic receptors. This killing by auto-aggressive CD8 T cells fundamentally differed from that by antigen-specific cells, which mechanistically distinguishes auto-aggressive and protective T cell immunity.

19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(4): e13162, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751828

RESUMO

Metastasis is the main cause of deaths related to solid cancers. Active transcriptional programmes are known to regulate the metastatic cascade but the molecular determinants of metastatic colonization remain elusive. Using an inducible piggyBac (PB) transposon mutagenesis screen, we have shown that overexpression of the transcription factor nuclear factor IB (NFIB) alone is sufficient to enhance primary mammary tumour growth and lung metastatic colonization. Mechanistically and functionally, NFIB directly increases expression of the oxidoreductase ERO1A, which enhances HIF1α-VEGFA-mediated angiogenesis and colonization, the last and fatal step of the metastatic cascade. NFIB is thus clinically relevant: it is preferentially expressed in the poor-prognostic group of basal-like breast cancers, and high expression of the NFIB/ERO1A/VEGFA pathway correlates with reduced breast cancer patient survival.

20.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 27, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541387

RESUMO

Future radiation oncology encompasses a broad spectrum of topics ranging from modern clinical trial design to treatment and imaging technology and biology. In more detail, the application of hybrid MRI devices in modern image-guided radiotherapy; the emerging field of radiomics; the role of molecular imaging using positron emission tomography and its integration into clinical routine; radiation biology with its future perspectives, the role of molecular signatures in prognostic modelling; as well as special treatment modalities such as brachytherapy or proton beam therapy are areas of rapid development. More clinically, radiation oncology will certainly find an important role in the management of oligometastasis. The treatment spectrum will also be widened by the rational integration of modern systemic targeted or immune therapies into multimodal treatment strategies. All these developments will require a concise rethinking of clinical trial design. This article reviews the current status and the potential developments in the field of radiation oncology as discussed by a panel of European and international experts sharing their vision during the "X-Change" symposium, held in July 2019 in Munich (Germany).


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Radiobiologia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Humanos
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