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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(3): 280-283, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170422

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess antimicrobial prescribing patterns, and variation in practice, in India. A point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in October to December 2017 in 16 tertiary care hospitals across India. The survey included all inpatients receiving an antimicrobial on the day of PPS and collected data were analysed using a web-based application of the University of Antwerp. In all, 1750 patients were surveyed, of whom 1005 were receiving a total of 1578 antimicrobials. Among the antimicrobials prescribed, 26.87% were for community-acquired infections; 19.20% for hospital-acquired infections; 17.24% for medical prophylaxis; 28.70% for surgical prophylaxis; and 7.99% for other or undetermined reasons. Antibiotic prescribing quality indicators, such as reason in notes and post-prescription review score, were low. This PPS showed widespread antibiotic usage, underlining the need for antibiotic stewardship to promote evidence-based practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Indian J Nephrol ; 27(5): 392-394, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904437

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a significant cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Common causes among them are Aspergillus, Candida, and Cryptococcus. Antifungal prophylaxis has led to decrease in overall incidence of IFI; however, there is very little decline in the incidence of Cryptococcal infections of SOT recipients because effective prophylaxis is not available against this infectious agent. Spectrum of manifestation of Cryptococcal infection varies in immunocompetent and immunocompromised host with subclinical and self-limiting with lungs being the primary site in immunocompetent and central nervous system as the most common site in an immunocompromised host. Other preferred sites are cutaneous, pulmonary, urinary tract (prostate) and the bone. Herein, we describe a young adult renal transplant recipient male diagnosed as a rare case of biopsy proven Cryptococcal infection in transplant kidney manifesting as chronic allograft dysfunction.

3.
J Postgrad Med ; 63(2): 135-137, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397739

RESUMO

Infective endocarditis still remains a dreaded illness among treating physicians because of the disease course, its need for meticulous antibiotic management, complications, and overall morbidity. Peripheral mycotic aneurysms are a rarely reported complication of infective endocarditis. Mycotic aneurysms occur in about 5%-10% of cases of infective endocarditis, and most of them involve the intracranial vessels. Here, we report a case of native valve endocarditis in a 74-year-old man caused by Kocuria rosea. He presented with septic shock and acute kidney injury. His illness was complicated by a right popliteal artery mycotic aneurysm. He was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and vancomycin. The mycotic aneurysm needed aneurysmectomy and anastomosis with a graft.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Aneurisma Infectado/microbiologia , Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/microbiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Artéria Poplítea/cirurgia , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Indian J Cancer ; 53(2): 339-344, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28071643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to design and validate the questionnaire for capturing palliative chemotherapy-related preferences and expectations. DESIGN: Single arm, unicentric, prospective observational study. METHODS: EXPECT questionnaire was designed to capture preferences and expectations of patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. This questionnaire underwent a linguistic validation and then was tested in patients. Ten patients are undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumors who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria self-administered the EXPECT questionnaire in regional language. After filling this questionnaire, they self-administered quick questionnaire-10 (QQ-10). SPSS version 16 (IBM New York) was used for analysis. Completion rate of EXPECT questionnaire was calculated. The feasibility, face validity, utility and time taken for completion of EXPECT questionnaire was also assessed. RESULTS: The completion rate of this questionnaire was 100%. All patients completed questionnaire within 5 min. The QQ-10 tool confirmed the feasibility, face validity and utility of the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: EXPECT questionnaire was validated in the regional language, and it's an effective tool for capturing patient's preferences and expectation from chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Indian J Cancer ; 52(4): 541-4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26960470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited data from India regarding elderly non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) patients. Hence, this audit was planned to study the clinic-pathological features and treatment outcomes in elderly NHL patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all NHL patients above age of 59 years treated at the author's institute, between December 2010 and December 2013 was done. Case records were reviewed for baseline details, staging details, prognostic factors, treatment delivered, response, toxicity and efficacy. SPSS version 16 (IBM, Newyork) was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics was performed. Kaplan-Meir survival analysis was done for estimation of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate analysis was done for identifying factors affecting PFS and OS. RESULTS: Out of 141 NHL patients, 67 patients were identified subjected to the inclusion criteria. The median age was 68 years (60-92). Majority were B-cell NHL (86.6%). The commonest subtype in B-cell was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (55.2%). Fifty-four patients took treatment. The treatment intent was curative in 41 patients (61.2%). Among the patients receiving curative treatment, 16 patients couldn't receive treatment in accordance with NCCN guidelines due to financial issues. Two years PFS was 55%. Two years PFS for B-cell NHL and T-cell NHL were 55% and 50% respectively (P = 0.982). Two years PFS for standard Rx and nonstandard Rx were 62% and 50% respectively, but it didn't reach statistical significance (P = 0.537). Two years OS for the entire cohort was 84%. CONCLUSION: Standard treatment in accordance with guidelines can be delivered in elderly patients irrespective of age. There is a need for creating financial assistance for patients, so that potentially curative treatments are not denied.


Assuntos
Linfoma não Hodgkin/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comissão Para Atividades Profissionais e Hospitalares , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Indian J Cancer ; 52(1): 157-61, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26838009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is deficit of data from India on elderly patients with cancer. Comprehensive geriatric assessment may lead to a better decision making capacity in this population. However, routine implementation of such assessment is resource consuming. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of care in elderly patients treated at a tertiary rural cancer center in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with age 70 or above with solid tumors without any definitive treatment prior to the registration at our center and registered between 01/01/2010 and 31/12/2011 were selected for this study. The baseline demographic pattern and the pattern of care of treatment were analyzed. SPSS version 16 (IBM Inc, Armonk, New York, U.S.) was used for analysis. Descriptive data are provided. RESULTS: A total of 761 patients were evaluable subject to the aforementioned inclusion criteria. The median age of this cohort was 75 years (70-95 years). The most frequent primary sites of malignancies in 451 males were head neck (32.4%), lung (23.3%) and gastrointestinal (23.3%). In 310 females, the most common sites were head neck (31.6%), gynecological (18.4%) and gastrointestinal (24.5%). 228 (30%) of the patients had localized disease, 376 (49.4%) had loco-regionally advanced disease and 145 (19.1%) had distant metastases at presentation. 334 (46.32%) of patients were treated with curative intent. On logistic regression analysis the factors that predicted use of curative intent treatment were age <75 years, performance status 0-1, primary site and clinical extent of disease. CONCLUSION: Routine comprehensive geriatric assessment needs to be implemented in our setting as almost 50% of our geriatric patients undergo curative intent treatment.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Sistema de Registros
7.
J Digit Imaging ; 27(5): 594-600, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24848945

RESUMO

Medical image compression is one of the growing research fields in biomedical applications. Most medical images need to be compressed using lossless compression as each pixel information is valuable. With the wide pervasiveness of medical imaging applications in health-care settings and the increased interest in telemedicine technologies, it has become essential to reduce both storage and transmission bandwidth requirements needed for archival and communication of related data, preferably by employing lossless compression methods. Furthermore, providing random access as well as resolution and quality scalability to the compressed data has become of great utility. Random access refers to the ability to decode any section of the compressed image without having to decode the entire data set. The system proposes to implement a lossless codec using an entropy coder. 3D medical images are decomposed into 2D slices and subjected to 2D-stationary wavelet transform (SWT). The decimated coefficients are compressed in parallel using embedded block coding with optimized truncation of the embedded bit stream. These bit streams are decoded and reconstructed using inverse SWT. Finally, the compression ratio (CR) is evaluated to prove the efficiency of the proposal. As an enhancement, the proposed system concentrates on minimizing the computation time by introducing parallel computing on the arithmetic coding stage as it deals with multiple subslices.


Assuntos
Compressão de Dados/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Análise de Ondaletas , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos
8.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 172(2): 713-26, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24122627

RESUMO

Electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) fed with carbon monoxide (CO) has been recently demonstrated; however, the microbial ecology of this system has not yet been described. In this work the diversity of the microbial community present at the anode of CO-fed MFCs was studied by performing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) analyses. HTS indicated a significant increase of the archaeal genus Methanobacterium and of the bacterial order Clostridiales, notably including Clostridium species, while in both MFCs DGGE identified members of the bacterial genera Geobacter, Desulfovibrio, and Clostridium, and of the archaeal genera Methanobacterium, Methanofollis, and Methanosaeta. In particular, the presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was identified. Tolerance of G. sulfurreducens to CO was confirmed by growing G. sulfurreducens with acetate under a 100 % CO atmosphere. This observation, along with the identification of acetogens, supports the hypothesis of the two-step process in which CO is converted to acetate by the carboxidotrophic Bacteria and acetate is then oxidized by CO-tolerant electricigenic bacteria to produce electricity.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante , Eletricidade , Geobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Geobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Esgotos/microbiologia
9.
BMJ ; 345: e4944, 2012 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22872710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolic events associated with the use of progestin-only contraception and whether that risk differs with the mode of drug delivery (oral, intrauterine, or depot injection). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant reviews. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials and case-control, cohort, and cross sectional studies with venous thromboembolic outcome for progestin-only contraception reported relative to a non-hormone comparator group. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and consensus for inclusion was reached after assessment by additional investigators. RESULTS: Among the 2022 unique references identified by all searches, eight observational studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. A total of 147 women across all studies were diagnosed with a venous thromboembolic event while taking progestin-only contraception, and the summary measure for the adjusted relative risk of a venous thromboembolic episode for users versus non-users of a progestin-only contraceptive was, based on the random effects model, 1.03 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.39). Subgroup analysis confirmed there was no association between venous thromboembolic risk and progestin-only pills (relative risk 0.90 (0.57 to 1.45)) or a progestin intrauterine device (0.61 (0.24 to 1.53)). The relative risk of a venous thromboembolic event for users of an injectable progestin versus non-users was 2.67 (1.29 to 5.53). CONCLUSIONS: Published data assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism in women prescribed progestin-only contraception are limited. In this meta-analysis of eight observational studies, the use of progestin-only contraception was not associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism compared with non-users of hormonal contraception. The potential association between injectable progestins and thrombosis requires further study.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oral , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos Medicados , Progestinas/administração & dosagem
10.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 51(3): 163-70, 2012 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22759536

RESUMO

This study demonstrated electricity generation in a thermophilic microbial fuel cell (MFC) operated on synthesis gas (syngas) as the sole electron donor. At 50°C, a volumetric power output of 30-35 mWL(R)(-1) and a syngas conversion efficiency of 87-98% was achieved. The observed pathway of syngas conversion to electricity primarily consisted of a two-step process, where the carbon monoxide and hydrogen were first converted to acetate, which was then consumed by the anodophilic bacteria to produce electricity. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rDNA revealed the presence of Geobacter species, Acetobacter, methanogens and several uncultured bacteria and archaea in the anodic chamber.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetobacter/classificação , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Meios de Cultura , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante , Eletricidade , Geobacter/classificação , Geobacter/genética , Geobacter/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 102(23): 10898-906, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21983405

RESUMO

Electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using carbon monoxide (CO) or synthesis gas (syngas) as a carbon source has been demonstrated recently. A major challenge associated with CO or syngas utilization is the mass transfer limitation of these sparingly soluble gases in the aqueous phase. This study evaluated the applicability of a dense polymer silicone membrane and thin wall silicone tubing for CO mass transfer in MFCs. Replacing the sparger used in our previous study with the membrane systems for CO delivery resulted in improved MFC performance and CO transformation efficiency. A power output and CO transformation efficiency of up to 18 mW LR(-1) (normalized to anode compartment volume) and 98%, respectively, was obtained. The use of membrane systems offers the advantage of improved mass transfer and reduced reactor volume, thus increasing the volumetric power output of MFCs operating on a gaseous substrate such as CO.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Reatores Biológicos , Silicones/química , Biofilmes , Biotecnologia/métodos , Monóxido de Carbono/química , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Gases , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Químicos , Polímeros/química
12.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 46(6): 450-5, 2010 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25919620

RESUMO

Electricity production from carbon monoxide (CO) is demonstrated in a single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a CoTMPP-based air cathode. The MFC was inoculated with anaerobic sludge and continuously sparged with CO as a sole carbon source. Volumetric power output was maximized at a CO flow rate of 4.8LLR(-1)d(-1) reaching 6.4mWLR(-1). Several soluble and gaseous degradation products including hydrogen, methane, and acetate were detected, resulting in a relatively low apparent Coulombic efficiency of 8.7%. Tests also demonstrated electricity production from hydrogen and acetate with the highest and fastest increase in voltage exhibited after acetate injection. It is hypothesized that electricity generation in a CO-fed MFC is accomplished by a consortium of carboxydotrophic and carbon monoxide - tolerant anodophilic microorganisms.

13.
J Food Sci ; 74(5): S177-81, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19646054

RESUMO

Potato tubers are a staple food item in the North American diet. Each potato cultivar has unique tuber appearance and nutritional composition. A method was developed to facilitate better cultivar selection for dietary purposes and obtain a better understanding of the nutrient distribution within specific tissues of potato tubers. This involved a procedure for estimating the percent weight contribution of the 3 major tissue components, including periderm or "skin," cortex, and pith for 20 potato cultivars. Weight determination was based on the volume (calculated through an ellipsoid formula) and density of each component tissue. Calculated percent weight and dry matter data for each tuber tissue provided conversion factor values that were tabulated for all cultivars. An example is provided to illustrate the application of this procedure in facilitating identification of cultivars with significantly greater or lesser protein content.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Tubérculos , Solanum tuberosum , Análise de Variância , Proteínas de Plantas/análise
14.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 73(3): 341-9, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19465065

RESUMO

Current theories of brain function propose that the coordinated integration of transient activity patterns in distinct brain regions is the essence of brain information processing. The behavioural manifestations of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest that their brains have a different style of information processing. Specifically, a current trend is to invoke functional disconnection in the brains of individuals with ASD as a possible explanation for some atypicalities in the behaviour of these individuals. Our observations indicate that the coordinated activity in brains of children with autism is lower than that found in control participants. Disruption of long-range phase synchronization among frontal, parietal and occipital areas was found, derived from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings, in high-functioning children with ASD during the performance of executive function tasks and was associated with impaired execution, while enhanced long-range brain synchronization was observed in control children. Specifically, a more significant prefrontal synchronization was found in control participants during task performance. In addition, a robust enhancement in synchrony was observed in the parietal cortex of children with ASD relative to controls, which may be related to parietal lobe abnormalities detected in these individuals. These results, using synchronization analysis of brain electrical signals, provide support for the contention that brains of individuals with autism may not be as functionally connected as that of the controls, and may suggest some therapeutic interventions to improve information processing in specific brain areas, particularly prefrontal cortices.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/patologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor
15.
Biol Reprod ; 76(2): 314-26, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17065603

RESUMO

The sperm from the testis acquires complete fertilizing ability and forward progressive motility following its transit through the epididymis. Acquisition of these characteristics results from the modification of the sperm proteome following interactions with epididymal secretions. In our attempts to identify epididymis-specific sperm plasma membrane proteins, a partial 2.83-kb clone was identified by immunoscreening a monkey epididymal cDNA library with an agglutinating monoclonal antibody raised against washed human spermatozoa. The sequence of the 2.83-kb clone exhibited homology to the region between 1 and 1097 bp of the homeobox gene, Hoxb2. This sequence was found to be species conserved, as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. To obtain a full-length clone of the sequence, 5' RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR) was carried out using rat epididymal RNA as the template. It resulted in a full-length 1.657-kb cDNA encoding a 32.9-kDa putative protein. The protein designated HOXBES2 exhibited homology to the conserved 61-amino acid homeodomain region of the HOXB2 homeoprotein. However, characteristic differences were noted in its amino and carboxyl termini compared with HOXB2. A putative 30-kDa protein was detected in the tissue extracts from adult rat epididymis and caudal spermatozoa, and a 37-kDa protein was detected in the rat embryo when probed with a polyclonal antibody against HOXB2 protein. Multiple tissue Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis further indicated its expression in the cytoplasm of the principal and basal epithelial cells, with maximal expression in the distal epididymal segments. Northern blot analysis detected a single approximately 2.5-kb transcript from the adult epididymis. Indirect immunofluorescence localized the protein to the acrosome, midpiece, and equatorial segments of rat caudal and ejaculated human and monkey spermatozoa, respectively. In conclusion, we have identified and characterized a novel epididymal homeoprotein different from HOXB2 protein and hereafter referred to as HOXBES2, (HOXB2 homeodomain containing epididymis-specific sperm protein) with a probable role in fertilization.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Acrossomo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Clonagem Molecular , Sequência Conservada , DNA Complementar , Epididimo/metabolismo , Epididimo/fisiologia , Fertilização/fisiologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/fisiologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macaca radiata , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Capacitação Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
J Reprod Immunol ; 66(2): 117-25, 2005 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16054230

RESUMO

In our earlier study, we have reported the identification and characterization of a 57-kDa sperm membrane protein from human spermatozoa. The protein was found to be localized on the acrosome in acrosome intact spermatozoa and shifted to equatorial region after acrosomal induction. Further, we demonstrated that it plays a critical role in sperm--egg binding and fusion. Since the protein was found to be either absent or poorly expressed on the spermatozoa from infertile men, we designated it as Fertility Associated Sperm Antigen (FASA). A human epididymal cDNA library in Lambda-ZAP vector was screened with a polyclonal antibody raised against FASA. A clone was obtained with an insert of approximately 1.9 kb cDNA. The sequence showed 99% homology with a part of the human chromosome 11. EST database showed that a portion of 1.9 kb gene has 87% homology to gene encoding Huntington disease protein (HDP). The mutated form of this protein is responsible for Huntington's disease (HD) and is found in the brain cells of HD patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15078066

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of extraction methods on the color of date syrup and the potential use of microwave power for syrup processing. Sugar solutions were extracted from dates by boiling, soaking and blending. Color and sugar content of the extracted solutions were measured, and the percentage of sugar extracted form the total fruit sugar determined. Boiling was found to be the most efficient method of extraction whereby 74% of total samples sugar was extracted. In contrast, only 54.2% of fruit sugar was extracted by blending and 42% by soaking. In addition, solutions extracted by soaking and blending had a foaming problem in the subsequent concentration process. The extraction method had no effect on the product final color. The extracted solution was concentrated using two heating methods: conventional and microwave heating at a 600 W capacity and a frequency of 2450 MHz applied at three power levels: 10, 7, and 6. In the heating process, 180 minutes were needed to achieve a 77% degrees Brix using convective heating, while it took 81, 138, and 166 minutes of microwave heating at power level 10, 7, and 6, respectively to achieve the same concentration. Water activity of the syrup was measured within a sugar content range of 50 to 80% degrees Brix and the sugar concentration at which the product is shelf stable was determined at 76%.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/química , Carboidratos/química , Carboidratos/isolamento & purificação , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Calefação/métodos , Micro-Ondas , Colorimetria , Análise de Alimentos , Controle de Qualidade , Soluções , Água/análise
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