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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732108

RESUMO

In animal husbandry for food production, the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic agents, has seen an increase due to raised awareness of animal welfare issues. Residues of NSAIDs may be present in animal products that are intended for human consumption, and since some may pose a certain risk to human health, there is a need to monitor NSAID residues at low levels via routine and targeted surveillance. In analytical chemistry, NSAIDs are usually differentiated using their acid-base properties. Within this study, a method for simultaneous analysis of 27 NSAIDs, including both groups, in milk and muscle samples in 12.5 min is described. Sample processing consisted of enzymatic hydrolysis and acetonitrile extraction, followed by a clean-up of the extract by SPE, and measurement by UHPLC-MS/MS. The in-house validation study (alternative approach), covering trueness, precision, sensitivity, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCß) and matrix effect, was designed and evaluated with the help of validation software to meet the demands of regulatory compliance. The method recovery for milk and muscle matrix was in the range of 98.1% to 106.5% and 98.8% to 102.7%, whereas the CCß as the parameter for screening analysis, ranged from 0.07 to 46.7 µg/kg and 1.19 to 69.7 µg/kg, and the CCα, as the parameter for confirmatory analysis, from 0.11 to 56.7 µg/kg and 1.12 to 518.6 µg/kg, respectively. The occurrence of NSAID residues in milk and muscle samples was assessed using the developed method within the Croatian National Residue Control Plan, revealing quantifiable residues for diclofenac, ketoprofen, and salicylic acid mostly in milk samples. The most abundant NSAID in analysed samples was salicylic acid, which may be introduced into the food chain and be present in various types of matrices due to its natural occurrence in plants as a phytohormone.

2.
ACS Omega ; 6(43): 28729-28741, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746567

RESUMO

The versatility of chitin and its derivatives has allowed their utilization in a wide range of applications, from wastewater treatment to pharmaceutical or biomedical industries. However, even though the extraction method used industrially is extremely efficient, it involves the use of strong acids and bases and results in the disposal of large quantities of toxic effluents. Deep eutectic systems (DESs) have emerged as a promising new class of alternative solvents, including for chitin recovery. Yet, the assessment of their toxicity has often been neglected. Therefore, in this work, the phytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl)/organic acid-based DESs toward wheat seeds was evaluated by measuring different growth parameters and stress biomarkers. DESs were then explored for the efficient recovery of chitin contained in brown crab shell residues at varying conditions of temperature and processing time as well as with and without water addition. The obtained chitin was then characterized through different analytical techniques and compared to a standard as well as to chitin obtained by a conventional acid/alkaline hydrolysis. Results have shown that by applying a ChCl/lactic acid-based DES (which was the system that showed the least phytotoxic effects on wheat; EC50 ≥ 1.6 mg/mL) at 130 °C, it was possible to obtain pure chitin (up to 98%) with characteristics similar to those presented by commercial chitin or chitin recovered by conventional hydrolysis in a shorter time (more than 8-fold faster), thus suggesting that ChCl/organic acid-based DESs can truly represent a low-phytotoxic alternative extraction media for the recovery of chitin from the crab shell biomass.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199146

RESUMO

Brassica oleracea var. acephala is known to have a strong tolerance to low temperatures, but the protective mechanisms enabling this tolerance are unknown. Simultaneously, this species is rich in health-promoting compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, and glucosinolates. We hypothesize that these metabolites play an important role in the ability to adapt to low temperature stress. To test this hypothesis, we exposed plants to chilling (8 °C) and additional freezing (-8 °C) temperatures under controlled laboratory conditions and determined the levels of proline, chlorophylls, carotenoids, polyphenols, and glucosinolates. Compared with that of the control (21 °C), the chilling and freezing temperatures increased the contents of proline, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Detailed analysis of individual glucosinolates showed that chilling increased the total amount of aliphatic glucosinolates, while freezing increased the total amount of indolic glucosinolates, including the most abundant indolic glucosinolate glucobrassicin. Our data suggest that glucosinolates are involved in protection against low temperature stress. Individual glucosinolate species are likely to be involved in different protective mechanisms because they show different accumulation trends at chilling and freezing temperatures.

4.
Waste Manag ; 120: 340-350, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340816

RESUMO

This research investigates the use of seven natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) for valorisation of orange peel waste, with the final goal to propose a unique NADES for integrated biorefinery. Initial screening of NADESs revealed the excellent ability of cholinium-based NADES with ethylene glycol as hydrogen bond donor (ChEg50) to serve as a medium for orange peel-catalysed kinetic resolution (hydrolysis) of (R,S)-1-phenylethyl acetate with high enantioselectivity (ee = 83.2%, X  = 35%), as well as it's stabilizing effect on the hydrolytic enzymes (hydrolytic enzymes within ChEg50 peel extract were stabile during 20 days at 4 °C). The ChEg50 also showed a satisfactory capacity to extract D-limonene (0.5 mg gFW-1), and excellent capacity to extract polyphenols (45.7 mg gFW-1), and proteins (7.7 mg gFW-1) from the peel. Based on the obtained results, the integrated biorefinery of orange peel waste using ChEg50 in a multistep process was performed. Firstly, enantioselective kinetic resolution was performed (step I; ee = 83.2%, X  = 35%), followed by isolation of the product 1-phenylethanol (step II; h = 82.2%) and extraction of polyphenols (step III; h = 86.8%) from impoverished medium. Finally, the residual orange peel was analysed for sugar and lignin content, and results revealed the potential of waste peel for the anaerobic co-digestion process. The main bottlenecks and futures perspective of NADES-assisted integrated biorefinery of orange peel waste were outlined through SWOT analysis.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Hidrólise , Lignina , Polifenóis , Solventes
5.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481534

RESUMO

The absence of vitamin E from the diet can lead to cardiovascular disease, cancer, cataracts, and premature aging. Vitamin K deficiency can lead to bleeding disorders. These fat-soluble vitamins are important nutritional factors that can be determined in different methods in vegetables. In this work, the simultaneous determination of α-tocopherol, α-tocopheryl acetate, phylloquinone, and menaquinone-4 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized using both direct injection and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Three different sample pre-treatment approaches based on: (A) solid-liquid-liquid-liquid extraction (SLE-LLE), (B) SLE, and (C) SPME were then applied to extract the target analytes from vegetables samples using menaquinone as internal standard. All the procedures allowed the determination of the target analytes in onion, carrot, celery, and curly kale samples. Similar results were obtained with the three different approaches, even if the one based on SPME offers the best performance, together with a reduced use of solvent, time consumption, and experimental complexity, which makes it the preferable option for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Verduras/química , Vitamina E/análise , Vitamina K/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura , Vitamina K 1/análise , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 300: 125185, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326673

RESUMO

Bioactive compounds should be extracted using alternative solvents and enabling technologies, in accordance with green extraction principles. The aim of this study is to develop an eco-friendly extraction method for grape-pomace anthocyanins on a larger scale. From a preliminary screening of 8 different natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES), a combination of choline chloride:citric acid was selected because of its price, physicochemical properties, and anthocyanin recovery and stability. The effects of multimode-microwave (MW), and low-frequency-ultrasound (US) irradiation (used alone or simultaneously), as well as that of process parameters on extraction efficiency have been investigated in order to maximise anthocyanin extraction yield. The best conditions were found to be: simultaneous ultrasound/microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) (MW power at 300 W, US power 50 W), for 10 min with 30% (v/v) of water. This gave 1.77 mg gdw-1 of anthocyanins. Anthocyanins were efficiently recovered from NADES, which were recycled. The optimised procedure was scaled up to a half-litre batch.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Solventes/química , Vitis/química , Micro-Ondas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom
7.
Food Chem ; 283: 628-636, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722921

RESUMO

To establish environmentally friendly polyphenolic extracts from grape and olive pomace, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) were used coupled with alternative energy sources - ultrasound and microwave irradiation. Obtained extracts were characterized by HPLC analysis, while antioxidant capacity was determined by ORAC method. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity of prepared extracts was assessed by antiproliferation assay on two tumour cell lines, whereas for investigation of type of cell death or cell cycle arrest a flow cytometric analysis was applied. In addition, a detection of compounds with DNA/RNA-bindingaffinity in extracts was investigated by UV/Vis and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Grape pomace extract in NADES showed to be the best of all extracts tested, with regard to extraction of total polyphenolic compounds (p < 0.05) and related biological activities such as antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. Prepared polyphenolic extracts in NADES could be considered as ready-to-use in food and pharmaceutical industry without demanding and expensive downstream purification steps.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dicroísmo Circular , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Olea/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Sonicação , Vitis/metabolismo
8.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(2): 253-262, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chiral building blocks [(S)-1-(3-methylphenyl)ethanol, (S)-1-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)ethanol and (S)-1-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)ethanol] for drug synthesis were prepared using two green approaches: (1) the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the biocatalyst and (2) the natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) as the alternative solvents. Three different NADES with different water contents were prepared and screened for the highest conversion and enantiomeric excess of reduction of 1-(3-methylphenyl)ethanone, 1-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)ethanone (DMPA) and 1-(2,4,6-trimethyphenyl)ethanone by S. cerevisiae. The results were used in the development of eco-friendly procedures on a preparative scale. RESULTS: The highest enantioselectivity of baker´s yeast was for the bioconversion of DMPA in choline chloride:glycerol with 30% (v/v) of water (ChGly30). This reaction was used for further studies. Parameters such as pre-treatment of biocatalysts and recyclation of solvent were tested for a possible scale-up of this reaction system. Conversion was improved with the ultrasound pre-treatment of the biocatalysts in ChGly30. Moreover, the biocatalytic asymmetric reduction of DMPA in ChGly30 was successfully performed on a preparative scale with the efficient recyclation of NADES in two cycles, in which the reduction of DMPA was also successfully performed. CONCLUSION: Three enantioselective reductions in NADES with baker's yeast were successfully conducted. According to the highest enantioselectivity of the biocatalyst, the asymmetric reduction of 1-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)ethanone in ChGly30 was also performed on a preparative scale with efficient recyclation and reuse of NADES as a first step towards the implementation of this method on the industrial scale.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solventes/química , Biocatálise , Química Verde , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Água/química
9.
Food Chem ; 269: 96-102, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100490

RESUMO

Five Brassicaceae sprouts (white cabbage, kale, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, arugula) were comparatively analyzed based on phytochemicals (polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, ascorbic acid) content and accompanying enzymes associated with phytochemical stability and bioavailability (peroxidases, myrosinase, and polyphenol-oxidase) that consequently impact food quality. Significantly high content of polyphenols and glucosinolates, as well as a high antioxidant activity were found in white cabbage, followed by kale sprouts. In addition, white cabbage contained higher amount of fibers and lower polyphenol-oxidase activity which potentially indicates prevention of browning and consequently better sprout quality. Arugula and broccoli showed higher activity of myrosinase that may result in higher bioavailability of active glucosinolates forms. According to our data, sprouts are cheap, easy- and fast-growing source of phytochemicals but also they are characterized by different endogenous enzymes activity. Consequently, this parameter should also be taken into consideration in the studies related to the health benefits of the plant-based food.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassica/enzimologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Glucosinolatos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética
10.
Food Technol Biotechnol ; 55(3): 429-437, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089857

RESUMO

In this study, eight different types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) were applied as new solvents in the extraction of flavonoids from grape skin, and compared to the conventional organic solvent extraction that was not reported earlier. The structure of anions, cations and concentration of ILs significantly affected extraction yields. The highest mass fractions of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were obtained with 2.5 mol/L of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C4mim][Br] and 2.5 mol/L of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C2mim][Br], respectively. The studied ILs provided an excellent preliminary result in the extraction of anthocyanins. Significantly higher mass fractions of total and all free anthocyanins were extracted with 2.5 mol/L of [C2mim][Br] and 2.5 mol/L of 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [mim][HSO4] than with conventional solvent with the exception of anthocyanin-3-O-acetylmonoglucosides in the latter. On the other hand, 2.5 mol/L of [C4mim][Br] and 2.5 mol/L of 1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [sC4mim][HSO4] showed significantly higher selectivity towards anthocyanin-3-O-acetylmonoglucosides and anthocyanin-3-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)monoglucosides.

11.
Phytochem Anal ; 28(6): 584-592, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The phytochemical composition and biological activity of non-volatile components of Centaurea ragusina L. has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the phytochemical and bioactive potential (including interactions with polynucleotides) of C. ragusina L. depending on the origin of plant material (in vivo - leaves from natural habitats, ex vitro - leaves from plants acclimated from culture media, in vitro - leaves and calli from plants grown in culture media) and polarity of solvents used in extract preparation (80 and 96% ethanol and water combinations or single solvents). METHODOLOGY: The polyphenol composition was determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Biological activity of extracts was evaluated by following methods: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods for antioxidative activity, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) microdilution method for antibacterial activity, crystal-violet test for cytotoxic activity and thermal denaturation (TD) and circular dichroism (CD) for DNA/RNA interactions. RESULTS: Conditions for the most efficient polyphenol extraction were determined: the 80% ethanol/water solvent system was the most suitable for callus and leaf ex vitro samples and 80 or 96% ethanol for leaf in vivo samples. Significantly higher levels of chlorogenic acid and naringenin were detected in callus tissue than in vivo plant. Ethanolic extracts exhibited the significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. DNA/RNA active compounds in plant extracts were detected by TD and CD methods. CONCLUSIONS: Callus tissue and ex vitro leaves represent a valuable source of polyphenols as in vivo leaves. TD and CD can be applied for detection of DNA/RNA active compounds in extracts from natural resources. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Centaurea/química , DNA/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , RNA/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dicroísmo Circular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 144: 482-489, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667860

RESUMO

An outdoor pot experiment was designed to study the potential of poplar (Populus nigra 'Italica') in phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Poplar was treated with a combination of different concentrations of Cd (w = 10, 25, 50mgkg-1 soil) and Pb (400, 800, 1200mgkg-1 soil) and several physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored including the accumulation and distribution of metals in different plant parts (leaf, stem, root). Simultaneously, the changes in the antioxidant system in roots and leaves were monitored to be able to follow synergistic effects of both heavy metals. Moreover, a statistical analysis based on the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) was performed in order to determine the most important predictors affecting growth and antioxidative machinery activities of poplar under heavy metal stress. The study demonstrated that tested poplar could be a good candidate for phytoextraction processes of Cd in moderately contaminated soils, while in heavily contaminated soil it could be only considered as a phytostabilisator. For Pb remediation only phytostabilisation process could be considered. By using RFA we pointed out that it is important to conduct the experiments in an outdoor space and include environmental conditions in order to study more realistic changes of growth parameters and accumulation and distribution of heavy metals. Also, to be able to better understand the interactions among previously mentioned parameters, it is important to conduct the experiments during prolonged time exposure., This is especially important for the long life cycle woody species.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Chumbo/metabolismo , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Populus/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 131: 30-6, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27179607

RESUMO

With the advent of ionic liquids, much was expected concerning their applicability as an alternative to organic solvents in the chemical technology and biotechnology fields. However, the most studied and commonly used ionic liquids based on imidazolium and pyridinium were found not to be as environmentally friendly as it was first expected. Therefore, a new generation of alternative solvents named natural ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents, composed of natural and/or renewable compounds, have come into focus in recent years. Since the number of newly synthesized chemicals increases yearly, simple and reliable methods for their ecotoxicological assessment are necessary. Permanent fish cell lines can serve as a test system for the evaluation of a chemical's cytotoxicity. This paper presents research results on the cytotoxic effects on Channel Catfish Ovary (CCO) cell line induced by fifteen cholinium-based ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents. Based on the decrease in cell viability, the most obvious toxic effect on CCO cells was caused by ionic liquid choline oxalate, while other solvents tested exhibited low cytotoxicity. Therefore, we can conclude that cholinium-based ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents are comparatively less toxic to CCO cells than conventional ionic liquids.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colina/toxicidade , Ictaluridae , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ecotoxicologia , Feminino , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Ovário/citologia
14.
Food Chem ; 200: 159-66, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26830574

RESUMO

Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources.


Assuntos
Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Vitis/química , Cor , Micro-Ondas , Solventes , Água/química
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 101: 116-23, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24507136

RESUMO

We studied the effects of five imidiazolium based ionic liquids with different anions and length of alkyl chains linked to imidazolium ring on the early development of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The inhibitory effect depends on the ionic liquids concentration and chemical structure, whereby the most toxic one was [C10mim][Br], followed by [C7mim][Br], [C4mim][Br], [C4mim][CH3CO2] and [C4mim][BF4]. Both anion and cation structures affected the toxicity of ionic liquid indicating that selection of more biocompatible anions such as [CH3CO2] does not necessarily indicate lower toxicity. Alternation in the extent of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities were found in barley plants due to ionic liquid treatments. When seedlings were exposed to higher concentrations of ionic liquids, antioxidant system could not effectively remove reactive oxidative species, leading to lipid peroxidation and damage of the photosynthetic system. However, overall data indicated that the performance of barley seedling was improved when all measured enzymes involved in scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased with special emphasis on GPX activities. Since there are no studies about ionic liquid (IL) toxicity in plants, that simultaneously evaluates the antioxidative enzyme system in response to different ILs, this work is valuable for gaining knowledge about the protection mechanism of plants from oxidative stress caused by IL exposure.


Assuntos
Ânions/química , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Líquidos Iônicos/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos
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