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1.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484648

RESUMO

Germline DDX41 mutations are involved in familial myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML). We analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies in an unselected cohort of 1385 patients with MDS or AML. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified 28 different germline DDX41 variants in 43 unrelated patients which we classified as causal (n=21) or unknown significance (n=7) variants. We focused on the 33 patients having causal variants, representing 2.4% of our cohort. Median age was 69 years, most patients were males (79%). Only 9 patients (27%) had a family history of hematological malignancy, while 15 (46%) had personal history of cytopenias years prior to MDS/AML diagnosis. Most patients had normal karyotype (85%) and the most frequent somatic alteration was a second DDX41 mutation (79%). High-risk DDX41 MDS/AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy (n=9) or azacitidine (n=11) had an overall response rate of 100% and 73%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 5.2 years. Our study highlights that germline DDX41 mutations are relatively common in adult MDS/AML, often without known family history, arguing for systematic screening. Salient features of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies include male preponderance, frequent pre-existing cytopenias, additional somatic DDX41 mutation and relatively good outcome.

2.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289201

RESUMO

Targeting chemoresistant malignant cells is one of the current major challenges in oncology. Therefore, it is mandatory to refine the characteristics of these cells to monitor their survival and develop adapted therapies. This is particularly of interest for acute myeloid leukemia for which 5-year survival rate reach only 30% for all prognosis. The role of microenvironment is increasingly reported to be a key regulator for blast survival. In this context, we demonstrate that contact with mesenchymal stromal cells promote a better survival of blasts in culture in presence of anthracycline through the activation of ABC transporters. Stroma-dependent ABC transporter activation leads to the induction of a side population phenotype in a subpopulation of primary leukemia blasts through Alpha4 engagement. The stroma-promoting effect is reversible and is observed with stromal cells isolated from either healthy donors or leukemia patients. Blasts expressing a side population phenotype are mostly quiescent and are chemoresistant in vitro and in vivo in patient-derived xenograft mouse models. At the transcriptomic level, blats from the side population are specifically enriched in drug metabolism program. This detoxification signature engaged in contact with mesenchymal stromal cells represents promising ways to target stroma-induced chemoresistance of acute myeloid leukemia cells.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338833

RESUMO

Congenital sideroblastic anaemia (CSA) is a rare disease caused by germline mutations of genes involved in haem and iron-sulphur cluster formation, and mitochondrial protein biosynthesis. We performed a retrospective multicentre European study of a cohort of childhood-onset CSA patients to explore genotype/phenotype correlations. We studied 23 females and 20 males with symptoms of CSA. Among the patients, the most frequently mutated genes were ALAS2 (n = 10; 23·3%) and SLC25A38 (n = 8; 18·6%), causing isolated forms of microcytic anaemia of varying severity. Five patients with SLC19A2 mutations suffered from thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia and three exhibited the 'anaemia, deafness and diabetes' triad. Three patients with TRNT1 mutations exhibited severe early onset microcytic anaemia associated with thrombocytosis, and two exhibited B-cell immunodeficiency, inflammatory syndrome and psychomotor delay. The prognoses of patients with TRNT1 and SLC2A38 mutations were generally dismal because of comorbidities or severe iron overload. No molecular diagnosis could be established in 14/43 cases. This study emphasizes the frequency of ALAS2 and SLC25A38 mutations and provides the largest comprehensive analysis to date of genotype/phenotype correlations in CSA. Further studies of CSA patients with data recorded in an international registry would be helpful to improve patient management and establish standardized guidelines.

4.
Blood ; 133(16): 1766-1777, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755419

RESUMO

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acquired genetic aberrations carry prognostic implications and guide therapeutic decisions. Clinical algorithms have been improved by the incorporation of novel aberrations. Here, we report the presence and functional characterization of mutations in the transcription factor NFE2 in patients with AML and in a patient with myelosarcoma. We previously described NFE2 mutations in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and demonstrated that expression of mutant NFE2 in mice causes a myeloproliferative phenotype. Now, we show that, during follow-up, 34% of these mice transform to leukemia presenting with or without concomitant myelosarcomas, or develop isolated myelosarcomas. These myelosarcomas and leukemias acquired AML-specific alterations, including the murine equivalent of trisomy 8, loss of the AML commonly deleted region on chromosome 5q, and mutations in the tumor suppressor Trp53 Our data show that mutations in NFE2 predispose to the acquisition of secondary changes promoting the development of myelosarcoma and/or AML.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 183(5): 766-774, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407615

RESUMO

The incidence of acquired aplastic anaemia (AA) peaks in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Although age has been associated with response after immunosuppressive therapy (IST), few data exist about the specific outcome of AYA. We retrospectively compared the outcome of 29 children (aged <15 years), 32 AYA (15-25 years) and 23 adults (>25 years) with AA treated front-line with IST in Saint-Louis Hospital. The cumulative incidence of response was lower in adults compared with AYA (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] = 0·38, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0·96-1·00], P = 0·008), but no difference was observed between children and AYA (SHR = 0·84, 95% CI [0·96-1·00], P = 0·56), with a 6 months cumulative incidence of partial response of 44·8% in children, 62·5% in AYA and 21·7% in adults. The 5-year failure-free survival was 48·4%, without impact of age, with a 5-year relapse rate of 20·7%. With a median follow-up of 5·4 years, the 5-year overall survival was 86·5%, without significant difference between children and AYA overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1·51, 95% CI [0·25-9·02], P = 0·66), while adults displayed poorer survival than AYA (HR 4·98, 95% CI [1·00-24·73], P = 0·049). This study confirms that age is a prognostic factor in AA patients treated with IST. However, AYA patients have a similar outcome to children in terms of response rate and survival.

7.
Haematologica ; 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076173

RESUMO

The randomized, phase 3 ALFA-0701 trial showed that a reduced and fractionated dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin added to standard front-line chemotherapy significantly improves event-free survival in adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Here we report an independent review of event-free survival, final overall survival, and additional safety results from ALFA-0701. Patients (N=271) aged 50-70 years with de novo acute myeloid leukemia were randomized to receive conventional front-line induction chemotherapy (3+7 daunorubicin+cytarabine) with/without gemtuzumab ozogamicin 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, and 7 during induction. Patients in remission following induction therapy received 2 courses of consolidation therapy (daunorubicin+cytarabine) with/without gemtuzumab ozogamicin (3 mg/2;/day on day 1) according to their initial randomization. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed event-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival and safety. A blinded independent review confirmed the investigator-assessed event-free survival results (August 1, 2011; hazard ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.49-0.89]; 2-sided p=0.006), corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk of events in the gemtuzumab ozogamicin versus control arm. Final overall survival (April 30, 2013) favored gemtuzumab ozogamicin but was not significant. No differences were observed between arms in early death rate. The main toxicity associated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin was prolonged thrombocytopenia. Veno-occlusive disease (including after transplant) was observed in 6 patients in the gemtuzumab ozogamicin arm and 2 in the control arm. In conclusion, gemtuzumab ozogamicin added to standard intensive chemotherapy has a favorable benefit/risk ratio. These results expand front-line treatment options for adult patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00927498).

8.
Haematologica ; 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026341

RESUMO

In standard risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, recent results have shown that ATRA + Arsenic trioxide combinations were at least as effective as classical ATRA + anthracycline based chemotherapy while being less myelosuppressive. However, the role of frontline arsenic trioxide is less clear in higher risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, and access to arsenic remains limited for frontline treatment of standard risk acute promyelocytic leukemia in many countries. In this randomized trial, we compared for consolidation treatment (after ATRA-Chemotherapy induction treatment) arsenic, ATRA and the classical AraC in standard risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, and evaluated the addition of arsenic during consolidation in higher risk APL. Newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with white blood cells < 10 G/L, after an induction treatment consisting of ATRA plus Idarubicin-AraC, received consolidation chemotherapy with Idarubicin and AraC, arsenic or ATRA. Patients with white blood cells >10G received consolidation chemotherapy with arsenic or without arsenic.795 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients were enrolled in this trial. In Standard risk APL (n= 581), 5-year EFS from randomization was 88.7%, 95.7% and 85.4% in the AraC, arsenic and ATRA consolidation groups, respectively (p=0.0067) and 5 year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 5.5%, 0% and 8.2%. (p=0.001). In higher risk APL (n=214), 5-year EFS was 85.5% vs 92.1% (p=0.38) in the chemotherapy and chemotherapy+ arsenic groups, respectively and 5-year CIR of 4.6% and 3.5% (p= 0.99) in the chemotherapy and chemotherapy+ arsenic groups. Due to prolonged myelosuppression in the chemotherapy+ arsenic arm, an amendment excluded AraC during consolidation cycles in the chemotherapy+ arsenic group, resulting in no increase in relapse. Our results therefore advocate systematic introduction of arsenic in the first line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, but probably not concomitantly with intensive chemotherapy, a situation where we found myelosuppression to be significant. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00378365).

10.
Blood ; 132(7): 694-706, 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907599

RESUMO

Inhibition of Janus-kinase 1/2 (JAK1/2) is a mainstay to treat myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Sporadic observations reported the co-incidence of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas during treatment of MPN with JAK1/2 inhibitors. We assessed 626 patients with MPN, including 69 with myelofibrosis receiving JAK1/2 inhibitors for lymphoma development. B-cell lymphomas evolved in 4 (5.8%) of 69 patients receiving JAK1/2 inhibition compared with 2 (0.36%) of 557 with conventional treatment (16-fold increased risk). A similar 15-fold increase was observed in an independent cohort of 929 patients with MPN. Considering primary myelofibrosis only (N = 216), 3 lymphomas were observed in 31 inhibitor-treated patients (9.7%) vs 1 (0.54%) of 185 control patients. Lymphomas were of aggressive B-cell type, extranodal, or leukemic with high MYC expression in the absence of JAK2 V617F or other MPN-associated mutations. Median time from initiation of inhibitor therapy to lymphoma diagnosis was 25 months. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were already detected in the bone marrow during myelofibrosis in 16.3% of patients. Lymphomas occurring during JAK1/2 inhibitor treatment were preceded by a preexisting B-cell clone in all 3 patients tested. Sequencing verified clonal identity in 2 patients. The effects of JAK1/2 inhibition were mirrored in Stat1-/- mice: 16 of 24 mice developed a spontaneous myeloid hyperplasia with the concomitant presence of aberrant B cells. Transplantations of bone marrow from diseased mice unmasked the outgrowth of a malignant B-cell clone evolving into aggressive B-cell leukemia-lymphoma. We conclude that JAK/STAT1 pathway inhibition in myelofibrosis is associated with an elevated frequency of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. Detection of a preexisting B-cell clone may identify individuals at risk.

13.
Nephrol Ther ; 14 Suppl 1: S103-S113, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-dose methotrexate (at least 1g/m2) is used to treat haematologic malignancies and osteosarcomas. Acute kidney injury is a well-known adverse-event after high-dose methotrexate and may lead to delayed drug elimination. Besides usual therapeutics (hyperhydration, urine alkalinisation, leucovorin rescue, renal replacement therapy), a costly specific enzymatic treatment (glucarpidase) is now available but its clinical impact remains elusive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed high-dose methotrexate prescription charts in 11 clinical centres during the last 15 years to identify and describe adult patients who developed acute kidney injury (according to KDIGO classification). Glucarpidase use was recorded (French temporary regulatory approval criteria: methotrexate at least 10µmol/L at 48h or at least 3µmol/L at 48h associated with acute kidney injury). RESULTS: Seventy-six acute kidney injury cases have been studied. Mean peak creatinine was 206µmol/L after a mean delay of 5.6 days, with 19 cases of stage 1 acute kidney injury (25%), 29 cases of stage 2 (38%) and 27 cases of stage 3 (36%). Anuria (one case) and need for renal replacement therapy (four cases) were unusual whereas fluid overload was often observed (29%). Three months after high-dose methotrexate treatment, mortality-rate was 17%, and 12% of surviving patients developed renal sequelae. CONCLUSION: Sixty-one percent of patients received a glucarpidase perfusion during acute kidney injury. Despite a dramatic decrease of methotrexate serum levels, glucarpidase as compared with conservative treatment did not modify acute kidney injury stage, recovery delay, need for renal replacement therapy or the incidence of extrarenal toxicities. Net clinical benefit was not observed even after stratification according to eligibility criteria for glucarpidase use. Glucarpidase has probably no or little effects on methotrexate localized into tubular lumen or proximal tubular cells and that may account for the absence of nephroprotective effect for enzymatic treatment.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , gama-Glutamil Hidrolase/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Haematologica ; 103(2): 212-220, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170252

RESUMO

Few therapeutic options are available for patients with aplastic anemia who are ineligible for transplantation or refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Eltrombopag was recently shown to produce trilineage responses in refractory patients. However, the effects of real-life use of this drug remain unknown. This retrospective study (2012-2016) was conducted by the French Reference Center for Aplastic Anemia on patients with relapsed/refractory aplastic anemia, and patients ineligible for antithymocyte globulin or transplantation, who received eltrombopag for at least 2 months. Forty-six patients with aplastic anemia were given eltrombopag without prior antithymocyte globulin treatment (n=11) or after antithymocyte globulin administration (n=35) in a relapsed/refractory setting. Eltrombopag (median daily dose 150 mg) was introduced 17 months (range, 8-50) after the diagnosis of aplastic anemia. At last followup, 49% were still receiving treatment, 9% had stopped due to a robust response, 2% due to toxicity and 40% due to eltrombopag failure. Before eltrombopag treatment, all patients received regular transfusions. The overall rates of red blood cell and platelet transfusion independence were 7%, 33%, 46% and 46% at 1, 3, 6 months and last follow-up. Responses were slower to develop in antithymocyte treatment-naïve patients. In patients achieving transfusion independence, hemoglobin concentration and platelet counts improved by 3 g/dL (interquartile range, 1.4-4.5) and 42×109/L (interquartile range, 11-100), respectively. Response in at least one lineage (according to National Institutes of Health criteria) was observed in 64% of antithymocyte treatment-naïve and 74% of relapsed/refractory patients, while trilineage improvement was observed in 27% and 34%, respectively. We found high rates of hematologic improvement and transfusion independence in refractory aplastic anemia patients but also in patients ineligible for antithymocyte globulin receiving first-line treatment. In conclusion, elderly patients unfit for antithymocyte globulin therapy may benefit from eltrombopag.

18.
Oncotarget ; 8(29): 47103-47109, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514758

RESUMO

Azacitidine (AZA), the reference treatment for most higher-risk myelodysplastic (MDS) patients can also improve overall survival (OS) in elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients ineligible for intensive chemotherapy, but reliable biological markers predicting response and OS in patients treated with AZA are lacking. In a preliminary study, we found that an increase of the percentage of BCL2L10, an anti-apoptotic member of the bcl-2 family, was correlated with AZA resistance. In this study, we assessed prospectively by flow cytometry the prognostic value of BCL2L10 positive bone marrow mononuclear cells in 70 patients (42 MDS and 28 AML), prior to AZA treatment.In patients with baseline marrow blasts below 30%, the baseline percentage of bone marrow BCL2L10 positive cells inversely correlated with response to AZA and OS independently of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and IPSS-revised (IPSS-R). Specifically, OS was significantly lower in patients with more than 10% BCL2L10 positive cells (median 8.3 vs 22.9 months in patients with less than 10% positivity, p = 0,001). In summary, marrow BCL2L10 positive cells may be a biomarker for azacitidine response and OS, with a potential impact in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Haematologica ; 102(5): e184-e186, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154086
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(11): 1223-1230, 2017 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221862

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a clofarabine-based combination (CLARA) versus conventional high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) as postremission chemotherapy in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods Patients age 18 to 59 years old with intermediate- or unfavorable-risk AML in first remission and no identified donor for allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) were eligible. Two hundred twenty-one patients were randomly assigned to receive three CLARA or three HDAC consolidation cycles. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS). To handle the confounding effect of SCT that could occur in patients with late donor identification, hazard ratios (HRs) of events were adjusted on the time-dependent treatment × SCT interaction term. Results At 2 years, RFS was 58.5% (95% CI, 49% to 67%) in the CLARA arm and 46.5% (95% CI, 37% to 55%) in the HDAC arm. Overall, 110 patients (55 in each arm) received SCT in first remission. On the basis of a multivariable Cox-adjusted treatment × SCT interaction, the HR of CLARA over HDAC before or in absence of SCT was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.98; P = .041). In a sensitivity analysis, when patients who received SCT in first remission were censored at SCT time, 2-year RFS was 53.3% (95% CI, 39% to 66%) in the CLARA arm and 31.0% (95% CI, 19% to 43%) in the HDAC arm (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.98; P = .043). Gain in RFS could be related to the lower cumulative incidence of relapse observed in the CLARA arm versus the HDAC arm (33.9% v 46.4% at 2 years, respectively; cause-specific HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.94; P = .025). CLARA cycles were associated with higher hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity than HDAC cycles. Conclusion These results suggest that CLARA might be considered as a new chemotherapy option in younger patients with AML in first remission.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleotídeos de Adenina/administração & dosagem , Nucleotídeos de Adenina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Arabinonucleosídeos/administração & dosagem , Arabinonucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Clofarabina , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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