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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371969

RESUMO

The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases is on the rise in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon. This study aimed to provide data on fatty acid profiles and ratios of Lebanese composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market foods. Methods: Thirty types of traditional dishes, collected from five different Lebanese governorates, thirty-seven types of Arabic sweets and forty-six market food products were considered for analysis. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The range of total fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 1.2-11.7 g/100 g, 5.3-25.8 g/100 g, and 0.5-100 g/100 g, respectively. Additionally, the range of saturated fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 0.5-4.9 g/100 g, 2.5-23.6 g/100 g and 0.1-56.4 g/100 g, respectively. Furthermore, about 75% of these foods were poor in unsaturated fatty acids. Regarding saturated fatty acid, the polyunsaturated to monounsaturated (P.M.S) ratio was lower than the recommended ratio of 1:1:1 in 96% of samples. To conclude, there is a need to prioritize fat content in foods and consider processing modifications in the food production system with the aim of achieving a higher P:M:S ratio intake among the population.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cultura , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Jordânia , Kuweit , Líbano , Oriente Médio , Arábia Saudita , Urbanização
2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 1): 50, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Lebanon, HIV is concentrated in both native and refugee communities of men who have sex with men (MSM). For over 10 years, the National AIDS Program (NAP) has offered HIV voluntary counselling and testing through a partnership with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In 2018, implementation of HIV self-tests (HIVST) was introduced, and this self-care intervention has been further scaled up during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This paper (1) describes the effectiveness of implementing HIVST in Lebanon, and (2) discusses how the success of HIVST implementation has been reflected during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The NAP conducted a series of workshops (July-November 2018) to introduce HIVST services for healthcare workers working at different NGOs. The workshops highlighted that HIVST would be distributed for free, that it would be confidential and voluntary, and that participants were encouraged to notify the NGOs of their results, which would be kept strictly confidential. NGOs collected data anonymously and confidentially from beneficiaries (age, consistency of condom use and HIV testing history), who were asked to call back with the results of their HIVST. At the NAP, data were combined, aggregated and analysed. RESULTS: In 2019, the NGOs distributed 1103/1380 (79.9%) HIVST kits to their beneficiaries. The NGOs collected feedback on 111 kit results, of which two were HIV-positive. Feedback about HIVST results from beneficiaries was low (111/1103) due to noncompliance of beneficiaries and the lack of human and financial resources in the NGOs. From January through May 2020, a total of 625/780 HIVST kits (80.1%) were distributed. This period was divided into pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19. The follow-up with the beneficiaries during COVID-19 was much improved because of the absence of on-site activities, shifting more efforts towards HIVST (449/625). There have been no reports of social harm related to HIVST. CONCLUSION: HIVST implementation in Lebanon serves as an example of introducing a self-care intervention as part of a community-led effort. In order to maintain HIVST services at the same improved level, reorganization of care is needed within each NGO following the adaptation process due to COVID-19, along with continuous monitoring and evaluation of HIVST reported data.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Autoteste , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Programas Governamentais , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organizações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
F1000Res ; 10: 12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708377

RESUMO

Background: The important role of Mediterranean diet was elucidated in various clinical and epidemiological studies underlying its impact on reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to convert the recipes of the Lebanese traditional dishes into meal planning exchange lists whose items are expressed in grams and adjusted to Lebanese household measures (cups and spoons) that could be used by healthcare professionals. Methodology: Thirty traditional Lebanese dishes were collected in which the carbohydrate, fat and protein were analyzed using Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedures then followed by a calculation of exchange lists of foods per serving using Wheeler method. Results:  The variations in macronutrients and fiber content were found among the Lebanese dishes. Carbohydrate was lowest (1.1g/100g) and protein was highest (29.7g/100g) in Shawarma Dajaj whereas fat content ranged between 0.5 and 22.4 g/100 g in the dishes. For each dish and according to each serving size, carbohydrate, milk (whole milk, reduced fat or skim), fat and protein (lean meat, medium fat meat and high fat meat) exchanges were calculated. Conclusion: This study provides healthcare professionals, dietitians and consumers the chance to proficiently plan traditional-type dishes, ensuring prominent dietetic and medical nutritional therapy practices and patient's self-control.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Nutrientes , Doces , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global abrupt progression of the COVID-19 pandemic may disrupt critical life-saving services such as routine immunization (RI), thus increasing the susceptibility of countries to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Being endemic to several infectious diseases, Lebanon might be at increased risk of outbreaks as the utilization of RI services might have deteriorated due to the pandemic and the country's political unrest following the October 2019 uprising. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the utilization of RI services in both the public and private sectors following the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A self-administered cross-sectional survey was completed electronically, in April 2020, by 345 private pediatricians who are registered in professional associations of physicians in Lebanon and provide immunization services at their clinics. Means of the reported percentages of decrease in the utilization of vaccination services by pediatricians were calculated. As for the public sector, an examination of the monthly differences in the number of administered vaccine doses in addition to their respective percentages of change was performed. Adjustment for the distribution of RI services between the sectors was performed to calculate the national decrease rate. RESULTS: The utilization of vaccination services at the national level decreased by 31%. In the private sector, immunization services provision diminished by 46.9% mainly between February and April 2020. The highest decrease rates were observed for oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and hepatitis A, followed by measles and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The number of vaccine doses administered in the public sector decreased by 20%. The most prominent reductions were detected for the OPV and measles vaccines, and during October 2019 and March 2020. CONCLUSION: The substantial decrease in the utilization of RI as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic requires public health interventions to prevent future outbreaks of VPDs.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunização/psicologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
5.
F1000Res ; 9: 1254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299557

RESUMO

Background: The expanding burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Countries requires urgent public health vigilance and actions. This study aimed at establishing a database analysis of total sugar, salt and iron content in Lebanese foods, focusing on traditional dishes. Methods: The collection of food samples was done using stratified sampling techniques. These samples were classified into five strata, taking into account variation by geographical area (Mount Lebanon, Bekaa, Beirut, Tripoli, and Saida). The number of samples per governorate was estimated to be 30 according to the variability in the dishes' composition. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total sugar, salt, and iron. Results: Among all the governorates, all the tested traditional Lebanese dishes contained little total sugar. More than 60% of the samples tested were rich in sodium. The sodium content ranges were 120-720 mg/100 g in Mount Lebanon, 240-960 mg/100 g in Bekaa, 80-520 mg/100g in Beirut, 252-1952 mg/100g in Tripoli and 40-680 mg/100 g in Saida. The highest mean amount of sodium was observed in the dishes Fatayer Sabanikh and Malfouf Mehche (≥ 600 mg/100 g). Furthermore, more than 80% of the samples had poor amounts of iron in all governorates. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for multi-cultural education and awareness on food sources of salt and iron, and the health effects regarding high intake of salt and low intake of iron. This study is a stepping stone for further research exploring total sugar, salt and iron content of traditional dishes, as well as potential intake by individuals in the Lebanese population.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ferro , Humanos , Líbano , Valor Nutritivo , Açúcares
6.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(8): 870-871, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896877

RESUMO

Emergency preparedness is a critical pillar of the International Health Regulations (IHR), a legally binding instrument underlying the global health security regime that came into effect in 2005. Lebanon, a small country of 10 452 km2 bordering the eastern Mediterranean, ratified the IHR in 2007 after the devasting effects of a sudden military conflict in 2006 that severely impacted the recovering health system. Moreover, the Lebanese health system infrastructure was only just recovering from 15 years of civil war that ended in 1990. Since 2005, the country has also faced a complex refugee crisis potentiating the risk of disease outbreaks since 2011, in addition to a severe financial crisis that has degenerated into social unrest since October 2019, and more recently the COVID-19 pandemic since February 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Substâncias Explosivas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Líbano/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the Syrian crisis, a substantial influx of Syrian refugees into Lebanon posed new challenges to optimal vaccination coverage for all children residing in the country. In 2016, the district-based immunization coverage evaluation survey (CES) assessed routine immunization coverage at the district level in Lebanon among children aged 12-59 months. METHODS: A cross-sectional multistage cluster survey was conducted in all of Lebanon (with the exception of the Nabatieh district) using the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) methodology adapted to the local context. A survey questionnaire consisting of closed and open-ended questions concerning demographic information and the child's immunization status was administered to collect immunization status information. RESULTS: Among surveyed children aged 12-59 months, irrespective of nationality, vaccination coverage at the national level for any recommended last dose was below the targeted 95%. Generally, vaccination coverage levels increased with age and were higher among Lebanese than Syrian children. However, large variations were revealed when coverage rates were analyzed at the district level. Vaccination was significantly associated with nationality, age, mother's educational status and the place of vaccination. Common reasons for undervaccination included the child's illness at the time of vaccine administration, vaccination fees, lack of awareness or a doctor's advice not to vaccinate during campaigns. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variability exists in vaccination coverage among children aged 12-59 months residing in different districts in Lebanon. Immunization coverage reached 90% or above only for the first doses of polio and pentavalent vaccines. A considerable dropout rate from the first dose of any vaccine is observed. Efforts to optimize coverage levels should include increased vaccination initiatives targeting both refugee children and children from vulnerable host communities, increased cooperation between public and private vaccine providers, improved training for vaccine providers to adhere to complete vaccine administration recommendations, and increased awareness among caregivers.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Imunização , Refugiados , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Cuidadores , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Líbano , Masculino , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Poliomielite , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síria , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(3): 331-335, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the sparse information on the burden of influenza in Lebanon, the Ministry of Public Health established a sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to identify the attribution of influenza to reported cases. We aim to highlight the proportion of influenza-associated SARI from September 1st, 2015 to August 31st, 2016 in 2 Lebanese hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in 2 sentinel sites located in Beirut suburbs and southern province of Lebanon. WHO's 2011 standardized SARI case definition was used. Data from September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016 were reviewed, and all-cause hospital admission numbers were obtained. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by RT-PCR. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted using STATA 13. RESULTS: The 2 sentinel sites reported 746 SARI cases during the studied time frame: 467 from the southern province site and 279 from the Beirut suburbs site. SARI reports peaked between January and March 2016. All, except 4, cases were sampled, and a co-dominance of influenza B (43%) and influenza A (H1N1) (41%) was evident. A high proportion of cases was reported in children <2 years 274 (37%). The proportional contribution of influenza-associated SARI to all-cause hospital admissions was high in children <2 years in the south (4.5% [95% CI: 3.1-6.5]) and in children <5 years in Beirut (0.7% [95% CI: 0.6-0.8]). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to highlight the proportion of influenza-associated SARI in 2 hospitals in Lebanon. The findings will be beneficial for supporting respiratory prevention and immunization program policies.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Projetos Piloto , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Gates Open Res ; 2: 71, 2018 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734029

RESUMO

Background: The effect of immunization does not only depend on its completeness, but also on its timely administration. Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. This article attempts to assess timeliness of routine vaccination coverage among a sub-sample of children from a survey conducted in 2016. Methods: This analysis was based on data from a cross-sectional multistage cluster survey conducted between December 2015 and June 2016 among caregivers of children aged 12-59 months in all of Lebanon using a structured survey questionnaire. The analysis used Kaplan-Meier curves and logistic regression to identify the predictors of age-appropriate immunization. Results: Among the 493 randomly selected children, timely administration of the third dose of polio vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-containing vaccine and hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine occurred in about one-quarter of children. About two-thirds of children received the second dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV) within the age interval recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Several factors including socio-demographic, knowledge, beliefs and practices were found to be associated with age-appropriate vaccination; however, this association differed between the types and doses of vaccine. Important factors associated with timely vaccination included being Lebanese as opposed to Syrian and being born in a hospital for hepatitis B birth dose; believing that vaccination status was up-to-date was related to untimely vaccination. Conclusions: The results suggest that there is reason for concern over the timeliness of vaccination in Lebanon. Special efforts need to be directed towards the inclusion of timeliness of vaccination as another indicator of the performance of the EPI in Lebanon.

10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 50(14): 1826-39, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26646475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring studies are crucial for informing and reforming local policies. OBJECTIVES: Using the Lebanon 2005 and 2011 Global School-based Student Health Surveys (GSHS), alcohol time trends were described, policy gaps were identified, and harm reduction policy recommendations were made. METHODS: In 2005 and 2011, 100 (n = 5109 students) and 44 (n = 2784 students) middle schools were surveyed, respectively. Self-reported cross-sectional data on alcohol use among 7-9th graders in private and public schools was collected including 30-day prevalence, lifetime drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, and sources of alcohol. RESULTS: In 2011, the majority (87%) had alcohol before turning 14. Between 2005 and 2011, past 30-day alcohol use had increased by 40% and lifetime drunkenness by 50% in the total sample (122% among females with a narrowing in the gender gap). Drinking was regular for more than a third of the past 30-day drinkers (drank two or more drinks on the days they drank). Male adolescents were more likely to obtain alcohol from "stores" or "through their friends" whereas females' main source was their "family." One in twenty reported experiencing alcohol-related problems (e.g., getting into fights with family/friends and skipping school). Conclusion/Importance: Evidence-informed policy implications include enforcing a minimum legal drinking age, regulating alcohol advertising, and marketing particularly those targeting youth and women, and ensuring the availability of youth-friendly services. Public messages to increase awareness among all stakeholders including youth, their parents, and larger community are also needed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 20(10): 1712-5, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279543

RESUMO

In September 2012, a cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak began among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. For 948 patients in whom leishmaniasis was not confirmed, we obtained samples for microscopic confirmation and molecular speciation. We identified Leishmania tropica in 85% and L. major in 15% of patients. After 3 months of megulamine antimonite therapy, patients initial cure rate was 82%.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Refugiados , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Líbano/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Antimoniato de Meglumina , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Síria/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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