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1.
Nature ; 575(7781): 180-184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695210

RESUMO

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is targeted for emissions mitigation by the US state of California and other jurisdictions worldwide1,2. Unique opportunities for mitigation are presented by point-source emitters-surface features or infrastructure components that are typically less than 10 metres in diameter and emit plumes of highly concentrated methane3. However, data on point-source emissions are sparse and typically lack sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to guide their mitigation and to accurately assess their magnitude4. Here we survey more than 272,000 infrastructure elements in California using an airborne imaging spectrometer that can rapidly map methane plumes5-7. We conduct five campaigns over several months from 2016 to 2018, spanning the oil and gas, manure-management and waste-management sectors, resulting in the detection, geolocation and quantification of emissions from 564 strong methane point sources. Our remote sensing approach enables the rapid and repeated assessment of large areas at high spatial resolution for a poorly characterized population of methane emitters that often appear intermittently and stochastically. We estimate net methane point-source emissions in California to be 0.618 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence interval 0.523-0.725), equivalent to 34-46 per cent of the state's methane inventory8 for 2016. Methane 'super-emitter' activity occurs in every sector surveyed, with 10 per cent of point sources contributing roughly 60 per cent of point-source emissions-consistent with a study of the US Four Corners region that had a different sectoral mix9. The largest methane emitters in California are a subset of landfills, which exhibit persistent anomalous activity. Methane point-source emissions in California are dominated by landfills (41 per cent), followed by dairies (26 per cent) and the oil and gas sector (26 per cent). Our data have enabled the identification of the 0.2 per cent of California's infrastructure that is responsible for these emissions. Sharing these data with collaborating infrastructure operators has led to the mitigation of anomalous methane-emission activity10.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , California , Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Metano/química , Metano/metabolismo , Gás Natural , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/métodos , Petróleo , Águas Residuárias
2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218816, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a world-wide concern due to its growing prevalence and association with cardiometabolic risk factors in childhood and subsequent adult cardiovascular disease. In young pre-school children, there is uncertainty regarding which of the commonly used anthropometric measures of childhood obesity is best associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. This study compared the utility of common measures used in identifying obesity in these young children. METHODS: The four commonly used metrics for identifying obesity in children: body fat percentage ≥ 90th percentile, waist circumference ≥ 90th percentile, BMI z score > 2 SD and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0.5, were measured in a cohort of children born singleton, at full term and followed from birth (n = 761) to 5 years of age (n = 513). The utility of each in identifying cardiometabolic risk factors (fasting lipid profile, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure) was examined. RESULTS: At age 5 years, children with percent body fat ≥ 90th percentile or waist circumference ≥ 90th percentile, were associated with higher levels of triglycerides, glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those < 90th percentile, respectively. Such differences were not obvious at age 3 years or at birth. A BMI z-score > 2 SD was associated with higher levels of triglycerides and systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not glucose at age 5 years. Differences in HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure were observed in children with BMI z score > 2 SD at age 3 years but not with the other indices of obesity. As almost all children had WHtR ≥ 0.5 at birth, ages 1 and 3 years, this measure could not differentiate increased cardiometabolic risk. At age 5 years, the differences were much more obvious, with significant differences in triglycerides and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between those with WHtR ≥ 0.5 and those with < 0.5. CONCLUSION: Each of the four commonly used measures of childhood obesity shows moderate associations with cardiometabolic risk factors at 5 years, with no advantage of one measure over the other. These associations were less consistent at 3 years of age or younger. These observations have not been reported previously.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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