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1.
Diabetes Care ; 43(3): 607-615, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937608

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy of inControl AP, a mobile closed-loop control (CLC) system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This protocol, NCT02985866, is a 3-month parallel-group, multicenter, randomized unblinded trial designed to compare mobile CLC with sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy. Eligibility criteria were type 1 diabetes for at least 1 year, use of insulin pumps for at least 6 months, age ≥14 years, and baseline HbA1c <10.5% (91 mmol/mol). The study was designed to assess two coprimary outcomes: superiority of CLC over SAP in continuous glucose monitor (CGM)-measured time below 3.9 mmol/L and noninferiority in CGM-measured time above 10 mmol/L. RESULTS: Between November 2017 and May 2018, 127 participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to CLC (n = 65) versus SAP (n = 62); 125 participants completed the study. CGM time below 3.9 mmol/L was 5.0% at baseline and 2.4% during follow-up in the CLC group vs. 4.7% and 4.0%, respectively, in the SAP group (mean difference -1.7% [95% CI -2.4, -1.0]; P < 0.0001 for superiority). CGM time above 10 mmol/L was 40% at baseline and 34% during follow-up in the CLC group vs. 43% and 39%, respectively, in the SAP group (mean difference -3.0% [95% CI -6.1, 0.1]; P < 0.0001 for noninferiority). One severe hypoglycemic event occurred in the CLC group, which was unrelated to the study device. CONCLUSIONS: In meeting its coprimary end points, superiority of CLC over SAP in CGM-measured time below 3.9 mmol/L and noninferiority in CGM-measured time above 10 mmol/L, the study has demonstrated that mobile CLC is feasible and could offer certain usability advantages over embedded systems, provided the connectivity between system components is stable.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(18): 1707-1717, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closed-loop systems that automate insulin delivery may improve glycemic outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In this 6-month randomized, multicenter trial, patients with type 1 diabetes were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive treatment with a closed-loop system (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the blood glucose level was within the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter (3.9 to 10.0 mmol per liter), as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients underwent randomization; 112 were assigned to the closed-loop group, and 56 were assigned to the control group. The age range of the patients was 14 to 71 years, and the glycated hemoglobin level ranged from 5.4 to 10.6%. All 168 patients completed the trial. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was within the target range increased in the closed-loop group from 61±17% at baseline to 71±12% during the 6 months and remained unchanged at 59±14% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 14; P<0.001). The results with regard to the main secondary outcomes (percentage of time that the glucose level was >180 mg per deciliter, mean glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level, and percentage of time that the glucose level was <70 mg per deciliter or <54 mg per deciliter [3.0 mmol per liter]) all met the prespecified hierarchical criterion for significance, favoring the closed-loop system. The mean difference (closed loop minus control) in the percentage of time that the blood glucose level was lower than 70 mg per deciliter was -0.88 percentage points (95% CI, -1.19 to -0.57; P<0.001). The mean adjusted difference in glycated hemoglobin level after 6 months was -0.33 percentage points (95% CI, -0.53 to -0.13; P = 0.001). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in closed-loop mode was 90% over 6 months. No serious hypoglycemic events occurred in either group; one episode of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in the closed-loop group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 6-month trial involving patients with type 1 diabetes, the use of a closed-loop system was associated with a greater percentage of time spent in a target glycemic range than the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; iDCL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03563313.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pâncreas Artificial , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 21(2): 73-80, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of artificial pancreas (AP) requires seamless interaction of device components, such as continuous glucose monitor (CGM), insulin pump, and control algorithm. Mobile AP configurations also include a smartphone as computational hub and gateway to cloud applications (e.g., remote monitoring and data review and analysis). This International Diabetes Closed-Loop study was designed to demonstrate and evaluate the operation of the inControl AP using different CGMs and pump modalities without changes to the user interface, user experience, and underlying controller. METHODS: Forty-three patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) were enrolled at 10 clinical centers (7 United States, 3 Europe) and 41 were included in the analyses (39% female, >95% non-Hispanic white, median T1D duration 16 years, median HbA1c 7.4%). Two CGMs and two insulin pumps were tested by different study participants/sites using the same system hub (a smartphone) during 2 weeks of in-home use. RESULTS: The major difference between the system components was the stability of their wireless connections with the smartphone. The two sensors achieved similar rates of connectivity as measured by percentage time in closed loop (75% and 75%); however, the two pumps had markedly different closed-loop adherence (66% vs. 87%). When connected, all system configurations achieved similar glycemic outcomes on AP control (73% [mean] time in range: 70-180 mg/dL, and 1.7% [median] time <70 mg/dL). CONCLUSIONS: CGMs and insulin pumps can be interchangeable in the same Mobile AP system, as long as these devices achieve certain levels of reliability and wireless connection stability.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pâncreas Artificial , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Smartphone , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Diabetes Care ; 41(12): 2634-2636, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To pilot test a new closed-loop control technology to validate it for a further large clinical trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The t:slim X2 insulin pump with Control-IQ Technology (Tandem Diabetes Care) includes a Dexcom G6 sensor and a closed-loop algorithm implemented in the pump that 1) automates insulin correction boluses, 2) has a dedicated hypoglycemia safety system, and 3) gradually intensifies control overnight, aiming for blood glucose levels of approximately 100-120 mg/dL every morning. RESULTS: Five patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 52.8 years, 2/3 male/female, mean A1C 6.5%) used Control-IQ in an outpatient setting (hotel) for approximately 37 h. During the closed loop, mean glucose was 129 mg/dL (135/121 mg/dL during the day/night), time within target range 70-180 mg/dL was 87% (82%/94% during the day/night), and time <60 mg/dL was 1.1% (2.0%/0.0% during the day/night). CONCLUSIONS: Following this pilot trial, Control-IQ was deployed in several studies, including the large-scale National Institutes of Health International Diabetes Closed-Loop (iDCL) Trial.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Invenções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
5.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 19(3): 420-428, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a predictive hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia minimization (PHHM) system vs predictive low glucose suspension (PLGS) alone in optimizing overnight glucose control in children 6 to 14 years old. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-eight participants 6 to 14 years old with T1D duration ≥1 year with daily insulin therapy ≥12 months and on insulin pump therapy for ≥6 months were randomized per night into PHHM mode or PLGS-only mode for 42 nights. The primary outcome was percentage of time in sensor-measured range 70 to 180 mg/dL in the overnight period. RESULTS: The addition of automated insulin delivery with PHHM increased time in target range (70-180 mg/dL) from 66 ± 11% during PLGS nights to 76 ± 9% during PHHM nights (P<.001), without increasing hypoglycemia as measured by time below various thresholds. Average morning blood glucose improved from 176 ± 28 mg/dL following PLGS nights to 154 ± 19 mg/dL following PHHM nights (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The PHHM system was effective in optimizing overnight glycemic control, significantly increasing time in range, lowering mean glucose, and decreasing glycemic variability compared to PLGS alone in children 6 to 14 years old.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Adolescente , Glicemia , Criança , Alarmes Clínicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Diabetes Care ; 40(3): 359-366, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a predictive hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia minimization (PHHM) system compared with predictive low-glucose insulin suspension (PLGS) alone in overnight glucose control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 42-night trial was conducted in 30 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the age range 15-45 years. Participants were randomly assigned each night to either PHHM or PLGS and were blinded to the assignment. The system suspended the insulin pump on both the PHHM and PLGS nights for predicted hypoglycemia but delivered correction boluses for predicted hyperglycemia on PHHM nights only. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent in a sensor glucose range of 70-180 mg/dL during the overnight period. RESULTS: The addition of automated insulin delivery with PHHM increased the time spent in the target range (70-180 mg/dL) from 71 ± 10% during PLGS nights to 78 ± 10% during PHHM nights (P < 0.001). The average morning blood glucose concentration improved from 163 ± 23 mg/dL after PLGS nights to 142 ± 18 mg/dL after PHHM nights (P < 0.001). Various sensor-measured hypoglycemic outcomes were similar on PLGS and PHHM nights. All participants completed 42 nights with no episodes of severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or other study- or device-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of a predictive hyperglycemia minimization component to our existing PLGS system was shown to be safe, feasible, and effective in overnight glucose control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 18(6): 422-427, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of elevated morning blood ketone levels according to age in 4-14 year olds with type 1 diabetes following overnight use of an automated low glucose insulin suspension system, or following control nights when the system was not used. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: For 28 children ages 4-9 years and 54 youth ages 10-14 years, elevation of morning blood ketone levels was assessed using the Precision Xtra Ketone meter following 1155 and 2345 nights, respectively. Repeated measures logistic regression models were used to compare age groups for blood ketone level elevation following control nights (system not activated) and following intervention nights with and without insulin suspension. RESULTS: Elevated morning blood ketones (≥0.6 mmol/L) were present following 10% of 580 control nights in the 4-9 year olds compared with 2% of 1162 control nights in 10-14 year olds (P < 0.001). Likewise, the frequency was greater following intervention nights in the younger age group (13% of 575 nights vs 2% of 1183 nights, P < 0.001). A longer duration of pump suspension resulted in a higher percentage of mornings with elevated blood ketones in the younger age group (P = 0.002), but not in the older age group (P = 0.63). The presence of elevated morning ketone levels did not progress to ketoacidosis in any subject. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated morning blood ketones are more common in younger children with type 1 diabetes with or without nocturnal insulin suspension. Care providers need to be aware of the differences in ketogenesis in younger age children relative to various clinical situations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Cetonas/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Diabetes Care ; 39(7): 1143-50, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a portable, wearable, wireless artificial pancreas system (the Diabetes Assistant [DiAs] running the Unified Safety System) on glucose control at home in overnight-only and 24/7 closed-loop control (CLC) modes in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: At six clinical centers in four countries, 30 participants 18-66 years old with type 1 diabetes (43% female, 96% non-Hispanic white, median type 1 diabetes duration 19 years, median A1C 7.3%) completed the study. The protocol included a 2-week baseline sensor-augmented pump (SAP) period followed by 2 weeks of overnight-only CLC and 2 weeks of 24/7 CLC at home. Glucose control during CLC was compared with the baseline SAP. RESULTS: Glycemic control parameters for overnight-only CLC were improved during the nighttime period compared with baseline for hypoglycemia (time <70 mg/dL, primary end point median 1.1% vs. 3.0%; P < 0.001), time in target (70-180 mg/dL: 75% vs. 61%; P < 0.001), and glucose variability (coefficient of variation: 30% vs. 36%; P < 0.001). Similar improvements for day/night combined were observed with 24/7 CLC compared with baseline: 1.7% vs. 4.1%, P < 0.001; 73% vs. 65%, P < 0.001; and 34% vs. 38%, P < 0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CLC running on a smartphone (DiAs) in the home environment was safe and effective. Overnight-only CLC reduced hypoglycemia and increased time in range overnight and increased time in range during the day; 24/7 CLC reduced hypoglycemia and increased time in range both overnight and during the day. Compared with overnight-only CLC, 24/7 CLC provided additional hypoglycemia protection during the day.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pâncreas Artificial , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Pâncreas Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Diabetes Care ; 38(7): 1197-204, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26049549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal hypoglycemia can cause seizures and is a major impediment to tight glycemic control, especially in young children with type 1 diabetes. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a continuous glucose monitor-based overnight predictive low-glucose suspend (PLGS) system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In two age-groups of children with type 1 diabetes (11-14 and 4-10 years of age), a 42-night trial for each child was conducted wherein each night was assigned randomly to either having the PLGS system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was percent time <70 mg/dL overnight. RESULTS: Median time at <70 mg/dL was reduced by 54% from 10.1% on control nights to 4.6% on intervention nights (P < 0.001) in 11-14-year-olds (n = 45) and by 50% from 6.2% to 3.1% (P < 0.001) in 4-10-year-olds (n = 36). Mean overnight glucose was lower on control versus intervention nights in both age-groups (144 ± 18 vs. 152 ± 19 mg/dL [P < 0.001] and 153 ± 14 vs. 160 ± 16 mg/dL [P = 0.004], respectively). Mean morning blood glucose was 159 ± 29 vs. 176 ± 28 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in the 11-14-year-olds and 154 ± 25 vs. 158 ± 22 mg/dL (P = 0.11) in the 4-10-year-olds, respectively. No differences were found between intervention and control in either age-group in morning blood ketosis. CONCLUSIONS: In 4-14-year-olds, use of a nocturnal PLGS system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis, although overnight mean glucose is slightly higher.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Sono , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ritmo Circadiano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino
12.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 133(3): 246-54, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25322173

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The Cornea Donor Study (CDS) showed that donor age is not a factor in survival of most penetrating keratoplasties for endothelial disease. Secondary analyses confirm the importance of surgical indication and presence of glaucoma in outcomes at 10 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between donor and recipient factors and corneal graft survival in the CDS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial conducted at 80 clinical sites. One hundred five surgeons enrolled 1090 participants undergoing corneal transplant for a moderate-risk condition, principally Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema (PACE). Forty-three eye banks provided corneas. INTERVENTIONS: Corneas from donors younger than 66 years and donors 66 years or older were assigned, masked to donor age. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines. Participants were followed up for as long as 12 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Graft failure, defined as a regrafting procedure or a cloudy cornea for 3 consecutive months. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative probability of graft failure was higher in participants with PACE than in those with Fuchs dystrophy (37% vs 20%; hazard ratio [HR], 2.1 [99% CI, 1.4-3.0]; P < .001) and in participants with a history of glaucoma before penetrating keratoplasty, particularly with prior glaucoma surgery (58% with prior glaucoma surgery and use of medications to lower intraocular pressure at the time of surgery vs 22% with no history of glaucoma surgery or medication use; HR, 4.1 [99% CI, 2.2-7.5]; P < .001). We found trends toward increased graft failure in recipients who were 70 years or older compared with those younger than 60 years (29% vs 19%; HR, 1.2 [99% CI, 0.7-2.1]; P = .04) or were African American (HR, 1.5; P = .11) or who had a history of smoking (35% vs 24%; HR, 1.6 [99% CI, 0.9-2.8]; P = .02). Lower endothelial cell density (ECD) and higher corneal thickness (CT) at 6 months (6% vs 41% for ECD ≥2700 vs <1700 cells/mm2 [P < .001]; 14% vs 36% for CT <500 vs ≥600 µm [P = .001]), 1 year (4% vs 39% for ECD ≥2700 vs <1700 cells/mm2 [P < .001]; 18% vs 28% for CT <500 vs ≥600 µm [P = .04]), and 5 years (2% vs 29% for ECD ≥1500 vs <500 cells/mm2 [P < .001]; 7% vs 34% for CT <550 vs ≥650 µm [P < .001]) were associated with subsequent graft failure. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Most penetrating corneal grafts for Fuchs dystrophy or PACE remain clear at 10 years. The risk for failure is greater for graft recipients with PACE and those with a history of glaucoma. Measurements of ECD and CT during the course of postkeratoplasty follow-up are associated with a risk for failure. However, even with very low ECD and high CT at 5 years, most corneas remain clear at 10 years.


Assuntos
Córnea , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Doadores de Tecidos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Contagem de Células , Edema da Córnea/cirurgia , Perda de Células Endoteliais da Córnea/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Bancos de Olhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/cirurgia , Glaucoma/complicações , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudofacia/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Cornea ; 33(10): 1003-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25119961

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of donor and recipient factors on corneal allograft rejection and evaluate whether a rejection event was associated with graft failure. METHODS: One thousand ninety subjects undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema) were followed for up to 12 years. Associations of baseline recipient and donor factors with the occurrence of a rejection event were assessed in univariate and multivariate proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 651 eyes with a surviving graft at 5 years, the 10-year graft failure (±99% confidence interval) rates were 12% ± 4% among eyes with no rejection events in the first 5 years, 17% ± 12% in eyes with at least 1 probable, but no definite rejection event, and 22% ± 20% in eyes with at least 1 definite rejection event. The only baseline factor significantly associated with a higher risk of definite graft rejection was a preoperative history of glaucoma, particularly when previous glaucoma surgery had been performed and glaucoma medications were being used at the time of transplant (10-year incidence 35% ± 23% compared with 14% ± 4% in eyes with no history of glaucoma/intraocular pressure treatment, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experienced a definite rejection event frequently developed graft failure raising important questions as to how we might change acute and long-term corneal graft management. Multivariate analysis indicated that previous use of glaucoma medications and glaucoma filtering surgery was a significant risk factor related to a definite rejection event.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Edema da Córnea/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/cirurgia , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplantados
14.
Diabetes Care ; 37(10): 2702-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25011947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device use, factors associated with its use, and the relationship of CGM with diabetes outcomes (HbA1c, severe hypoglycemia [SH], and diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Survey questions related to CGM device use 1 year after enrollment in the T1D Exchange clinic registry were completed by 17,317 participants. Participants were defined as CGM users if they indicated using real-time CGM during the prior 30 days. RESULTS: Nine percent of participants used CGM (6% of children <13 years old, 4% of adolescents 13 to <18 years, 6% of young adults 18 to <26 years, and 21% of adults ≥26 years). CGM use was more likely with higher education, higher household income, private health insurance, longer duration of diabetes, and use of insulin pump (P < 0.01 all factors). CGM use was associated with lower HbA1c in children (8.3% vs. 8.6%, P < 0.001) and adults (7.7% vs. 7.9%, P < 0.001). In adults, more frequent use of CGM (≥6 days/week) was associated with lower mean HbA1c. Only 27% of users downloaded data from their device at least once per month, and ≤15% of users reported downloading their device at least weekly. Among participants who used CGM at baseline, 41% had discontinued within 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: CGM use is uncommon but associated with lower HbA1c in some age-groups, especially when used more frequently. Factors associated with discontinuation and infrequent use of retrospective analysis of CGM data should be considered in developing next-generation devices and education on CGM use.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 8: 1057-64, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24940042

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine if intravitreal bevacizumab combined with the dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg improves visual acuity and macular thickness more than bevacizumab monotherapy in eyes with macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusions. METHODS: Thirty eyes were randomly assigned to receive either combination therapy or bevacizumab monotherapy. All patients received intravitreal bevacizumab at baseline, followed by dexamethasone implants or sham injections 1 week later. Monthly bevacizumab injections were given if the central subfield thickness (CST) was >250 µm, and the combined group received a second implant at month 4 or 5 if CST was >250 µm. RESULTS: At 6 months, several secondary endpoints were met. Patients receiving combined therapy required fewer bevacizumab reinjections compared to those receiving monotherapy (two versus three; P=0.02), experienced greater mean reductions in CST from randomization (-56 µm versus +45 µm; P=0.01), and were more likely to have resolved all edema (CST <250 µm) (7/11 versus 2/14; P=0.02). The primary endpoint was not met since mean visual acuity changes from baseline were similar in the two groups (P=0.75). CONCLUSION: In patients with macular edema due to vein occlusions, bevacizumab with dexamethasone implants produces greater improvements in macular thickness compared to bevacizumab monotherapy, despite fewer bevacizumab injections.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 37(5): 1224-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24757229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of overnight insulin pump suspension in an automated predictive low glucose suspend system on morning blood glucose and ketone levels in an attempt to determine whether routine measurement of ketone levels is useful when a closed-loop system that suspends insulin delivery overnight is being used. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from an in-home randomized trial of 45 individuals with type 1 diabetes (age range 15-45 years) were analyzed, evaluating an automated predictive low glucose pump suspension system in which blood glucose, blood ketone, and urine ketone levels were measured on 1,954 mornings. RESULTS: One or more pump suspensions occurred during 744 of the 977 intervention nights (76%). The morning blood ketone level was ≥0.6 mmol/L after 11 of the 744 nights (1.5%) during which a pump suspension occurred and 2 of the 233 nights (0.9%) during which there was no suspension compared with 11 of 977 control nights (1.1%). The morning blood ketone level was ≥0.6 mmol/L after only 2 of 159 nights (1.3%) with a pump suspension exceeding 2 h. Morning fasting blood glucose level was not a good predictor of the presence of blood ketones. CONCLUSIONS: Routine measurement of blood or urine ketones during use of an automated pump suspension system using continuous glucose monitoring, whether threshold based or predictive, is not necessary. Recommendations for checking ketone levels should be no different when a patient is using a system with automated insulin suspension than it is for conventional diabetes self-management.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Cetose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Cetonas/sangue , Cetonas/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Autocuidado , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 15(8): 564-72, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24494980

RESUMO

Insulin delivery via injection and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) via insulin pump were compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 669) and retrospective longitudinal study (n = 1904) of young children (<6 yr) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) participating in the T1D Exchange clinic registry. Use of CSII correlated with longer T1D duration (p < 0.001), higher parental education (p < 0.001), and annual household income (p < 0.006) but not with race/ethnicity. Wide variation in pump use was observed among T1D Exchange centers even after adjusting for these factors, suggesting that prescriber preference is a substantial determinant of CSII use. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was lower in pump vs. injection users (7.9 vs. 8.5%, adjusted p < 0.001) in the cross-sectional study. In the longitudinal study, HbA1c decreased after initiation of CSII by 0.2%, on average (p < 0.001). Frequency of a severe hypoglycemia (SH) event did not differ in pump vs. injection users (p = 0.2). Frequency of ≥1 parent-reported diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) event in the prior year was greater in pump users than injection users (10 vs. 8%, p = 0.04). No differences between pump and injection users were observed for clinic-reported DKA events. Children below 6 yr have many unique metabolic characteristics, feeding behaviors, and care needs compared with older children and adolescents. These data support the use of insulin pumps in this youngest age group, and suggest that metabolic control may be improved without increasing the frequency of SH, but care should be taken as to the possibly increased risk of DKA.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções Subcutâneas , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Ophthalmology ; 120(12): 2419-2427, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24246825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the 10-year success rate of penetrating keratoplasty for corneal endothelial disorders is associated with donor age. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1090 participants undergoing penetrating keratoplasty at 80 sites for Fuchs' dystrophy (62%), pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema (34%), or another corneal endothelial disorder (4%) and followed for up to 12 years. METHODS: Forty-three eye banks provided corneas from donors aged 12 to 75 years, using a randomized approach to assign donor corneas to study participants without respect to recipient factors. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Graft failure defined as a regraft or, in the absence of a regraft, a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque to compromise vision for 3 consecutive months. RESULTS: In the primary analysis, the 10-year success rate was 77% for 707 corneas from donors aged 12 to 65 years compared with 71% for 383 donors aged 66 to 75 years (difference, +6%; 95% confidence interval, -1 to +12; P = 0.11). When analyzed as a continuous variable, higher donor age was associated with lower graft success beyond the first 5 years (P<0.001). Exploring this association further, we observed that the 10-year success rate was relatively constant for donors aged 34 to 71 years (75%). The success rate was higher for 80 donors aged 12 to 33 years (96%) and lower for 130 donors aged 72 to 75 years (62%). The relative decrease in the success rate with donor ages 72 to 75 years was not observed until after year 6. CONCLUSIONS: Although the primary analysis did not show a significant difference in 10-year success rates comparing donor ages 12 to 65 years and 66 to 75 years, there was evidence of a donor age effect at the extremes of the age range. Because we observed a fairly constant 10-year success rate for donors aged 34 to 71 years, which account for approximately 75% of corneas in the United States available for transplant, the Cornea Donor Study results indicate that donor age is not an important factor in most penetrating keratoplasties for endothelial disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Edema da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Edema da Córnea/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Bancos de Olhos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ophthalmology ; 120(12): 2428-2435, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24246826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of donor age and other perioperative factors on long-term endothelial cell loss after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: We included 176 participants from the Cornea Donor Study cohort who had not experienced graft failure ≥ 10 years after PKP for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs' dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema). METHODS: Corneas from donors 12 to 75 years old were assigned to participants using a randomized approach, without respect to recipient factors. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines. Images of the central endothelium were obtained preoperatively and at intervals for 10 years postoperatively. Images were analyzed by a central image analysis reading center to determine endothelial cell density (ECD). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Endothelial cell density at 10 years. RESULTS: Among study participants with a clear graft at 10 years, the 125 who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 76%, resulting in a 10-year median ECD of 628 cells/mm(2) (interquartile range [IQR], 522-850 cells/mm(2)), whereas the 51 who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 79%, resulting in a median 10-year ECD of 550 cells/mm(2) (IQR, 483-694 cells/mm(2); P adjusted for baseline ECD = 0.03). In addition to younger donor age, higher ECD values were significantly associated with higher baseline ECD (P<0.001) and larger donor tissue size (P<0.001). Forty-two of the 176 participants (24%) had an ECD of <500 cells/mm(2) at 10 years and only 24 (14%) had an ECD of >1000 cells/mm(2). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial cell loss occurs in eyes with a clear graft 10 years after PKP, with the rate of cell loss being slightly greater with older donor age. Greater preoperative ECD and larger donor tissue size are associated with higher ECD at 10 years.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Perda de Células Endoteliais da Córnea/etiologia , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/cirurgia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/fisiologia , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Células , Criança , Edema da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Edema da Córnea/cirurgia , Perda de Células Endoteliais da Córnea/diagnóstico , Perda de Células Endoteliais da Córnea/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Bancos de Olhos , Feminino , Distrofia Endotelial de Fuchs/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Vasc Surg ; 57(2): 451-8, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23244784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The treatment goals of access-related hand ischemia (ARHI) are to reverse symptoms and salvage the access. Many procedures have been described, but the optimal treatment strategy remains unresolved. In an effort to guide clinical decision making, this study was undertaken to document our outcomes for distal revascularization and interval ligation (DRIL) and to identify predictors of bypass patency and patient mortality. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent DRIL at the University of Florida from 2002 to 2011. Diagnosis of ARHI was based primarily upon clinical symptoms with noninvasive studies used to corroborate in equivocal cases. Patient demographics, procedure-outcome variables, and reinterventions were recorded. Bypass patency and mortality were estimated using cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier methodology, respectively. Cumulative incidence and Cox regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of bypass patency and mortality, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 134 DRILs were performed in 126 patients (mean [standard deviation] age, 57 [12] years) following brachial artery-based access. The postoperative complication rate was 27% (19% wound), and 30-day mortality was 2%. The wrist-brachial index and digital brachial index increased 0.31 (0.25) and 0.25 (0.29), respectively. Symptoms resolved in 82% of patients, and 85% continued to use their access. Cumulative incidences (± standard error of the mean) of loss of primary and primary-assisted patency rates were 5% ± 2% and 4% ± 2% at 1 year and 22% ± 5% and 18% ± 5% at 5 years, respectively, with mean follow-up of 14.8 months. Univariate predictors of primary patency failure were DRIL complications (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-8.9; P = .02), configuration other than brachiobasilic/brachiocephalic autogenous access (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.4-8.3; P = .009), and two or more prior access attempts (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.6-10.4; P = .004). Brachiocephalic access configuration (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.8; P = .02) and autogenous vein conduit (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.58; P = .004) were predictors of improved bypass patency. All-cause mortality was 28% and 79% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Multivariable predictors of mortality were age >40 (hazard ratio [HR], 8.3; 95% CI, 2.5-33.3; P = .0004), grade 3 ischemia (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6; P = .0008), complication from DRIL (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.5; P = .004), and smoking history (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-4; P = .007). Patients with no prior access attempts had lower predicted mortality (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: The DRIL procedure effectively improves distal perfusion and reverses the symptoms of ARHI while salvaging the access, but the long-term survival of these patients is poor. Given the poor survival, preoperative risk stratification is critical. Patients at high risk for DRIL failure and mortality may be best served with alternate remedial procedures.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/cirurgia , Mãos/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia/cirurgia , Diálise Renal , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Idoso , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/mortalidade , Feminino , Florida , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/mortalidade , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Ligadura , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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