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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468527

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Assuntos
Cromo , Cyprinidae , Carboidratos da Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431906

RESUMO

Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Romã (Fruta) , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1421, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650949

RESUMO

Acute allergic symptoms are caused by allergen-induced crosslinking of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to Fc-epsilon receptors on effector cells. Desensitization with allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has been used for over a century, but the dominant protective mechanism remains unclear. One consistent observation is increased allergen-specific IgG, thought to competitively block allergen binding to IgE. Here we show that the blocking potency of the IgG response to Cat-SIT is heterogeneous. Next, using two potent, pre-selected allergen-blocking monoclonal IgG antibodies against the immunodominant cat allergen Fel d 1, we demonstrate that increasing the IgG/IgE ratio reduces the allergic response in mice and in cat-allergic patients: a single dose of blocking IgG reduces clinical symptoms in response to nasal provocation (ANCOVA, p = 0.0003), with a magnitude observed at day 8 similar to that reported with years of conventional SIT. This study suggests that simply augmenting the blocking IgG/IgE ratio may reverse allergy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Imunoglobulina G/farmacologia , Receptores de IgE/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/isolamento & purificação , Pelo Animal/química , Pelo Animal/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Ligação Competitiva , Gatos , Misturas Complexas/química , Misturas Complexas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/fisiopatologia , Imunoglobulina E/química , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de IgE/química , Receptores de IgE/metabolismo
5.
Heart ; 94(12): 1580-8, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18467354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CRT causes reduction in MR due to left ventricular (LV) remodelling, but determinants of clinically meaningful MR reduction acutely after CRT have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated echocardiographic predictors of significant reduction in functional mitral regurgitation (MR) by cardiac resynchronisation treatment (CRT). METHODS: 35 patients with >or= moderate to severe MR underwent CRT for presence of electrical and/or mechanical dyssynchrony. Significant reduction in MR post-CRT was defined as reduction to less than moderate MR (MR jet area/left atrial area <25%, group 1) on follow-up echocardiogram at 1.7 (SD 2.8) months post-CRT. RESULTS: Significant MR reduction of 62% (28%) from baseline MR occurred in 18 patients vs 22% (16%) in the remaining patients (group 2), p<0.01). Follow-up left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 0.43 (0.09) in group 1 patients vs 0.29% (0.1%) in group 2 patients (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, time to peak strain in the mid inferior segment was the only significant predictor of MR reduction post-CRT (p = 0.008, OR = 1.023 (CI 1.006 to 1.041). The sensitivity and specificity of the combined variable of time to peak strain of >400 ms in the mid inferior segment and peak negative strain of >or=9% and 8% in the basal and mid posterior segments, respectively, to predict follow-up MR was 88% and 93% respectively and positive and negative predictive value was 94% and 87%. CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiomyopathy and significant MR, the presence of delayed longitudinal strain in the mid inferior LV segment along with preserved negative systolic strain in the basal and mid posterior segments predicts substantial reduction in MR post-CRT.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Radiol ; 62(12): 1142-53, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17981161

RESUMO

Pancreatic masses may be solid or cystic, benign or malignant, and their characterization can often be difficult as there is considerable overlap in their imaging features. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with multiplanar reconstructions offers improved resolution and optimum visualization of the peripancreatic vasculature, which has improved the accuracy in predicting surgical resectability. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is valuable in the detection of tumours not identified on CT. It is also accurate in identifying vascular involvement, which complements MDCT in predicting resectability. In cases of diagnostic uncertainty, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can be used to obtain tissue samples from solid lesions and fluid aspirates from cystic lesions, allowing histological, cytological, and biochemical analysis to determine the nature of the lesion. This article focuses on the MDCT and EUS appearances of common pancreatic malignancies, highlighting their relative advantages and their complementary role in detecting and characterizing pancreatic masses. A clinical algorithm for the assessment of pancreatic malignancy, as practised in our institution, is outlined.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Pancreatopatias , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/instrumentação , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Humanos , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/patologia , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/instrumentação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia
7.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 55(3): 385-9, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17534257

RESUMO

Echocardiographic guided pacemaker optimization leads to significant improvement in cardiac function among nonresponders to cardiac resynchronization treatment (CRT). Simpler, noninvasive determination of cardiac function during biventricular pacemaker programming may simplify this procedure. In this report we describe a 73 year old male patient who presented with recent onset NYHA class III symptoms 7 months post-CRT for ischemic cardiomyopathy. During pacemaker optimization using A-pacing at 60 bpm, optimal atrioventricular (AV) delay was found to be 290 ms by both pulsed wave (PW) echo Doppler as well as by the simultaneously measured radial artery pulse waveform analysis by tonometry. No discernable atrial mechanical activity was visible despite presence of sinus rhythm up to an AV delay of 190 ms. Further improvement in cardiac function and decrease in mechanical dyssynchrony was shown with VV optimization by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Our report emphasizes the need for individualized biventricular pacemaker optimization post-CRT and that concomitant assessment via radial artery pulse waveform analysis by tonometry along with PW and TDI may provide additional information during pacemaker programming to assist in pacemaker optimization.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Marca-Passo Artificial , Pulso Arterial , Artéria Radial , Idoso , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Eletrocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Br J Cancer ; 96(6): 882-5, 2007 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17375035

RESUMO

To evaluate the role of chest CT in the initial staging of testicular seminomatous germ cell tumours. All patients referred to Addenbrooke's Hospital with testicular seminoma from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005 were included and case notes retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and eighty-two patients with testicular seminoma were identified, with a median age of 37 years (range 19-74). Most patients had stage I disease (86%). Twenty-four patients had abnormal abdominal CT findings. One hundred and fifty-eight had normal abdominal CT findings but, on initial staging, chest CT reported abnormalities in 13 patients, which, on further follow-up CT were deemed to be irrelevant to the diagnosis of seminoma. There was a further patient with a normal CT abdomen in whom chest CT detected obvious metastatic disease, which was seen on chest x-ray. Overall 18 cases required additional investigations and follow-up for abnormalities subsequently found to be benign. There was a false-positive rate of 10% for initial staging with chest CT. This is the largest reported series of staging CT chest in testicular seminoma. In all patients with normal abdominal CT, normal chest x-ray and abnormal chest CT, subsequent follow-up investigations demonstrated that the lung lesions were incidental findings.


Assuntos
Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Seminoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Orquiectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/patologia , Seminoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
11.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 53(2): 93-108, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15986004

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a new treatment modality for eligible patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The premise of CRT is that it decreases inter and intra ventricular inhomogeneity during systolic contraction thereby improving efficiency of cardiac pump function. Presence of cardiac dyssynchrony appears to be a prerequisite for a response to CRT. Traditionally this inhomogeneity in contraction has been determined by electrocardiographic QRS widening. More recently several echocardiographic methods of assessment of dyssynchrony have become available. These methods utilize conventional M-mode and pulsed wave (PW) Doppler as well tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) METHODS: These echocardiographic parameters have been shown to be more important predictors of response to CRT than conventional QRS widening. This article will discuss echocardiographic methods of assessment of dyssynchrony and their role in predicting response to CRT. In addition role of echocardiography in post CRT pacemaker programming will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Marca-Passo Artificial , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Ultrassonografia
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 107(Pt 1): 346-50, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15360832

RESUMO

This paper describes Kaiser Permanente's (KP) enterprise-wide medical terminology solution, referred to as our Convergent Medical Terminology (CMT). Initially developed to serve the needs of a regional electronic health record, CMT has evolved into a core KP asset, serving as the common terminology across all applications. CMT serves as the definitive source of concept definitions for the organization, provides a consistent structure and access method to all codes used by the organization, and is KP's language of interoperability, with cross-mappings to regional ancillary systems and administrative billing codes. The core of CMT is comprised of SNOMED CT, laboratory LOINC, and First DataBank drug terminology. These are integrated into a single poly-hierarchically structured knowledge base. Cross map sets provide bi-directional translations between CMT and ancillary applications and administrative billing codes. Context sets provide subsets of CMT for use in specific contexts. Our experience with CMT has lead us to conclude that a successful terminology solution requires that: (1) usability considerations are an organizational priority; (2) "interface" terminology is differentiated from "reference" terminology; (3) it be easy for clinicians to find the concepts they need; (4) the immediate value of coded data be apparent to clinician user; (5) there be a well defined approach to terminology extensions. Over the past several years, there has been substantial progress made in the domain coverage and standardization of medical terminology. KP has learned to exploit that terminology in ways that are clinician-acceptable and that provide powerful options for data analysis and reporting.


Assuntos
Sistemas Pré-Pagos de Saúde , Vocabulário Controlado , Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine , Terminologia como Assunto , Estados Unidos
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