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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3103-3110, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808089

RESUMO

Anthrax is a disease of concern in many mammals, including humans. Management primarily consists of prevention through vaccination and tracking clinical-level observations because environmental isolation is laborious and bacterial distribution across large geographic areas difficult to confirm. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with an extensive range in the southern United States that rarely succumbs to anthrax. We present evidence that feral swine might serve as biosentinels based on comparative seroprevalence in swine from historically defined anthrax-endemic and non-anthrax-endemic regions of Texas. Overall seropositivity was 43.7% (n = 478), and logistic regression revealed county endemicity status, age-class, sex, latitude, and longitude were informative for predicting antibody status. However, of these covariates, only latitude was statistically significant (ß = -0.153, p = 0.047). These results suggests anthrax exposure in swine, when paired with continuous location data, could serve as a proxy for bacterial presence in specific areas.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916180

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated intense interest in the rapid development and evaluation of vaccine candidates for this disease and other emerging diseases. Several novel methods for preparing vaccine candidates are currently undergoing clinical evaluation in response to the urgent need to prevent the spread of COVID-19. In many cases, these methods rely on new approaches for vaccine production and immune stimulation. We report on the use of a novel method (SolaVAX) for production of an inactivated vaccine candidate and the testing of that candidate in a hamster animal model for its ability to prevent infection upon challenge with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The studies employed in this work included an evaluation of the levels of neutralizing antibody produced post-vaccination, levels of specific antibody sub-types to RBD and spike protein that were generated, evaluation of viral shedding post-challenge, flow cytometric and single cell sequencing data on cellular fractions and histopathological evaluation of tissues post-challenge. The results from this preliminary evaluation provide insight into the immunological responses occurring as a result of vaccination with the proposed vaccine candidate and the impact that adjuvant formulations, specifically developed to promote Th1 type immune responses, have on vaccine efficacy and protection against infection following challenge with live SARS-CoV-2. This data may have utility in the development of effective vaccine candidates broadly. Furthermore, the results of this preliminary evaluation suggest that preparation of a whole virion vaccine for COVID-19 using this specific photochemical method may have potential utility in the preparation of one such vaccine candidate.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26382-26388, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994343

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached nearly every country in the world with extraordinary person-to-person transmission. The most likely original source of the virus was spillover from an animal reservoir and subsequent adaptation to humans sometime during the winter of 2019 in Wuhan Province, China. Because of its genetic similarity to SARS-CoV-1, it is probable that this novel virus has a similar host range and receptor specificity. Due to concern for human-pet transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of domestic cats and dogs to infection and potential for infected cats to transmit to naive cats. We report that cats are highly susceptible to infection, with a prolonged period of oral and nasal viral shedding that is not accompanied by clinical signs, and are capable of direct contact transmission to other cats. These studies confirm that cats are susceptible to productive SARS-CoV-2 infection, but are unlikely to develop clinical disease. Further, we document that cats developed a robust neutralizing antibody response that prevented reinfection following a second viral challenge. Conversely, we found that dogs do not shed virus following infection but do seroconvert and mount an antiviral neutralizing antibody response. There is currently no evidence that cats or dogs play a significant role in human infection; however, reverse zoonosis is possible if infected owners expose their domestic pets to the virus during acute infection. Resistance to reinfection holds promise that a vaccine strategy may protect cats and, by extension, humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 717-723, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119984

RESUMO

In 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged. To date, more than 2300 cases have been reported, with an approximate case fatality rate of 35%. Epidemiological investigations identified dromedary camels as the source of MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission and evidence of MERS-CoV circulation has been observed throughout the original range of distribution. Other new-world camelids, alpacas and llamas, are also susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Currently, it is unknown whether Bactrian camels are susceptible to infection. The distribution of Bactrian camels overlaps partly with that of the dromedary camel in west and central Asia. The receptor for MERS-CoV, DPP4, of the Bactrian camel was 98.3% identical to the dromedary camel DPP4, and 100% identical for the 14 residues which interact with the MERS-CoV spike receptor. Upon intranasal inoculation with 107 plaque-forming units of MERS-CoV, animals developed a transient, primarily upper respiratory tract infection. Clinical signs of the MERS-CoV infection were benign, but shedding of large quantities of MERS-CoV from the URT was observed. These data are similar to infections reported with dromedary camel infections and indicate that Bactrians are susceptible to MERS-CoV and given their overlapping range are at risk of introduction and establishment of MERS-CoV within the Bactrian camel populations.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Ásia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa
5.
J Virol Methods ; 269: 70-76, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974177

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important mosquito-borne pathogen with devastating impacts on agriculture and public health. With outbreaks being reported beyond the continent of Africa to the Middle East, there is great concern that RVFV will continue to spread to non-endemic areas such as the Americas and Europe. There is a need for safe and high throughput serological assays for rapid detection of RVFV during outbreaks and for surveillance. We evaluated a multiplexing fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in ruminant sera against the RVFV nucleocapsid Np, glycoprotein Gn, and non-structural protein NSs. Sheep and cattle sera from a region in Kenya with previous outbreaks were tested by FMIA and two commercially available competitive ELISAs (BDSL and IDvet). Our results revealed strong detection of RVFV antibodies against the Np, Gn and NSs antigen targets. Additionally, testing of samples with FMIA Np and Gn had 100% agreement with the IDvet ELISA. The targets developed in the FMIA assay provided a basis for a larger ruminant disease panel that can simultaneously screen several abortive and zoonotic pathogens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/veterinária , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Febre do Vale de Rift/diagnóstico , Febre do Vale de Rift/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Quênia , Microesferas , Febre do Vale de Rift/sangue , Ruminantes/imunologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(7): 553-556, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720389

RESUMO

Sporadic outbreaks of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a zoonotic, mosquito-borne Phlebovirus, cause abortion storms and death in sheep and cattle resulting in catastrophic economic impacts in endemic regions of Africa. More recently, with changes in competent vector distribution, growing international trade, and its potential use for bioterrorism, RVFV has become a transboundary animal disease of significant concern. New and sensitive techniques that determine RVFV presence, while lessening the potential for environmental contamination and human risk, through the use of inactivated, noninfectious samples such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are needed. FFPE tissue in situ hybridization (ISH) enables the detection of nucleic acid sequences within the visual context of cellular and tissue morphology. Here, we present a chromogenic pan-RVFV ISH assay based on RNAscope® technology, which is able to detect multiple RVFV strains in FFPE tissues, enabling visual correlation of RVFV RNA presence with histopathologic lesions.


Assuntos
Hibridização In Situ/métodos , RNA Viral/análise , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Fixadores/química , Formaldeído/química , Fígado/virologia , Inclusão em Parafina/métodos , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Ovinos
7.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 17(3): 161-164, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28145811

RESUMO

The recent emergence of the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has become a global public health concern. We describe a series of experimental infections designed to investigate whether animals within certain taxonomic groups in North America have the potential to serve as ZIKV amplifying or maintenance hosts. Species investigated included armadillos, cottontail rabbits, goats, mink, chickens, pigeons, ground hogs, deer mice, cattle, raccoons, ducks, Syrian Golden hamsters, garter snakes, leopard frogs, house sparrows, and pigs. Infectious virus was isolated from blood only in frogs and armadillos; however, the magnitude of viremia was low. In addition, neutralizing antibodies were detected after infection in goats, rabbits, ducks, frogs, and pigs. This study indicates that the animals tested to date are unlikely to act as animal reservoirs for ZIKV, but that rabbits and pigs could potentially serve as sentinel species. Understanding the transmission cycle and maintenance of ZIKV in animals will help in developing effective surveillance programs and preventative measures for future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/virologia , Cricetinae , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Mamíferos/virologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Ranidae/virologia , Serpentes/virologia , Zoonoses
8.
JFMS Open Rep ; 1(1): 2055116915589837, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28491362

RESUMO

CASE SERIES SUMMARY: Three cats with suspected Fournier's gangrene had an acute onset of clinical signs and bloodwork changes consistent with sepsis. All cases had similar progression of wounds that were managed without aggressive surgical debridement, which is the currently accepted treatment of choice. All cats survived and have maintained an excellent long-term quality of life. RELEVANCE AND NOVEL INFORMATION: Fournier's gangrene is a potentially fatal disease, with few cases reported in the veterinary literature. This retrospective case series describes the only known reports of survival from suspected Fournier's gangrene cats, none of which required aggressive surgical debridement.

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