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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607302

RESUMO

This study aims to assess tuberculosis (TB) patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to determine the relationship between HRQoL and the socioeconomic and health characteristics of patients. A mixed-method approach of explanatory sequential design is used in this study. Data were collected at 11 TB centers and two private clinics in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Quantitative data were collected through a standardized questionnaire (SF-36) of RAND organization from 269 pulmonary TB patients. Qualitative data were collected through 20 in-depth interviews, 15 Key Informant interviews, and a focus group discussion. The maximum score of SF-36 is 100, however, different aspects of HRQoL indicated that patients scored lowest in the role limitation physical (10.3) and emotional (11.2) categories, while the highest remained in the mental health (45.3) category. Patients of higher age, being female, low household income, and comorbidity decreased the HRQoL. Qualitative findings show that TB affected the patients' social functioning, vitality, and emotions. Moreover, poverty and low income, people living in Kacha Houses, family support, and the hate from family members and community are related to low HRQoL. In summary, TB has affected the Patients' HRQoL. TB program managers should pay attention to the nonmedication aspects of TB management. Financial support should be extended TB patients. This study calls for the urgent attention of the National Tuberculosis Program and policymakers, for an increased focus on patients' welfare programs.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257951, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648523

RESUMO

Loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] is an important fruit crop in Pakistan; however, a constant decline in its production is noted due biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly disease infestation. Fungal pathogens are the major disease-causing agents; therefore, their identification is necessary for devising management options. This study explored Taxila, Wah-Cantt, Tret, Chatar, Murree, Kalar-Kahar, Choa-Saidan-Shah and Khan-Pur districts in the Punjab and Khyber Paktoon Khawa (KPK) provinces of Pakistan to explore the diversity of fungal pathogens associated with loquat. The samples were collected from these districts and their microscopic characterizations were accomplished for reliable identification. Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergilus flavis, Botrytis cinerea, Chaetomium globosum, Pestalotiopsis mangiferae and Phomopsis sp. were the fungal pathogens infesting loquat in the study area. The isolates of A. alternata and C. lunata were isolated from leaf spots and fruit rot, while the isolates of L. theobromae were associated with twig dieback. The remaining pathogens were allied with fruit rot. The nucleotide evidence of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) were computed from all the pathogens and submitted in the database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). For multigene analysis, beta-tubulin (BT) gene and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) regions were explored for A. alternata and C. lunata isolates, respectively. The virulence scales of leaf spots, fruit rot, and twig dieback diseases of loquat were developed for the first time through this study. It is the first comprehensive study with morpho-molecular identification, and newly developed virulence scales of the fungal pathogens associated with loquat, which improves the understanding of these destructive diseases.

4.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(10)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468725

RESUMO

Permafrost represents a reservoir for the biodiscovery of cold-adapted proteins which are advantageous in industrial and medical settings. Comparisons between different thermo-adapted proteins can give important information for cold-adaptation bioengineering. We collected permafrost active layer samples from 34 points along a proglacial transect in southwest Greenland. We obtained a deep read coverage assembly (>164x) from nanopore and Illumina sequences for the purposes of i) analysing metagenomic and metatranscriptomic trends of the microbial community of this area, and ii) creating the Cold-Adapted Predicted Protein (CAPP) database. The community showed a similar taxonomic composition in all samples along the transect, with a solid permafrost-shaped community, rather than microbial trends typical of proglacial systems. We retrieved 69 high- and medium-quality metagenome-assembled clusters, 213 complete biosynthetic gene clusters and more than three million predicted proteins. The latter constitute the CAPP database that can provide cold-adapted protein sequence information for protein- and taxon-focused amino acid sequence modifications for the future bioengineering of cold-adapted enzymes. As an example, we focused on the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, and demonstrated how sequence variation information could inform its protein engineering.

5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443460

RESUMO

Synthetic heterocyclic compounds have incredible potential against different diseases; pyridines, phenolic compounds and the derivatives of azo moiety have shown excellent antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic, anti-melanogenic, anti-ulcer, anticancer, anti-mycobacterial, anti-inflammatory, DNA binding and chemosensing activities. In the present review, the above-mentioned activities of the nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds (pyridines), hydroxyl (phenols) and azo derivatives are discussed with reference to the minimum inhibitory concentration and structure-activity relationship, which clearly indicate that the presence of nitrogen in the phenyl ring; in addition, the hydroxyl substituent and the incorporation of a diazo group is crucial for the improved efficacies of the compounds in probing different diseases. The comparison was made with the reported drugs and new synthetic derivatives that showed recent therapeutic perspectives made in the last five years.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azo/síntese química , Compostos Azo/química , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fenóis/síntese química , Fenóis/química , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/química
6.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 209: 106322, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We present and analyze a nonstandard numerical method to solve an epidemic model with memory that describes the propagation of Ebola-type diseases. The epidemiological system contemplates the presence of sub-populations of susceptible, exposed, infected and recovered individuals, along with nonlinear interactions between the members of those sub-populations. The system possesses disease-free and endemic equilibrium points, whose stability is studied rigorously. METHODS: To solve the epidemic model with memory, a nonstandard approach based on Grünwald-Letnikov differences is used to discretize the problem. The discretization is conveniently carried out in order to produce a fully explicit and non-singular scheme. The discrete problem is thus well defined for any set of non-negative initial conditions. RESULTS: The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the discrete problem for non-negative initial data is thoroughly proved. Moreover, the positivity and the boundedness of the approximations is also theoretically elucidated. Some simulations confirm the validity of these theoretical results. Moreover, the simulations prove that the computational model is capable of preserving the equilibria of the system (both the disease-free and the endemic equilibria) as well as the stability of those points. CONCLUSIONS: Both theoretical and numerical results establish that the computational method proposed in this work is capable of preserving distinctive features of an epidemiological model with memory for the propagation of Ebola-type diseases. Among the main characteristics of the numerical integrator, the existence and the uniqueness of solutions, the preservation of both positivity and boundedness, the preservation of the equilibrium points and their stabilities as well as the easiness to implement it computationally are the most important features of the approach proposed in this manuscript.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 2497354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394824

RESUMO

The biologically active phytochemicals are sourced from edible and medicinally important plants and are important molecules being used for the formulation of thousands of drugs. These phytochemicals have great benefits against many ailments particularly the inflammatory diseases or oxidative stress-mediated chronic diseases. Eugenol (EUG) is a versatile naturally occurring molecule as phenolic monoterpenoid and frequently found in essential oils in a wide range of plant species. EUG bears huge industrial applications particularly in pharmaceutics, dentistry, flavoring of foods, agriculture, and cosmeceutics. It is being focused recently due to its great potential in preventing several chronic conditions. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared EUG as a nonmutant and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) molecule. The available literature about pharmacological activities of EUG shows remarkable anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties and has a significant effect on human health. The current manuscript summarizes the pharmacological characteristics of EUG and its potential health benefits.

8.
Genet Med ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400813

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic hypomorphic variants in PPA2, encoding the mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase 2 protein, have been recently identified in individuals presenting with sudden cardiac death, occasionally triggered by alcohol intake or a viral infection. Here we report 20 new families harboring PPA2 variants. METHODS: Synthesis of clinical and molecular data concerning 34 individuals harboring five previously reported PPA2 variants and 12 novel variants, 11 of which were functionally characterized. RESULTS: Among the 34 individuals, only 6 remain alive. Twenty-three died before the age of 2 years while five died between 14 and 16 years. Within these 28 cases, 15 died of sudden cardiac arrest and 13 of acute heart failure. One case was diagnosed prenatally with cardiomyopathy. Four teenagers drank alcohol before sudden cardiac arrest. Progressive neurological signs were observed in 2/6 surviving individuals. For 11 variants, recombinant PPA2 enzyme activities were significantly decreased and sensitive to temperature, compared to wild-type PPA2 enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: We expand the clinical and mutational spectrum associated with PPA2 dysfunction. Heart failure and sudden cardiac arrest occur at various ages with inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability, and presentation can include progressive neurological disease. Alcohol intake can trigger cardiac arrest and should be strictly avoided.

9.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1509-1520, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238110

RESUMO

In the present study, a series of azo derivatives (TR-1 to TR-9) have been synthesised via the diazo-coupling approach between substituted aromatic amines with phenol or naphthol derivatives. The compounds were evaluated for their therapeutic applications against alpha-glucosidase (anti-diabetic) and pathogenic bacterial strains E. coli (gram-negative), S. aureus (gram-positive), S. aureus (gram-positive) drug-resistant strain, P. aeruginosa (gram-negative), P. aeruginosa (gram-negative) drug-resistant strain and P. vulgaris (gram-negative). The IC50 (µg/mL) of TR-1 was found to be most effective (15.70 ± 1.3 µg/mL) compared to the reference drug acarbose (21.59 ± 1.5 µg/mL), hence, it was further selected for the kinetic studies in order to illustrate the mechanism of inhibition. The enzyme inhibitory kinetics and mode of binding for the most active inhibitor (TR-1) was performed which showed that the compound is a non-competitive inhibitor and effectively inhibits the target enzyme by binding to its binuclear active site reversibly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Compostos Azo/síntese química , Compostos Azo/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Cinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Nonlinear Dyn ; : 1-18, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219967

RESUMO

In this study, a novel reaction-diffusion model for the spread of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) is investigated. The model is a spatial extension of the recent COVID-19 SEIR model with nonlinear incidence rates by taking into account the effects of random movements of individuals from different compartments in their environments. The equilibrium points of the new system are found for both diffusive and non-diffusive models, where a detailed stability analysis is conducted for them. Moreover, the stability regions in the space of parameters are attained for each equilibrium point for both cases of the model and the effects of parameters are explored. A numerical verification for the proposed model using a finite difference-based method is illustrated along with their consistency, stability and proving the positivity of the acquired solutions. The obtained results reveal that the random motion of individuals has significant impact on the observed dynamics and steady-state stability of the spread of the virus which helps in presenting some strategies for the better control of it.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247345

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in fish poses severe threats to the food safety and human health. This study was conducted to assess Hg bioaccumulation in fish (n = 24) and scalp hair (n = 77) of the fishing communities at up- and downstream of the river Swat, Pakistan. The mean Hg concentration in upstream fish Salmo trutta fario (Brown trout) and Schizothorax plagiostomus (Swati fish) species was 34.7±18 µg kg-1 and 29.4±15 µg kg-1, respectively. The mean Hg concentration in downstream Swati fish, Crossocheilus diplochilus (Spena deqa), and Garra gotyla (Tora deqa) was 65±21 µg kg-1, 123±33 µg kg-1, and 326±53 µg Kg-1, respectively. The mean Hg concentration in scalp hair of the up- and downstream fishing communities was 658±125 µg kg-1 and 3969±791 µg kg-1, respectively. Independent T-test showed significant difference (p < 0.001) in the mean Hg concentration in scalp hair of the up- and downstream communities. The most prevalent health problems found in the fishing community were muscle pain, headache, visual impairment, arterial blood pressure, anemia, and kidney dysfunction. Multiple linear regression indicated that daily and weekly consumption of the fish significantly increase Hg accumulation in human scalp hair. Regular consumption of fruits and cruciferous and leafy vegetables were found to reduce Hg toxicity in the population. Further studies are recommended to identify the sources of Hg and welfare impact of fish contamination on the fishing community of river Swat.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250997

RESUMO

Acceptor-donor-acceptor structured fused-ring electron acceptors (FREAs) are the most efficient electron acceptors used in organic solar cells. We use density functional theory (DFT), its time-dependent version (TD-DFT), and an intra-molecular charge transfer index to evaluate the nature of the excited states of FREAs. Typically, several efficient electronic transitions contribute to the absorption spectra of FREAs. An investigation of every efficient electronic transition of each FREA is performed based on the electronic density variation in the donor and acceptor moieties of the molecules upon absorbing solar photons. Not all these transitions are equivalent for light-to-electricity conversion. The first transition contributes the most to the absorption spectra. This transition is intense and extremely efficient for light-to-electricity conversion, giving a higher value of intra-molecular charge transfer. For certain effective transitions of FREAs, the phenyl rings in the donor unit behave as the electron-donating units, such as IDT-NTI-2EH, BTCN-M, and MeIC. The foremost finding of the present research work is that the furthermost strong electronic transitions are not essentially the most effective ones for the conversion of sunlight into electricity.

13.
Curr Rheumatol Rev ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315379

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a weight-bearing joint disease and more common in the overweight and obese persons. The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of instructions of daily care (IDC) on pain, mobility and body mass index (BMI) among knee OA participants who are overweight or obese. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study was an open-label randomized controlled trial of six-weeks. Forty overweight and obese participants with knee OA were randomly divided into two groups by a computer-generated number. The participants in the Instruction Group (IG) were provided with leaflets explaining IDC for the duration of six-weeks. Both groups were instructed to take low doses of the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) on alternate days. The outcome measures were pain, mobility and BMI. The feasibility and acceptability of knee pain and mobility were assessed using a questionnaire designed by experts in rehabilitation. RESULTS: Participants in the IG reported more statistically significant pain relief as assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score (p=0.001) and improvement in mobility (p=0.000) assessed by the Timed Up and Go test score after six weeks compared to the Control Group (CG). Both groups did not demonstrate any significant change in BMI (p-value > 0.05), The results of descriptive statistics showed a significantly higher satisfaction score to participants who received a combination of IDC and NSAIDs, indicating an acceptable intervention. CONCLUSION: The IDC are effective and acceptable in terms of improving pain and mobility and should be recommended as the usual care of treatment.

14.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(2): 198-201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of Inguinal Hernia had long been remained an enigma & various method had been employed for its management till date. Recent trend is towards the preferential use of mesh in open as well as Laparoscopic approaches where its advocates almost always undermine the role of raphys in the management of inguinal hernia but Darning repair despite all this critique is still a valid & viable option for the management of Indirect inguinal hernia. METHODS: This descriptive study was designed & carried out at the surgical units of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from February 01, 2016 to October 31, 2018. A total of 117 patients with indirect inguinal hernia (primary) were included in study, managed with Darn Repair & were later followed for 2 years for the evidence of recurrence. RESULTS: None of the included patients (followed till last) whom underwent Darning Repair for Indirect Inguinal Hernia were found with the complication of recurrence till 02 years of follow-up although few patients were lost to follow-up for the whole duration 02 years and few others had suffered other early complications like wound infection, seroma, haematoma formation, scrotal swelling or comparatively longer lasting post-operative pain. The Darn Repair was also found cost-effective as compared to Mesh repair. CONCLUSIONS: Darn Repair despite criticism is a viable & effective option for Indirect Inguinal Hernia Repair (where its role indeed is prophylactic {NOT curative} against the future false recurrence), having no recurrence rate (as per our study results) like mesh repair (as per published literature) besides being reasonably cost-effective.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Telas Cirúrgicas , Adulto , Idoso , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Hérnia Inguinal/patologia , Herniorrafia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Seroma/etiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984023

RESUMO

The buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) is a mangrove shrub belonging to Combretaceae family. It mostly grows on the shorelines of tropical and subtropical regions in the world. It was introduced to Lasbela University of Water, Agriculture & Marine Sciences (LUWMS), Uthal, Baluchistan as an ornamental plant as it grows well under harsh, temperate and saline conditions. During a routine survey, typical leaf spot symptoms were observed on the leaves of buttonwood plants. A disease severity scale for alternaria leaf spot of buttonwood was developed for the first time through this study. Disease severity according to the scale was 38.97%. The microscopic characterizations was accomplished for the identification of Alternaria alternata and Koch's postulates were employed to determine the pathogenicity. For molecular identification, 650 bp internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1, 5.8s and ITS2) were amplified from three representative isolates (LUAWMS1, LUAWMS2 and LUAWMS3) through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nucleotide sequences from ITS regions of the isolates were submitted to NCBI with GenBank accession numbers MW585375, MW585376 and MW585377, respectively. The phylogenetic tree of 22 A. alternata isolates was computed and representative isolates exhibited 99.98% genetic similarity with mangroves ecosystem isolates. This study reports the incidence of alternaria leaf spot of buttonwood at LUWMS for the first time. It is suspected that the disease may spread further. Therefore, effective management strategies should be opted to halt the further spread of the disease.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 534-544, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839183

RESUMO

Urease is potential target for various human's health complications, such as peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and kidney stone formation. The present study was based on synthesis of new hybrid pharmacophore N-substituted hydrazine-carbothioamides as potential urease inhibitors. Presented method gave excellent yield in range of 85-95% for hydrazine-carbothioamides derivatives (3a-s) after reaction of mono- and disubstituted hydrazides (1a-k) and substituted isothiocyanates (2a-d). All newly derivatives were characterized by advanced spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, EMS) and were assessed for their urease inhibition potential. All analogs except for 3k, 3l and 3m demonstrated strong inhibitory potential for urease with IC50 values of 8.45 ± 0.14 to 25.72 ± 0.23 µM as compared to standard thiourea (IC50 21.26 ± 0.35 µM). The structure-activity relationship and mode of interaction was established by molecular docking studies. It was revealed that the N-substituted hydrazine-carbothioamides interacted with nickel atoms present in the active site of urease and supported the correlations with the experimental findings. Therefore, the afforded hydrazine-carbothioamides derivatives are interesting hits for urease inhibition studies with future prospects of modification and optimization.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Hidrazinas/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Tioamidas/química , Urease/antagonistas & inibidores , Sítios de Ligação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Tioamidas/farmacologia , Urease/química , Urease/metabolismo
17.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 204: 106054, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We propose a nonstandard computational model to approximate the solutions of a stochastic system describing the propagation of an infectious disease. The mathematical model considers the existence of various sub-populations, including humans who are susceptible to the disease, asymptomatic humans, infected humans and recovered or quarantined individuals. Various mechanisms of propagation are considered in order to describe the propagation phenomenon accurately. METHODS: We propose a stochastic extension of the deterministic model, considering a random component which follows a Brownian motion. In view of the difficulties to solve the system exactly, we propose a computational model to approximate its solutions following a nonstandard approach. RESULTS: The nonstandard discretization is fully analyzed for positivity, boundedness and stability. It is worth pointing out that these properties are realized in the discrete scenario and that they are thoroughly established herein using rigorous mathematical arguments. We provide some illustrative computational simulations to exhibit the main computational features of this approach. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the nonstandard technique is capable of preserving the distinctive characteristics of the epidemiologically relevant solutions of the model, while other (classical) approaches are not able to do it. For the sake of convenience, a computational code of the nonstandard discrete model may be provided to the readers at their requests.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Simulação por Computador , Computadores , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica não Linear , Processos Estocásticos
19.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112232, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676132

RESUMO

Achieving reliable energy supply and environment sustainability whereby mitigating CO2 emissions and promoting sustainable development has become a global effort. Thus, the current study intends to verify the non-linear influence effects of natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy and information and communication technology trade on economic growth and carbon dioxide emission in ten leading CO2 emitter countries from 20002016. The panel regression, such as pooled regression, model fixed effect, random effects, robust least squares and panel causation procedures are applied for panel data appraisal. The regression analysis results mention that nuclear energy, renewable energy, and Information and communication technology (ICT-trade) stimulate economic growth, whereas environmental results illustrate that renewable energy and ICT-trade contribute to eliminating CO2 emissions. The causality findings indicate that renewable energy consumption and ICT trade cause economic growth as well as CO2 emissions. Therefore, policymakers should invigorate to exploit renewable energy and achieve the benefits from the significant influence of economic growth and a clean environment through the potential of green ICT-trade.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Gás Natural , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Políticas , Energia Renovável
20.
Drug Dev Res ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665884

RESUMO

In search for α-glucosidase inhibitors used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, a series of unique benzimidazole based hydrazones derivatives were synthesized (5a-5p), which were then investigated for their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. The compounds of interest were characterized by modern spectroscopic approaches including CHN, 1 HNM R, 13 CN MR and FTIR. The structure of compound 5n was distinctively authenticated through single crystal X-ray study. All compounds depicted potent enzyme inhibitory potential with IC50 values in the range of 2.25 ± 0.01 to 81.16 ± 0.12 µM except 5n that showed IC50 value of 182.75 ± 0.13 µM. A limited structure-activity correlation demonstrated that substitutions of isatin, aldehydes and ketone in hydrazones moiety had remarkable contribution in the overall activity and that was further supported by molecular docking studies carried out in elucidating the mechanism of binding interaction of these compounds in the catalytic site of α-glucosidase.

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