Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 601
Filtrar
1.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745059

RESUMO

While newborns and children with hearing loss are routinely offered genetic testing, adults are rarely clinically tested for a genetic etiology. One clinically actionable result from genetic testing in children is the discovery of variants in syndromic hearing loss genes. EYA4 is a known hearing loss gene which is also involved in important pathways in cardiac tissue. The pleiotropic effects of rare EYA4 variants are poorly understood and their prevalence in a large cohort has not been previously reported. We investigated cardio-auditory phenotypes in 11,451 individuals in a large biobank using a rare variant, genome-first approach to EYA4. We filtered 256 EYA4 variants carried by 6737 participants to 26 rare and predicted deleterious variants carried by 42 heterozygotes. We aggregated predicted deleterious EYA4 gene variants into a combined variable (i.e. "gene burden") and performed association studies across phenotypes compared to wildtype controls. We validated findings with replication in three independent cohorts and human tissue expression data. EYA4 gene burden was significantly associated with audiometric-proven HL (p = [Formula: see text], Mobitz Type II AV block (p = [Formula: see text]) and the syndromic presentation of HL and primary cardiomyopathy (p = 0.0194). Analyses on audiogram, echocardiogram, and electrocardiogram data validated these associations. Prior reports have focused on identifying variants in families with severe or syndromic phenotypes. In contrast, we found, using a genotype-first approach, that gene burden in EYA4 is associated with more subtle cardio-auditory phenotypes in an adult medical biobank population, including cardiac conduction disorders which have not been previously reported. We show the value of using a focused approach to uncover human disease related to pleiotropic gene variants and suggest a role for genetic testing in adults presenting with hearing loss.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1515, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750777

RESUMO

Ribosome-profiling has uncovered pervasive translation in non-canonical open reading frames, however the biological significance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Using genetic variation from 71,702 human genomes, we assess patterns of selection in translated upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in 5'UTRs. We show that uORF variants introducing new stop codons, or strengthening existing stop codons, are under strong negative selection comparable to protein-coding missense variants. Using these variants, we map and validate gene-disease associations in two independent biobanks containing exome sequencing from 10,900 and 32,268 individuals, respectively, and elucidate their impact on protein expression in human cells. Our results suggest translation disrupting mechanisms relating uORF variation to reduced protein expression, and demonstrate that translation at uORFs is genetically constrained in 50% of human genes.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Fenótipo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas/genética , Receptor EphB2
3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120315204, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mechanism by which evinacumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like 3 protein) lowers plasma LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is unknown. We investigated apoB (apolipoprotein B) containing lipoprotein kinetic parameters in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, before and after treatment with evinacumab. Approach and Results: Four patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia underwent apoB kinetic analyses in 2 centers as part of a substudy of a trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of evinacumab in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. The enrichment of apoB with the stable isotope (5,5,5-2H3)-Leucine was measured in VLDL (very LDL), IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein), and LDL at different time points before and after intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg evinacumab. Evinacumab lowered LDL-cholesterol by 59±2% and increased IDL apoB and LDL apoB fractional catabolic rate in all 4 homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia subjects, by 616±504% and 113±14%, respectively. VLDL-apoB production rate decreased in 2 of the 4 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, ANGPTL3 inhibition with evinacumab is associated with an increase in the fractional catabolic rate of IDL apoB and LDL apoB, suggesting that evinacumab lowers LDL-cholesterol predominantly by increasing apoB-containing lipoprotein clearance from the circulation. Additional studies are needed to unravel which factors are determinants in this biological pathway. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04722068.

4.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529599

RESUMO

Pathogenic mutations in LAMIN A/C (LMNA) cause abnormal nuclear structure and laminopathies. These diseases have myriad tissue-specific phenotypes, including dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but how LMNA mutations result in tissue-restricted disease phenotypes remains unclear. We introduced LMNA mutations from individuals with DCM into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and found that hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, in contrast to hepatocytes or adipocytes, exhibit aberrant nuclear morphology and specific disruptions in peripheral chromatin. Disrupted regions were enriched for transcriptionally active genes and regions with lower LAMIN B1 contact frequency. The lamina-chromatin interactions disrupted in mutant cardiomyocytes were enriched for genes associated with non-myocyte lineages and correlated with higher expression of those genes. Myocardium from individuals with LMNA variants similarly showed aberrant expression of non-myocyte pathways. We propose that the lamina network safeguards cellular identity and that pathogenic LMNA variants disrupt peripheral chromatin with specific epigenetic and molecular characteristics, causing misexpression of genes normally expressed in other cell types.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop a fully automated algorithm for abdominal fat segmentation and to deploy this method at scale in an academic biobank. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a fully automated image curation and labeling technique using deep learning and distributive computing to identify subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat compartments from 52,844 computed tomography scans in 13,502 patients in the Penn Medicine Biobank (PMBB). A classification network identified the inferior and superior borders of the abdomen, and a segmentation network differentiated visceral and subcutaneous fat. Following technical evaluation of our method, we conducted studies to validate known relationships with visceral and subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: When compared with 100 manually annotated cases, the classification network was on average within one 5-mm slice for both the superior (0.4 ± 1.1 slice) and inferior (0.4 ± 0.6 slice) borders. The segmentation network also demonstrated excellent performance with intraclass correlation coefficients of 1.00 (P < 2 × 10-16) for subcutaneous and 1.00 (P < 2 × 10-16) for visceral fat on 100 testing cases. We performed integrative analyses of abdominal fat with the phenome extracted from the electronic health record and found highly significant associations with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal failure, among other phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This work presents a fully automated and highly accurate method for the quantification of abdominal fat that can be applied to routine clinical imaging studies to fuel translational scientific discovery.

6.
Cell ; 184(7): 1858-1864.e10, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631096

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 431 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 251 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼20% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but they were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(576)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441424

RESUMO

More than 800 million people in the world suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of loci where genetic variants are associated with kidney function; however, causal genes and pathways for CKD remain unknown. Here, we performed integration of kidney function GWAS and human kidney-specific expression quantitative trait analysis and identified that the expression of beta-mannosidase (MANBA) was lower in kidneys of subjects with CKD risk genotype. We also show an increased incidence of renal failure in subjects with rare heterozygous loss-of-function coding variants in MANBA using phenome-wide association analysis of 40,963 subjects with exome sequencing data. MANBA is a lysosomal gene highly expressed in kidney tubule cells. Deep phenotyping revealed structural and functional lysosomal alterations in human kidneys from subjects with CKD risk alleles and mice with genetic deletion of Manba Manba heterozygous and knockout mice developed more severe kidney fibrosis when subjected to toxic injury induced by cisplatin or folic acid. Manba loss altered multiple pathways, including endocytosis and autophagy. In the absence of Manba, toxic acute tubule injury induced inflammasome activation and fibrosis. Together, these results illustrate the convergence of common noncoding and rare coding variants in MANBA in kidney disease development and demonstrate the role of the endolysosomal system in kidney disease development.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034461, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464320

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the relative contribution to each subtype (coronary artery disease [CAD], peripheral artery disease [PAD], and large-artery stroke) remains less well understood. Objective: To determine the association between genetic liability to smoking and risk of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide associations of smoking (UK Biobank; up to 462 690 individuals), CAD (Coronary Artery Disease Genome Wide Replication and Meta-analysis plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium; up to 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls), PAD (VA Million Veteran Program; up to 24 009 cases, 150 983 controls), and large-artery stroke (MEGASTROKE; up to 4373 cases, 406 111 controls). This study was conducted using summary statistic data from large, previously described cohorts. Review of those publications does not reveal the total recruitment dates for those cohorts. Data analyses were conducted from August 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Genetic liability to smoking (as proxied by genetic variants associated with lifetime smoking index). Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk (odds ratios [ORs]) of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Results: Genetic liability to smoking was associated with increased risk of PAD (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.78-2.56; P = 3.6 × 10-16), CAD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.25-1.75; P = 4.4 × 10-6), and stroke (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P = .04). Genetic liability to smoking was associated with greater risk of PAD than risk of large-artery stroke (ratio of ORs, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19; P = .02) or CAD (ratio of ORs, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84; P = .004). The association between genetic liability to smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remained independent from the effects of smoking on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this mendelian randomization analysis of data from large studies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, genetic liability to smoking was a strong risk factor for CAD, PAD, and stroke, although the estimated association was strongest between smoking and PAD. The association between smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
9.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 66-72, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432171

RESUMO

The clinical impact of rare loss-of-function variants has yet to be determined for most genes. Integration of DNA sequencing data with electronic health records (EHRs) could enhance our understanding of the contribution of rare genetic variation to human disease1. By leveraging 10,900 whole-exome sequences linked to EHR data in the Penn Medicine Biobank, we addressed the association of the cumulative effects of rare predicted loss-of-function variants for each individual gene on human disease on an exome-wide scale, as assessed using a set of diverse EHR phenotypes. After discovering 97 genes with exome-by-phenome-wide significant phenotype associations (P < 10-6), we replicated 26 of these in the Penn Medicine Biobank, as well as in three other medical biobanks and the population-based UK Biobank. Of these 26 genes, five had associations that have been previously reported and represented positive controls, whereas 21 had phenotype associations not previously reported, among which were genes implicated in glaucoma, aortic ectasia, diabetes mellitus, muscular dystrophy and hearing loss. These findings show the value of aggregating rare predicted loss-of-function variants into 'gene burdens' for identifying new gene-disease associations using EHR phenotypes in a medical biobank. We suggest that application of this approach to even larger numbers of individuals will provide the statistical power required to uncover unexplored relationships between rare genetic variation and disease phenotypes.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Exoma , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120315355, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The cardioprotective capacity of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol postmenopause has been challenged. HDL subclasses, lipid contents, and function might be better predictors of cardiovascular risk than HDL cholesterol. Changes in these measures have not been characterized over the menopause transition (MT) with respect to timing relative to the final menstrual period. Approach and Results: Four hundred seventy-one women with HDL particle (HDL-P) subclasses (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy total, large, medium, and small HDL-P and HDL size), HDL lipid content (HDL phospholipids and triglycerides), and HDL function (cholesterol efflux capacity [HDL-CEC]) measured for a maximum of 5 time points across the MT were included. HDL cholesterol and total HDL-P increased across the MT. Within the 1 to 2 years bracketing the final menstrual period, large HDL-P and HDL size declined while small HDL-P and HDL-triglyceride increased. Although overall HDL-CEC increased across the MT, HDL-CEC per HDL-P declined. Higher concentrations of total, large, and medium HDL-P and greater HDL size were associated with greater HDL-CEC while of small HDL-P were associated with lower HDL-CEC. Associations of large HDL-P and HDL size with HDL-CEC varied significantly across the MT such that higher large HDL-P concentrations and greater HDL size were associated with lower HDL-CEC within the 1 to 2 years around the final menstrual period. CONCLUSIONS: Although HDL cholesterol increased over the MT, HDL subclasses and lipid content showed adverse changes. While overall HDL-CEC increased, HDL-CEC per HDL-P declined, consistent with reduced function per particle. Large HDL-P may become less efficient in promoting HDL-CEC during the MT.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200143

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread within the human population. Although SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, most humans had been previously exposed to other antigenically distinct common seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) before the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we quantified levels of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies and hCoV-reactive antibodies in serum samples collected from 204 humans before the COVID-19 pandemic. We then quantified pre-pandemic antibody levels in serum from a separate cohort of 252 individuals who became PCR-confirmed infected with SARS-CoV-2. Finally, we longitudinally measured hCoV and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the serum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our studies indicate that most individuals possessed hCoV-reactive antibodies before the COVID-19 pandemic. We determined that ∼23% of these individuals possessed non-neutralizing antibodies that cross-reacted with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins. These antibodies were not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections or hospitalizations, but paradoxically these hCoV cross-reactive antibodies were boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 protects against coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). The impact on other diseases remains less well characterized. METHODS: We created a genetic risk score (GRS) for PCSK9 using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near the PCSK9 locus known to impact lower LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C): rs11583680, rs11591147, rs2479409, and rs11206510. We then used our GRS to calculate weighted odds ratios reflecting the impact of a genetically determined 10 mg/dL decrease in LDL-C on several pre-specified phenotypes including CAD, IS, peripheral artery disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), type 2 diabetes, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Finally, we used our weighted GRS to perform a phenome-wide association study. RESULTS: Genetic and electronic health record data that passed quality control was available in 312,097 individuals, (227,490 White participants, 58,907 Black participants, and 25,700 Hispanic participants). PCSK9 mediated reduction in LDL-C was associated with a reduced risk of CAD and AAA in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (CAD OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.80-0.87], p = 6.0 x 10-21; AAA OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.68-0.86], p = 2.9 x 10-06). Significant protective effects were noted for PAD in White individuals (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.97], p = 2.3 x 10-04) but not in other genetic ancestries. Genetically reduced PCSK9 function associated with a reduced risk of dementia in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.78-0.93], p = 5.0 x 10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically reduced PCSK9 function results in a reduction in risk of several important extra-coronary atherosclerotic phenotypes in addition to known effects on CAD and IS, including PAD and AAA. We also highlight a novel reduction in risk of dementia, supporting a well-recognized vascular component to cognitive impairment and an opportunity for therapeutic repositioning.

13.
Cancer Genet ; 248-249: 49-56, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported conflicting evidence on the inclusion of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in the DICER1 tumor-predisposition phenotype. We evaluated the relationship between DICER1 and TGCT by reviewing scrotal ultrasounds of males with pathogenic germline variants in DICER1 and queried exome data from TGCT-affected men for DICER1 variants. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-four male DICER1-carriers and family controls (n=41) enrolled in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DICER1 Natural History Study were offered scrotal ultrasounds. These studies were examined by a single radiologist for abnormalities. In parallel, DICER1 variants from two large exome-sequenced TGCT cohorts were extracted. We used previously published AMG-AMP criteria to characterize rare DICER1 variants. RESULTS: There was no observed difference in frequency of testicular cystic structures in DICER1-carriers versus controls. DICER1 variation was not associated with TGCT in the NCI DICER1-carriers. In 1,264 exome-sequenced men with TGCT, none harbored ClinVar- or InterVar-determined pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in DICER1. Three DICER1 variants of uncertain significance (one case and two controls) were predicted "damaging" based on a priori criteria. CONCLUSION: Using two complementary approaches, we found no evidence of an association between pathogenic DICER1 variants and TGCT.

14.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003288, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have identified height as a strong risk factor for atrial fibrillation, but this finding may be limited by residual confounding. We aimed to examine genetic variation in height within the Mendelian randomization (MR) framework to determine whether height has a causal effect on risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In summary-level analyses, MR was performed using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of height (GIANT/UK Biobank; 693,529 individuals) and atrial fibrillation (AFGen; 65,446 cases and 522,744 controls), finding that each 1-SD increase in genetically predicted height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.40; p = 5 × 10-42). This result remained consistent in sensitivity analyses with MR methods that make different assumptions about the presence of pleiotropy, and when accounting for the effects of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on atrial fibrillation. Individual-level phenome-wide association studies of height and a height genetic risk score were performed among 6,567 European-ancestry participants of the Penn Medicine Biobank (median age at enrollment 63 years, interquartile range 55-72; 38% female; recruitment 2008-2015), confirming prior observational associations between height and atrial fibrillation. Individual-level MR confirmed that each 1-SD increase in height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation, including adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic confounders (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.40; p = 0.007). The main limitations of this study include potential bias from pleiotropic effects of genetic variants, and lack of generalizability of individual-level findings to non-European populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed evidence that height is likely a positive causal risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Further study is needed to determine whether risk prediction tools including height or anthropometric risk factors can be used to improve screening and primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, and whether biological pathways involved in height may offer new targets for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

15.
Circ Res ; 127(11): 1347-1361, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912065

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms near the ILRUN (inflammation and lipid regulator with ubiquitin-associated-like and NBR1 [next to BRCA1 gene 1 protein]-like domains) gene are genome-wide significantly associated with plasma lipid traits and coronary artery disease (CAD), but the biological basis of this association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of ILRUN in plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: ILRUN encodes a protein that contains a ubiquitin-associated-like domain, suggesting that it may interact with ubiquitinylated proteins. We generated mice globally deficient for Ilrun and found they had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels resulting from reduced liver lipoprotein production. Liver transcriptome analysis uncovered altered transcription of genes downstream of lipid-related transcription factors, particularly PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha), and livers from Ilrun-deficient mice had increased PPARα protein. Human ILRUN was shown to bind to ubiquitinylated proteins including PPARα, and the ubiquitin-associated-like domain of ILRUN was found to be required for its interaction with PPARα. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish ILRUN as a novel regulator of lipid metabolism that promotes hepatic lipoprotein production. Our results also provide functional evidence that ILRUN may be the casual gene underlying the observed genetic associations with plasma lipids at 6p21 in human.

16.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

17.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(9): 1316-1331, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923835

RESUMO

Establishment of a physiologically relevant human hepatocyte-like cell system for in vitro translational research has been hampered by the limited availability of cell models that accurately reflect human biology and the pathophysiology of human disease. Here we report a robust, reproducible, and scalable protocol for the generation of hepatic organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using short exposure to nonengineered matrices. These hepatic organoids follow defined stages of hepatic development and express higher levels of early (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A [HNF4A], prospero-related homeobox 1 [PROX1]) and mature hepatic and metabolic markers (albumin, asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 [ASGR1], CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α [C/EBPα]) than two-dimensional (2D) hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) at day 20 of differentiation. We used this model to explore the biology of the pleiotropic TRIB1 (Tribbles-1) gene associated with a number of metabolic traits, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and plasma lipids. We used genome editing to delete the TRIB1 gene in hiPSCs and compared TRIB1-deleted iPSC-HLCs to isogenic iPSC-HLCs under both 2D culture and three-dimensional (3D) organoid conditions. Under conventional 2D culture conditions, TRIB1-deficient HLCs showed maturation defects, with decreased expression of late-stage hepatic and lipogenesis markers. In contrast, when cultured as 3D hepatic organoids, the differentiation defects were rescued, and a clear lipid-related phenotype was noted in the TRIB1-deficient induced pluripotent stem cell HLCs. Conclusion: This work supports the potential of genome-edited hiPSC-derived hepatic 3D organoids in exploring human hepatocyte biology, including the functional interrogation of genes identified through human genetic investigation.

18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prediction of disease risk is a key component of precision medicine. Common traits such as psychiatric disorders have a complex polygenic architecture, making the identification of a single risk predictor difficult. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) denoting the sum of an individual's genetic liability for a disorder are a promising biomarker for psychiatric disorders, but they require evaluation in a clinical setting. METHODS: We developed PRSs for 6 psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cross disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa) and 17 nonpsychiatric traits in more than 10,000 individuals from the Penn Medicine Biobank with accompanying electronic health records. We performed phenome-wide association analyses to test their association across disease categories. RESULTS: Four of the 6 psychiatric PRSs were associated with their primary phenotypes (odds ratios from 1.2 to 1.6). Cross-trait associations were identified both within the psychiatric domain and across trait domains. PRSs for coronary artery disease and years of education were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders, largely driven by an association with tobacco use disorder. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the genetic architecture of electronic health record-derived psychiatric diagnoses is similar to ascertained research cohorts from large consortia. Psychiatric PRSs are moderately associated with psychiatric diagnoses but are not yet clinically predictive in naïve patients. Cross-trait associations for these PRSs suggest a broader effect of genetic liability beyond traditional diagnostic boundaries. As identification of genetic markers increases, including PRSs alongside other clinical risk factors may enhance prediction of psychiatric disorders and associated conditions in clinical registries.

19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 417-423, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial sitosterolemia is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by hyperabsorption and decreased biliary excretion of dietary sterols. Affected individuals typically have complete genetic deficiency-homozygous loss-of-function (LoF) variants-in the ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes and have substantially elevated plasma sitosterol and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The impact of partial genetic deficiency of ABCG5 or ABCG8-as occurs in heterozygous carriers of LoF variants-on LDL-C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has remained uncertain. METHODS: We first recruited 9 sitosterolemia families, identified causative LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8, and evaluated the associations of these ABCG5 or ABCG8 LoF variants with plasma phytosterols and lipid levels. We next assessed for LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 in CAD cases (n=29 321) versus controls (n=357 326). We tested the association of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 with blood lipids and risk for CAD. Rare LoF variants were defined as protein-truncating variants with minor allele frequency <0.1% in ABCG5 or ABCG8. RESULTS: In sitosterolemia families, 7 pedigrees harbored causative LoF variants in ABCG5 and 2 pedigrees in ABCG8. Homozygous LoF variants in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 led to marked elevations in sitosterol and LDL-C. Of those sitosterolemia families, heterozygous carriers of ABCG5 LoF variants exhibited increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels compared with noncarriers. Within large-scale CAD case-control cohorts, prevalence of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 and in ABCG8 was ≈0.1% each. ABCG5 heterozygous LoF variant carriers had significantly elevated LDL-C levels (25 mg/dL [95% CI, 14-35]; P=1.1×10-6) and were at 2-fold increased risk of CAD (odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.27-3.35]; P=0.004). By contrast, ABCG8 heterozygous LoF carrier status was not associated with increased LDL-C or risk of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Although familial sitosterolemia is traditionally considered as a recessive disorder, we observed that heterozygous carriers of an LoF variant in ABCG5 had significantly increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels and a 2-fold increase in risk of CAD.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(17): e016507, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799709

RESUMO

Background High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol has inverse association with cardiovascular disease. HDL possesses anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, but it is unknown whether this may be protective in individuals with inflammation. Methods and Results The functional capacity of HDL to inhibit oxidation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ie, the HDL inflammatory index; HII) was measured at baseline and 12 months after random allocation to rosuvastatin or placebo in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Evaluating Rosuvastatin) trial. There were 517 incident cases of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality compared to 517 age- and sex-matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations of HII with events. Median baseline HII was 0.54 (interquartile range, 0.50-0.59). Twelve months of rosuvastatin decreased HII by a mean of 5.3% (95% CI, -8.9% to -1.7%; P=0.005) versus 1.3% (95% CI, -6.5% to 4.0%; P=0.63) with placebo (P=0.22 for between-group difference). HII had a nonlinear relationship with incident events. Compared with the reference group (HII 0.5-1.0) with the lowest event rates, participants with baseline HII ≤0.5 had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease/mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.21; P=0.02). Furthermore, there was significant (P=0.002) interaction for HDL particle number with HII, such that having more HDL particles was associated with decreased risk only when HDL was anti-inflammatory. Conclusions In JUPITER participants recruited on the basis of chronic inflammation, HII was associated with incident cardiovascular disease/mortality, with an optimal anti-inflammatory HII range between 0.5 and 1.0. This nonlinear relationship of anti-inflammatory HDL function with risk may account in part for the HDL paradox. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00239681.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...