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1.
Neurology ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (RSMS), an informant measure of socioemotional sensitivity, is a potential clinical endpoint for treatment trials for patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). METHODS: We investigated whether RSMS informant ratings reflected disease severity in 475 participants (71 bvFTD mutation+, 154 bvFTD mutation-, 12 behavioral mild cognitive impairment [MCI] mutation+, 98 asymptomatic mutation+, 140 asymptomatic mutation-). In a subset of 62 patients (20 bvFTD mutation+, 35 bvFTD mutation-, 7 MCI mutation+) who had at least 2 time points of T1-weighted images available on the same 3T scanner, we examined longitudinal changes in RSMS score over time and its correspondence to progressive gray matter atrophy. RESULTS: RSMS score showed a similar pattern in mutation carriers and noncarriers, with significant drops at each stage of progression from asymptomatic to very mild, mild, moderate, and severe disease (F 4,48 = 140.10, p < 0.001) and a significant slope of decline over time in patients with bvFTD (p = 0.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.90 to -0.23). More rapid declines on the RSMS corresponded to faster gray matter atrophy predominantly in the salience network (SN), and RSMS score progression best predicted thalamic volume in very mild and mild disease stages of bvFTD. Higher RSMS score predicted more caregiver burden (p < 0.001, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.11). CONCLUSIONS: The RSMS is sensitive to progression of both socioemotional symptoms and SN atrophy in patients with bvFTD and corresponds directly to caregiver burden. The RSMS may be useful in both neurologic practice and clinical trials aiming to treat behavioral symptoms of patients with bvFTD.

2.
Neurology ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify preferred neurofilament assays and clinically validate serum neurofilament light (NfL) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy (pNfH) as prognostic and potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers relevant to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therapy development. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, longitudinal observational study of patients with ALS (n = 229), primary lateral sclerosis (n = 20), and progressive muscular atrophy (n = 11), biological specimens were collected, processed, and stored according to strict standard operating procedures (SOPs). Neurofilament assays were performed in a blinded manner by independent contract research organizations. RESULTS: For serum NfL and pNfH measured using the Simoa assay, there were no missing data (i.e., technical replicates below the lower limit of detection were not encountered). For the Iron Horse and Euroimmun pNfH assays, such missingness was encountered in ∼4% and ∼10% of serum samples, respectively. Mean coefficients of variation for NfL in serum and CSF were both ∼3%. Mean coefficients of variation for pNfH in serum and CSF were ∼4%-5% and ∼2%-3%, respectively, in all assays. Baseline serum NfL concentration, but not pNfH, predicted the future Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) slope and survival. Incorporation of baseline serum NfL into mixed effects models of ALSFRS-R slopes yields an estimated sample size saving of ∼8%. Depending on the method used to estimate effect size, use of serum NfL (and perhaps pNfH) as pharmacodynamic biomarkers, instead of the ALSFRS-R slope, yields significantly larger sample size savings. CONCLUSIONS: Serum NfL may be considered a clinically validated prognostic biomarker for ALS. Serum NfL (and perhaps pNfH), quantified using the Simoa assay, has potential utility as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of treatment effect.

3.
Mol Neurodegener ; 15(1): 7, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A repeat expansion in the C9orf72-SMCR8 complex subunit (C9orf72) is the most common genetic cause of two debilitating neurodegenerative diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Currently, much remains unknown about which variables may modify these diseases. We sought to investigate associations between C9orf72 promoter methylation, RNA expression levels, and repeat length, their potential effects on disease features, as well as changes over time and within families. METHODS: All samples were obtained through the ALS Center at Mayo Clinic Florida. Our primary cohort included 75 unrelated patients with an expanded C9orf72 repeat, 33 patients who did not possess this expansion, and 20 control subjects without neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, 67 members from 17 independent C9orf72 families were selected of whom 33 harbored this expansion. Longitudinally collected samples were available for 35 C9orf72 expansion carriers. To increase our understanding of C9orf72-related diseases, we performed quantitative methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-based assays, digital molecular barcoding, quantitative real-time PCR, and Southern blotting. RESULTS: In our primary cohort, higher methylation levels were observed in patients with a C9orf72 repeat expansion than in patients without this expansion (p = 1.7e-13) or in control subjects (p = 3.3e-07). Moreover, we discovered that an increase in methylation levels was associated with a decrease in total C9orf72 transcript levels (p = 5.5e-05). These findings aligned with our observation that C9orf72 expansion carriers had lower expression levels of total C9orf72 transcripts than patients lacking this expansion (p = 3.7e-07) or control subjects (p = 9.1e-05). We also detected an elevation of transcripts containing intron 1a (upstream of the repeat) in patients carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion compared to (disease) controls (p ≤ 0.01), an indication of abortive transcripts and/or a switch in transcription start site usage. While methylation and expression levels were relatively stable over time, fluctuations were seen in repeat length. Interestingly, contractions occurred frequently in parent-offspring transmissions (> 50%), especially in paternal transmissions. Furthermore, smaller repeat lengths were detected in currently unaffected individuals than in affected individuals (p = 8.9e-04) and they were associated with an earlier age at collection (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: In blood from C9orf72 expansion carriers, we found elevated methylation levels, reduced expression levels, and unstable expansions that tend to contract in successive generations, arguing against anticipation.

4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 88: 42-50, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918955

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the major causes of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Our objective was to determine the rates and trajectories of lobar cortical atrophy from longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging in both asymptomatic and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers. Individuals in this study were from the ADRC and LEFFTDS studies at the Mayo Clinic. We identified 13 GRN mutation carriers (8 asymptomatic, 5 symptomatic) and noncarriers (n = 10) who had at least 2 serial T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images and were followed annually with a median of 3 years (range 1.0-9.8 years). Longitudinal changes in lobar cortical volume were analyzed using the tensor-based morphometry with symmetric normalization (TBM-SyN) algorithm. Linear mixed-effect models were used to model cortical volume change over time among 3 groups. The annual rates of frontal (p < 0.05) and parietal (p < 0.01) lobe cortical atrophy were higher in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers than noncarriers. The symptomatic GRN mutation carriers also had increased rates of atrophy in the frontal (p < 0.01) and parietal lobe (p < 0.01) cortices than noncarriers. In addition, greater rates of cortical atrophy were observed in the temporal lobe cortices of symptomatic GRN mutation carriers than noncarriers (p < 0.001). We found that a decline in frontal and parietal lobar cortical volume occurs in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers and continues in the symptomatic GRN mutation carriers, whereas an increased rate of temporal lobe cortical atrophy is observed only in symptomatic GRN mutation carriers. This sequential pattern of cortical involvement in GRN mutation carriers has important implications for using imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration as an outcome measure in potential treatment trials involving GRN mutation carriers.

5.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(2): 145-156, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is a heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, with about a third of cases being genetic. Most of this genetic component is accounted for by mutations in GRN, MAPT, and C9orf72. In this study, we aimed to complement previous phenotypic studies by doing an international study of age at symptom onset, age at death, and disease duration in individuals with mutations in GRN, MAPT, and C9orf72. METHODS: In this international, retrospective cohort study, we collected data on age at symptom onset, age at death, and disease duration for patients with pathogenic mutations in the GRN and MAPT genes and pathological expansions in the C9orf72 gene through the Frontotemporal Dementia Prevention Initiative and from published papers. We used mixed effects models to explore differences in age at onset, age at death, and disease duration between genetic groups and individual mutations. We also assessed correlations between the age at onset and at death of each individual and the age at onset and at death of their parents and the mean age at onset and at death of their family members. Lastly, we used mixed effects models to investigate the extent to which variability in age at onset and at death could be accounted for by family membership and the specific mutation carried. FINDINGS: Data were available from 3403 individuals from 1492 families: 1433 with C9orf72 expansions (755 families), 1179 with GRN mutations (483 families, 130 different mutations), and 791 with MAPT mutations (254 families, 67 different mutations). Mean age at symptom onset and at death was 49·5 years (SD 10·0; onset) and 58·5 years (11·3; death) in the MAPT group, 58·2 years (9·8; onset) and 65·3 years (10·9; death) in the C9orf72 group, and 61·3 years (8·8; onset) and 68·8 years (9·7; death) in the GRN group. Mean disease duration was 6·4 years (SD 4·9) in the C9orf72 group, 7·1 years (3·9) in the GRN group, and 9·3 years (6·4) in the MAPT group. Individual age at onset and at death was significantly correlated with both parental age at onset and at death and with mean family age at onset and at death in all three groups, with a stronger correlation observed in the MAPT group (r=0·45 between individual and parental age at onset, r=0·63 between individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·58 between individual and parental age at death, and r=0·69 between individual and mean family age at death) than in either the C9orf72 group (r=0·32 individual and parental age at onset, r=0·36 individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·38 individual and parental age at death, and r=0·40 individual and mean family age at death) or the GRN group (r=0·22 individual and parental age at onset, r=0·18 individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·22 individual and parental age at death, and r=0·32 individual and mean family age at death). Modelling showed that the variability in age at onset and at death in the MAPT group was explained partly by the specific mutation (48%, 95% CI 35-62, for age at onset; 61%, 47-73, for age at death), and even more by family membership (66%, 56-75, for age at onset; 74%, 65-82, for age at death). In the GRN group, only 2% (0-10) of the variability of age at onset and 9% (3-21) of that of age of death was explained by the specific mutation, whereas 14% (9-22) of the variability of age at onset and 20% (12-30) of that of age at death was explained by family membership. In the C9orf72 group, family membership explained 17% (11-26) of the variability of age at onset and 19% (12-29) of that of age at death. INTERPRETATION: Our study showed that age at symptom onset and at death of people with genetic frontotemporal dementia is influenced by genetic group and, particularly for MAPT mutations, by the specific mutation carried and by family membership. Although estimation of age at onset will be an important factor in future pre-symptomatic therapeutic trials for all three genetic groups, our study suggests that data from other members of the family will be particularly helpful only for individuals with MAPT mutations. Further work in identifying both genetic and environmental factors that modify phenotype in all groups will be important to improve such estimates. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, and Alzheimer's Society.

6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 22-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is important to establish the natural history of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (f-FTLD) and provide clinical and biomarker data for planning these studies, particularly in the asymptomatic phase. METHODS: The Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects protocol was designed to enroll and follow at least 300 subjects for more than at least three annual visits who are members of kindreds with a mutation in one of the three most common f-FTLD genes-microtubule-associated protein tau, progranulin, or chromosome 9 open reading frame 72. RESULTS: We present the theoretical considerations of f-FTLD and the aims/objectives of this protocol. We also describe the design and methodology for evaluating and rating subjects, in which detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments are performed, biofluid samples are collected, and magnetic resonance imaging scans are performed using a standard protocol. DISCUSSION: These data and samples, which are available to interested investigators worldwide, will facilitate planning for upcoming disease-modifying therapeutic trials in f-FTLD.

8.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1966-1974, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768050

RESUMO

To discover novel genes underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we aggregated exomes from 3,864 cases and 7,839 ancestry-matched controls. We observed a significant excess of rare protein-truncating variants among ALS cases, and these variants were concentrated in constrained genes. Through gene level analyses, we replicated known ALS genes including SOD1, NEK1 and FUS. We also observed multiple distinct protein-truncating variants in a highly constrained gene, DNAJC7. The signal in DNAJC7 exceeded genome-wide significance, and immunoblotting assays showed depletion of DNAJC7 protein in fibroblasts in a patient with ALS carrying the p.Arg156Ter variant. DNAJC7 encodes a member of the heat-shock protein family, HSP40, which, along with HSP70 proteins, facilitates protein homeostasis, including folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and clearance of degraded proteins. When these processes are not regulated, misfolding and accumulation of aberrant proteins can occur and lead to protein aggregation, which is a pathological hallmark of neurodegeneration. Our results highlight DNAJC7 as a novel gene for ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 150, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594549

RESUMO

The majority of the clinico-pathological variability observed in patients harboring a repeat expansion in the C9orf72-SMCR8 complex subunit (C9orf72) remains unexplained. This expansion, which represents the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and motor neuron disease (MND), results in a loss of C9orf72 expression and the generation of RNA foci and dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins. The C9orf72 protein itself plays a role in vesicular transport, serving as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that regulates GTPases. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying C9orf72-related diseases and to identify potential disease modifiers, we performed an extensive RNA sequencing study. We included individuals for whom frontal cortex tissue was available: FTLD and FTLD/MND patients with (n = 34) or without (n = 44) an expanded C9orf72 repeat as well as control subjects (n = 24). In total, 6706 genes were differentially expressed between these groups (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05). The top gene was C9orf72 (FDR = 1.41E-14), which was roughly two-fold lower in C9orf72 expansion carriers than in (disease) controls. Co-expression analysis revealed groups of correlated genes (modules) that were enriched for processes such as protein folding, RNA splicing, synaptic signaling, metabolism, and Golgi vesicle transport. Within our cohort of C9orf72 expansion carriers, machine learning uncovered interesting candidates associated with clinico-pathological features, including age at onset (vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGFA]), C9orf72 expansion size (cyclin dependent kinase like 1 [CDKL1]), DPR protein levels (eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase [EEF2K]), and survival after onset (small G protein signaling modulator 3 [SGSM3]). Given the fact that we detected a module involved in vesicular transport in addition to a GTPase activator (SGSM3) as a potential modifier, our findings seem to suggest that the presence of a C9orf72 repeat expansion might hamper vesicular transport and that genes affecting this process may modify the phenotype of C9orf72-linked diseases.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 83: 54-62, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585367

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate the patterns and trajectories of white matter (WM) diffusion abnormalities in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutations carriers. We studied 22 MAPT mutation carriers (12 asymptomatic, 10 symptomatic) and 20 noncarriers from 8 families, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a subset (10 asymptomatic, 6 symptomatic MAPT mutation carriers, and 10 noncarriers) were followed annually (median = 4 years). Cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy were analyzed. Asymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers had higher MD in entorhinal WM, which propagated to the limbic tracts and frontotemporal projections in the symptomatic stage compared with noncarriers. Reduced fractional anisotropy and increased MD in the entorhinal WM were associated with the proximity to estimated and actual age of symptom onset. The annualized change of entorhinal MD on serial DTI was accelerated in MAPT mutation carriers compared with noncarriers. Entorhinal WM diffusion abnormalities precede the symptom onset and track with disease progression in MAPT mutation carriers. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal data showed a potential clinical utility for DTI to track neurodegenerative disease progression for MAPT mutation carriers in clinical trials.

11.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 5: 338-346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388560

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of lobar atrophy in the asymptomatic microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutation carriers. Methods: MAPT mutation carriers (n = 14; 10 asymptomatic, 4 converters from asymptomatic to symptomatic) and noncarriers (n = 13) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and were followed annually with a median of 9.2 years. Longitudinal changes in lobar atrophy were analyzed using the tensor-based morphometry with symmetric normalization algorithm. Results: The rate of temporal lobe atrophy in asymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers was faster than that in noncarriers. Although the greatest rate of atrophy was observed in the temporal lobe in converters, they also had increased atrophy rates in the frontal and parietal lobes compared to noncarriers. Discussion: Accelerated decline in temporal lobe volume occurs in asymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers followed by the frontal and parietal lobe in those who have become symptomatic. The findings have implications for monitoring the progression of neurodegeneration during clinical trials in asymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers.

12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(9): 1782-1796, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify clinicopathological differences between frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) due to mutations in progranulin (FTLD-GRN) and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (FTLD-C9ORF72). METHODS: We performed quantitative neuropathologic comparison of 17 FTLD-C9ORF72 and 15 FTLD-GRN with a focus on microglia. For clinical comparisons, only cases with high quality medical documentation and concurring diagnoses by at least two neurologists were included (14 FTLD-GRN and 13 FTLD-C9ORF72). Neuropathological analyses were limited to TDP-43 Type A to assure consistent assessment between the groups, acknowledging that Type A is a minority of C9ORF72 patients. Furthermore, only cases with sufficient tissue from all regions were studied (11 FTLD-GRN and 11 FTLD-C9ORF72). FTLD cases were also compared to age- and sex-matched normal controls. Immunohistochemistry was performed for pTDP-43, IBA-1, CD68, and GFAP. Morphological characterization of microglia was performed in sections of cortex blinded to clinical and genetic information. RESULTS: FTLD-GRN patients had frequent asymmetric clinical features, including aphasia and apraxia, as well as more asymmetric cortical atrophy. Neuropathologically, FTLD-C9ORF72 had greater hippocampal tau pathology and more TDP-43 neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions. FTLD-GRN had more neocortical microvacuolation, as well as more IBA-1-positive ameboid microglia in superficial cortical layers and in subcortical white matter. FTLD-GRN also had more microglia with nuclear condensation, possibly indicating apoptosis. Microglial morphology with CD68 immunohistochemistry in FTLD-GRN and FTLD-C9ORF72 differed from controls. INTERPRETATION: Our findings underscore differences in microglial response in FTLD-C9ORF72 and FTLD-GRN as shown by significant differences in ameboid microglia in gray and white matter. These results suggest the differential contribution of microglial dysfunction in FTLD-GRN and FTLD-C9ORF72 and suggest that clinical, neuroimaging and pathologic differences could in part be related to differences in microglia response.

13.
Neurology ; 93(8): e758-e765, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frontal lobe proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) abnormalities in asymptomatic and symptomatic carriers of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) mutations. METHODS: We recruited patients with MAPT mutations from 5 individual families, who underwent single voxel 1H MRS from the medial frontal lobe at 3T (n = 19) from the Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects (LEFFTDS) Study at the Mayo Clinic site. Asymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers (n = 9) had Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (FTLD-CDR SOB) score of zero, and symptomatic MAPT mutation carriers (n = 10) had a median FTLD-CDR SOB score of 5. Noncarriers from healthy first-degree relatives of the patients were recruited as controls (n = 25). The demographic aspects and 1H MRS metabolite ratios were compared by use of the Fisher exact test for sex and linear mixed models to account for within-family correlations. We used Tukey contrasts for pair-wise comparisons. RESULTS: Asymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers had lower neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) (p = 0.001) and lower NAA/myo-inositol (mI) (p = 0.026) than noncarriers after adjustment for age. Symptomatic MAPT mutation carriers had lower NAA/Cr (p = 0.01) and NAA/mI (p = 0.01) and higher mI/Cr (p = 0.02) compared to noncarriers after adjustment for age. Furthermore, NAA/Cr (p = 0.006) and NAA/mI (p < 0.001) ratios decreased, accompanied by an increase in mI/Cr ratio (p = 0.001), as the ages of carriers approached and passed the age at symptom onset. CONCLUSION: Frontal lobe neurochemical alterations measured with 1H MRS precede the symptom onset in MAPT mutation carriers. Frontal lobe 1H MRS is a potential biomarker for early neurodegenerative processes in MAPT mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Creatina/metabolismo , Demência/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Inositol/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Adulto , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Demência/complicações , Demência/genética , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/complicações , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas tau/genética
14.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 100, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266542

RESUMO

The transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is an intranuclear protein involved in RNA splicing. Abnormally deposited TDP-43 is found in the brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Different morphological characteristics of TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions define the different variants of FTLD-TDP. Little is known about the relationships between TDP-43 specie (phosphorylated TDP-43, C-terminal fragments and full length TDP-43) and lesion types. Using novel antibodies that recognize phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43), a neoepitope in the C-terminal fragment of TDP-43 (cTDP-43) and the N-terminal, i.e. full length (nTDP-43) we assess the relative burden of pTDP-43, cTDP-43 and nTDP-43 in 8 different lesion types across FTLD-TDP type A-C. These include neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, dystrophic neurites, neuronal intranuclear inclusions, fine neurites of the hippocampus, peri-vascular inclusions, Pick body-like inclusions, long thick dystrophic neurites and granular pre-inclusions. We also assess for associations with progranulin (GRN) and C9ORF72 genetic mutations. For all eight lesion types, the highest burden was observed for pTDP-43. In six of the eight lesions studied, cTDP-43 burden was greater than nTDP-43 burden. However, we observed a higher burden of nTDP-43 to cTDP-43 for pre-inclusions. We also noted an equal-to-slightly higher burden of nTDP-43 to cTDP-43 for peri-vascular inclusions. There was not strong evidence for associations to be driven by mutation status although for neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions and dystrophic neurites GRN+ cases had higher burden of pTDP-43, cTDP-43 and nTDP-43 compared to GRN- cases, with nTDP-43 inclusions only observed in GRN+ cases. In addition, for pre-inclusions, cTDP-43 and nTDP-43 burden tended to be higher in C9ORF72- cases compared to C9ORF72+ cases, although this was not the case for pTDP-43. There is clear evidence that phosphorylation and C terminal fragments play an important role in lesion formation in FTLD-TDP. However, for some inclusions, particularly pre-inclusions, full-length TDP-43 appears to be playing a role.

16.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(9): 844-853, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361008

RESUMO

Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the GRN gene lead to progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency and cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology type A (FTLD-TDP type A). PGRN is a highly conserved, secreted glycoprotein and functions in the central nervous system as a key modulator of microglial function. Hence, altered microglial function caused by PGRN deficiency may be tied to the pathogenesis of FTLD-TDP. Our previous studies showed that haploinsufficiency of GRN mutations extends to microglial PGRN expression in the hippocampal CA1 region. In this study, we found that the CA1 sector was associated with less neuronal loss and more frequent TDP-43 inclusions in FTLD-TDP type A cases with GRN mutations than in sporadic cases. In addition, the CA1 region in GRN mutation cases contained more rod-like microglia, which also had reduced PGRN expression. These findings suggest that the profile of TDP-43 inclusions, neuronal number, and microgliosis in the CA1 sector of FTLD-TDP type A cases may be influenced by GRN gene expression status.

17.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(5): 624-629, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the trajectory of change in 1 H MRS measurements in asymptomatic MAPT mutation carriers who became symptomatic during follow-up, and to determine the time at which the neurochemical alterations accelerated during disease progression. METHODS: We identified eight MAPT mutations carriers who transitioned from asymptomatic to symptomatic disease during follow-up. All participants were longitudinally followed with an average of 7.75 years (range 4-11 years) and underwent two or more single voxel 1 H MRS examinations from the posterior cingulate voxel, with a total of 60 examinations. The rate of longitudinal change for each metabolite was estimated using linear mixed models. A flex point model was used to estimate the flex time point of the change in slope. RESULTS: The decrease in the NAA/mI ratio accelerated 2.09 years prior to symptom onset, and continued to decline. A similar trajectory was observed in the presumed glial marker mI/Cr ratio accelerating 1.86 years prior to symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the potential use of longitudinal 1 H MRS for monitoring the neurodegenerative progression in MAPT mutation carriers starting from the asymptomatic stage.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216016

RESUMO

Progressive supranuclear palsy with predominant cerebellar ataxia (PSP-C) has been reported as a rare clinical subtype, but the underlying pathology of its cerebellar ataxia remains unclear. Here, we report a patient with the coexistence of PSP with pontocerebellar atrophy and myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). A 73-year-old man who was an asymptomatic carrier of DM1 (66 CTG repeats) started developing ataxic gait with multiple falls, visual blurring, double vision, and word finding difficulty at age 62 and was initially diagnosed with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Subsequently, the diagnosis was changed to PSP due to hypometric downward gaze, reduced blink frequency, symmetric bradykinesia, rigidity, and the absence of autonomic dysfunction. He eventually developed delayed grip opening with percussion myotonia at age 72. At autopsy, severe neuronal degeneration and astrogliosis in the pontocerebellar structures suggested MSA, but immunohistochemistry for α-synuclein did not reveal neuronal or glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Immunohistochemistry for phospho-tau and 4-repeat tau confirmed a neuropathological diagnosis of PSP with exceptionally numerous coiled bodies and threads in the pontine base and cerebellar white matter. This unusual distribution of 4-repeat tau pathology and neuronal degeneration with astrogliosis is a plausible clinicopathological substrate of PSP-C.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244341

RESUMO

Mutations in the TANK binding kinase 1 gene (TBK1) are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and/or frontotemporal dementia; however, the range of clinical phenotypes and neuropathological changes associated with these mutations have not yet been completely elucidated. We present the detailed clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathological features of two brothers carrying the TBK1 p.Gly272_Thr331del mutation. Both presented with very similar and unusual clinical features including primary progressive aphasia and asymmetric-onset primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). Repeated electrophysiological studies failed to reveal any lower motor neuron involvement. Neuropathological evaluation of both cases revealed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy type B and selective involvement of upper motor neurons with TDP-43 inclusions. The stereotypical clinical presentation and neuropathological findings in these cases widen the phenotypic spectrum of TBK1 mutations and provide insights into the pathogenesis of PLS.

20.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 97, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human genome contains "dark" gene regions that cannot be adequately assembled or aligned using standard short-read sequencing technologies, preventing researchers from identifying mutations within these gene regions that may be relevant to human disease. Here, we identify regions with few mappable reads that we call dark by depth, and others that have ambiguous alignment, called camouflaged. We assess how well long-read or linked-read technologies resolve these regions. RESULTS: Based on standard whole-genome Illumina sequencing data, we identify 36,794 dark regions in 6054 gene bodies from pathways important to human health, development, and reproduction. Of these gene bodies, 8.7% are completely dark and 35.2% are ≥ 5% dark. We identify dark regions that are present in protein-coding exons across 748 genes. Linked-read or long-read sequencing technologies from 10x Genomics, PacBio, and Oxford Nanopore Technologies reduce dark protein-coding regions to approximately 50.5%, 35.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. We present an algorithm to resolve most camouflaged regions and apply it to the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project. We rescue a rare ten-nucleotide frameshift deletion in CR1, a top Alzheimer's disease gene, found in disease cases but not in controls. CONCLUSIONS: While we could not formally assess the association of the CR1 frameshift mutation with Alzheimer's disease due to insufficient sample-size, we believe it merits investigating in a larger cohort. There remain thousands of potentially important genomic regions overlooked by short-read sequencing that are largely resolved by long-read technologies.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Mutação
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