*Phys Rev Lett ; 128(17): 176405, 2022 Apr 29.*

##### RESUMO

The formation of large polarons has been proposed as reason for the high defect tolerance, low mobility, low charge carrier trapping, and low nonradiative recombination rates of lead halide perovskites. Recently, direct evidence for large-polaron formation has been reported from a 50% effective mass enhancement in angle-resolved photoemission of CsPbBr_{3} over theory for the orthorhombic structure. We present in-depth band dispersion measurements of CsPbBr_{3} and GW calculations, which lead to similar effective masses at the valence band maximum of 0.203±0.016 m_{0} in experiment and 0.226 m_{0} in orthorhombic theory. We argue that the effective mass can be explained solely on the basis of electron-electron correlation and large-polaron formation cannot be concluded from photoemission data.

*Adv Mater ; 33(42): e2102935, 2021 Oct.*

##### RESUMO

Ferromagnetic topological insulators exhibit the quantum anomalous Hall effect, which is potentially useful for high-precision metrology, edge channel spintronics, and topological qubits. The stable 2+ state of Mn enables intrinsic magnetic topological insulators. MnBi2 Te4 is, however, antiferromagnetic with 25 K Néel temperature and is strongly n-doped. In this work, p-type MnSb2 Te4 , previously considered topologically trivial, is shown to be a ferromagnetic topological insulator for a few percent Mn excess. i) Ferromagnetic hysteresis with record Curie temperature of 45-50 K, ii) out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy, iii) a 2D Dirac cone with the Dirac point close to the Fermi level, iv) out-of-plane spin polarization as revealed by photoelectron spectroscopy, and v) a magnetically induced bandgap closing at the Curie temperature, demonstrated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), are shown. Moreover, a critical exponent of the magnetization ß ≈ 1 is found, indicating the vicinity of a quantum critical point. Ab initio calculations reveal that Mn-Sb site exchange provides the ferromagnetic interlayer coupling and the slight excess of Mn nearly doubles the Curie temperature. Remaining deviations from the ferromagnetic order open the inverted bulk bandgap and render MnSb2 Te4 a robust topological insulator and new benchmark for magnetic topological insulators.

*ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 02.*

##### RESUMO

Renewed interest in the ferroelectric semiconductor germanium telluride was recently triggered by the direct observation of a giant Rashba effect and a 30-year-old dream about a functional spin field-effect transistor. In this respect, all-electrical control of the spin texture in this material in combination with ferroelectric properties at the nanoscale would create advanced functionalities in spintronics and data information processing. Here, we investigate the atomic and electronic properties of GeTe bulk single crystals and their (111) surfaces. We succeeded in growing crystals possessing solely inversion domains of â¼10 nm thickness parallel to each other. Using HAADF-TEM we observe two types of domain boundaries, one of them being similar in structure to the van der Waals gap in layered materials. This structure is responsible for the formation of surface domains with preferential Te-termination (â¼68%) as we determined using photoelectron diffraction and XPS. The lateral dimensions of the surface domains are in the range of â¼10-100 nm, and both Ge- and Te-terminations reveal no reconstruction. Using spin-ARPES we establish an intrinsic quantitative relationship between the spin polarization of pure bulk states and the relative contribution of different terminations, a result that is consistent with a reversal of the spin texture of the bulk Rashba bands for opposite configurations of the ferroelectric polarization within individual nanodomains. Our findings are important for potential applications of ferroelectric Rashba semiconductors in nonvolatile spintronic devices with advanced memory and computing capabilities at the nanoscale.

*Adv Mater ; 32(10): e1906725, 2020 Mar.*

##### RESUMO

SmB6 has recently attracted considerable interest as a candidate for the first strongly correlated topological insulator. Such materials promise entirely new properties such as correlation-enhanced bulk bandgaps or a Fermi surface from spin excitations. Whether SmB6 and its surface states are topological or trivial is still heavily disputed however, and a solution is hindered by major disagreement between angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) results. Here, a combined ARPES and STM experiment is conducted. It is discovered that the STM contrast strongly depends on the bias voltage and reverses its sign beyond 1 V. It is shown that the understanding of this contrast reversal is the clue to resolving the discrepancy between ARPES and STM results. In particular, the scanning tunneling spectra reflect a low-energy electronic structure at the surface, which supports a trivial origin of the surface states and the surface metallicity of SmB6 .

*Nano Lett ; 18(11): 6672-6678, 2018 11 14.*

##### RESUMO

Most recently, theoretical calculations predicted the stability of a novel two-dimensional phosphorus honeycomb lattice named blue phosphorus. Here, we report on the growth of blue phosphorus on Au(111) and unravel its structural details using diffraction, microscopy and theoretical calculations. Most importantly, by utilizing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we identify its momentum-resolved electronic structure. We find that Au(111) breaks the sublattice symmetry of blue phosphorus leading to an orbital-dependent band renormalization upon the formation of a (4 × 4) superstructure. Notably, the semiconducting two-dimensional phosphorus realizes its valence band maximum at 0.9 eV binding energy, however, shifted in momentum space due to the substrate-induced band renormalization.

*Sci Rep ; 8(1): 485, 2018 01 11.*

##### RESUMO

Helically spin-polarized Dirac fermions (HSDF) in protected topological surface states (TSS) are of high interest as a new state of quantum matter. In three-dimensional (3D) materials with TSS, electronic bulk states often mask the transport properties of HSDF. Recently, the high-field Hall resistance and low-field magnetoresistance indicate that the TSS may coexist with a layered two-dimensional electronic system (2DES). Here, we demonstrate quantum oscillations of the Hall resistance at temperatures up to 50 K in nominally undoped bulk Bi2Se3 with a high electron density n of about 2·1019 cm-3. From the angular and temperature dependence of the Hall resistance and the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations we identify 3D and 2D contributions to transport. Angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy proves the existence of TSS. We present a model for Bi2Se3 and suggest that the coexistence of TSS and 2D layered transport stabilizes the quantum oscillations of the Hall resistance.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(45): 30520-30532, 2017 Nov 22.*

##### RESUMO

To realize spintronic devices based on topological insulators (TIs), well-defined interfaces between magnetic metals and TIs are required. Here, we characterize atomically precisely the interface between the 3d transition metal Fe and the TI Bi2Te3 at different stages of its formation. Using photoelectron diffraction and holography, we show that after deposition of up to 3 monolayers Fe on Bi2Te3 at room temperature, the Fe atoms are ordered at the interface despite the surface disorder revealed by our scanning-tunneling microscopy images. We find that Fe occupies two different sites: a hollow adatom deeply relaxed into the Bi2Te3 quintuple layers and an interstitial atom between the third (Te) and fourth (Bi) atomic layers. For both sites, our core-level photoemission spectra and density-functional theory calculations demonstrate simultaneous chemical bonding of Fe to both Te and Bi atoms. We further show that upon deposition of Fe up to a thickness of 20 nm, the Fe atoms penetrate deeper into the bulk forming a 2-5 nm interface layer containing FeTe. In addition, excessive Bi is pushed down into the bulk of Bi2Te3 leading to the formation of septuple layers of Bi3Te4 within a distance of â¼25 nm from the interface. Controlling the magnetic properties of the complex interface structures revealed by our work will be of critical importance when optimizing the efficiency of spin injection in TI-based devices.

*Nat Commun ; 8(1): 968, 2017 10 17.*

##### RESUMO

Topological insulators constitute a new phase of matter protected by symmetries. Time-reversal symmetry protects strong topological insulators of the Z2 class, which possess an odd number of metallic surface states with dispersion of a Dirac cone. Topological crystalline insulators are merely protected by individual crystal symmetries and exist for an even number of Dirac cones. Here, we demonstrate that Bi-doping of Pb1-x Sn x Se (111) epilayers induces a quantum phase transition from a topological crystalline insulator to a Z2 topological insulator. This occurs because Bi-doping lifts the fourfold valley degeneracy and induces a gap at [Formula: see text], while the three Dirac cones at the [Formula: see text] points of the surface Brillouin zone remain intact. We interpret this new phase transition as caused by a lattice distortion. Our findings extend the topological phase diagram enormously and make strong topological insulators switchable by distortions or electric fields.Transitions between topological phases of matter protected by different symmetries remain rare. Here, Mandal et al. report a quantum phase transition from a topological crystalline insulator to a Z2 topological insulator by doping Bi into Pb1-x Sn x Se (111) thin films.

*Adv Mater ; 29(3)2017 Jan.*

##### RESUMO

The topological properties of lead-tin chalcogenide topological crystalline insulators can be widely tuned by temperature and composition. It is shown that bulk Bi doping of epitaxial Pb1-x Snx Te (111) films induces a giant Rashba splitting at the surface that can be tuned by the doping level. Tight binding calculations identify their origin as Fermi level pinning by trap states at the surface.

*Sci Rep ; 6: 27483, 2016 06 07.*

##### RESUMO

Low-field magnetotransport measurements of topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 are important for revealing the nature of topological surface states by quantum corrections to the conductivity, such as weak-antilocalization. Recently, a rich variety of high-field magnetotransport properties in the regime of high electron densities (â¼10(19) cm(-3)) were reported, which can be related to additional two-dimensional layered conductivity, hampering the identification of the topological surface states. Here, we report that quantum corrections to the electronic conduction are dominated by the surface states for a semiconducting case, which can be analyzed by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model for two coupled surfaces in the case of strong spin-orbit interaction. However, in the metallic-like case this analysis fails and additional two-dimensional contributions need to be accounted for. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and quantized Hall resistance prove as strong indications for the two-dimensional layered metallic behavior. Temperature-dependent magnetotransport properties of high-quality Bi2Se3 single crystalline exfoliated macro and micro flakes are combined with high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, confirming the structure and stoichiometry. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy proves a single-Dirac-cone surface state and a well-defined bulk band gap in topological insulating state. Spatially resolved core-level photoelectron microscopy demonstrates the surface stability.

*Adv Mater ; 28(3): 560-5, 2016 Jan 20.*

##### RESUMO

Photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with piezoforce microscopy reveals that the helicity of Rashba bands is coupled to the nonvolatile ferroelectric polarization of GeTe(111). A novel surface Rashba band is found and fingerprints of a bulk Rashba band are identified by comparison with density functional theory calculations.

*Nat Commun ; 5: 3841, 2014 May 12.*

##### RESUMO

Understanding the spin-texture behaviour of boundary modes in ultrathin topological insulator films is critically essential for the design and fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here, by using spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with p-polarized light in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films, we report tunnelling-dependent evolution of spin configuration in topological insulator thin films across the metal-to-insulator transition. We report a systematic binding energy- and wavevector-dependent spin polarization for the topological surface electrons in the ultrathin gapped-Dirac-cone limit. The polarization decreases significantly with enhanced tunnelling realized systematically in thin insulating films, whereas magnitude of the polarization saturates to the bulk limit faster at larger wavevectors in thicker metallic films. We present a theoretical model that captures this delicate relationship between quantum tunnelling and Fermi surface spin polarization. Our high-resolution spin-based spectroscopic results suggest that the polarization current can be tuned to zero in thin insulating films forming the basis for a future spin-switch nanodevice.

*ACS Nano ; 7(6): 5181-91, 2013 Jun 25.*

##### RESUMO

The long-term stability of functional properties of topological insulator materials is crucial for the operation of future topological insulator based devices. Water and oxygen have been reported to be the main sources of surface deterioration by chemical reactions. In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the topological surface states on Bi2X3 (X = Se, Te) by valence-band and core level photoemission in a wide range of water and oxygen pressures both in situ (from 10(-8) to 0.1 mbar) and ex situ (at 1 bar). We find that no chemical reactions occur in pure oxygen and in pure water. Water itself does not chemically react with both Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 surfaces and only leads to slight p-doping. In dry air, the oxidation of the Bi2Te3 surface occurs on the time scale of months, in the case of Bi2Se3 surface of cleaved crystal, not even on the time scale of years. The presence of water, however, promotes the oxidation in air, and we suggest the underlying reactions supported by density functional calculations. All in all, the surface reactivity is found to be negligible, which allows expanding the acceptable ranges of conditions for preparation, handling and operation of future Bi2X3-based devices.

*Adv Mater ; 22(30): 3307-10, 2010 Aug 10.*