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2.
J Neurol ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296938

RESUMO

Primary central nervous system lymphoma is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma arising in the eyes, meninges, spinal cord, or brain. Treatment of primary CNS lymphoma with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation has been shown to have high rates of remission which is frequently sustained for multiple years. Recurrence of primary CNS lymphoma generally presents with one or multiple contrast enhancing lesions on MRI. In rare cases, lymphoma cells may proliferate diffusely within the brain parenchyma without mass formation, a pattern termed lymphomatosis cerebri. Lymphomatosis cerebri presents a significant diagnostic challenge, and has not been reported to present with parkinsonism. Here, we present a case of initially mass forming, contrast-enhancing primary CNS lymphoma which remitted following chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and recurred 7 years post-transplant with symptoms of parkinsonism and a lack of typical lesions on imaging, with lymphomatosis cerebri confirmed at autopsy.

4.
Neuroradiol J ; 33(2): 174-178, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013747

RESUMO

Stem cell treatment outside of studied and approved medical indications can have unforeseen adverse consequences. Here, we present a 74-year-old male that underwent such therapy. The patient presented to our institution with progressive lower extremity weakness and urinary incontinence. He had previously undergone intrathecal stem cell therapy in Moscow, Russia for weakness and fatigue. Magnetic resonance imaging of his thoracic and lumbar spine showed marked enlargement of the cauda equina nerve roots and abnormal mass-like soft tissue involving the thoracolumbar thecal sac. Surgical biopsy of the intrathecal soft tissue showed polyclonal lymphocytic and glial cell proliferation. The patient's symptoms did not improve with medical treatment or radiation, and he is currently under observation after multidisciplinary evaluation. Our patient's experience illustrates one of the potential risks of "stem cell tourism" and exemplifies the imaging and histopathologic features of this rare entity. We also compare our patient's treatment with other similar examples of stem cell treatments in our institution and others. These have had a wide spectrum of results. In some instances, intrathecal stem cells have caused abnormal imaging findings without any associated patient symptoms. In extreme examples, however, stem cell treatments have resulted in central nervous system neoplasms. Our patient's lesion is quite unique, with only one similar lesion having been previously published.

5.
Can J Neurol Sci ; : 1-6, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM) are treated with surgery followed by fractionated radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Patients are monitored with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, treatment-related changes frequently mimic disease progression. We reviewed a series of patients undergoing surgery for presumed first-recurrence GBM, where pathology reports were available for tissue diagnosis, in order to better understand factors associated with a diagnosis of treatment-related changes on final pathology. METHODS: Patient records at a single institution between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine diagnosis of recurrent GBM or treatment effect. Survival analysis was performed interrogating overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Correlation with radiation treatment plans was also examined. RESULTS: One-hundred-twenty-three patients were identified. One-hundred-sixteen patients (94%) underwent resection and seven underwent biopsy. Treatment-related changes were reported in 20 cases (16%). These patients had longer median OS and PFS from the time of recurrence than patients with true disease progression. However, there was no significant difference in OS from the time of initial diagnosis. Treatment effect was associated with surgery within 90 days of completing radiation. In patients receiving radiation at our institution (n = 53), larger radiation target volume and a higher maximum dose were associated with treatment effect. CONCLUSION: Treatment effect was associated with surgery nearer to completion of radiation, a larger radiation target volume, and a higher maximum point dose. Treatment effect was associated with longer PFS and OS from the time of recurrence, but not from the time of initial diagnosis.

6.
Histopathology ; 76(7): 1055-1069, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955449

RESUMO

AIMS: Calcifying pseudoneoplasm of the neuraxis (CAPNON) is a rare entity that can occur anywhere within the central nervous system. Histologically, CAPNON has been characterised as a benign, calcified, fibro-osseous lesion with a characteristic chondromyxoid fibrillary matrix with dense calcification and varying degrees of spindle, epithelioid, fibrous, meningothelial and giant cells. The underlying aetiology of CAPNON is controversial and incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive radiological and histological review to further characterise this entity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this article, we review our institutional 20-year experience including 37 cases of CAPNON with detailed pathological analysis, evaluation of concurrent lesions, correlation with radiological imaging, and critical review of the literature. The classic histological finding of chondromyxoid matrix was present in one-third of cases. Underlying or dual pathologies were frequent, and included diverse underlying conditions. Radiologically, dense calcification and dural attachment were the most common features. Enhancement was often low, but was more prominent in the setting of inflammatory changes, aggressive growth, and dual pathology. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CAPNON represents a spectrum of reactive processes that can arise in association with diverse underlying pathologies, including inflammatory, degenerative, vascular and neoplastic lesions.

7.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 37(1): 22-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630277

RESUMO

Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are typically intraparenchymal. A subset of PCNSLs predominantly arises in the ventricles, with minimal parenchymal involvement. We review the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of ventricle-predominant PCNSLs (VP-PCNSLs) in 40 previously reported cases and report 5 additional cases. Including all cases of VP-PCNSLs (n = 45), 38% were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 11% were Burkitt lymphomas, 7% were MALT lymphomas, 4% were T-cell lymphomas, and 40% were lymphomas, not otherwise classified. VP-PCNSLs show rapid clinical progression. Patients present at a median age of 60.5 years. Unique clinical and radiological features distinguish them from other intraventricular tumors, including advanced age, edema, multifocality, hyperdensity, early and avid post-contrast enhancement, restricted diffusion, and positron emission tomography (PET) hypermetabolism. Including our cases, which were all DLBCL, and all previously reported DLBCL cases (n = 10), 8 of 10 show germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) phenotype, contrasting the high prevalence of non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) phenotype of parenchymal DLBCL PCNSLs. MYD88 L265P mutation was detected in three of our five cases. Ventricle-predominant PCNSLs are clinically and radiologically distinct, and the DLBCLs may be pathologically distinct. Further recognition of this entity may help to evaluate the role of therapies, possibly including surgical resection.

8.
Histopathology ; 76(2): 275-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379028

RESUMO

AIMS: Cellular schwannoma is a specific subtype of schwannoma, prone to misinterpretation as a malignant neoplasm. Involvement of the intracranial compartment by these tumours is extremely rare. We aim to characterise this clinicopathological subgroup. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified a total of 20 cellular schwannomas with predominant intracranial involvement. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 37 years (range = 16-81), with a slight female predominance (1.5:1 ratio). The most common sites were the eighth (n = 8) and fifth (n = 6) cranial nerves. Three tumours involved the anterior cranial fossa/olfactory groove, and a single case involved the glossopharyngeal nerve. All tumours met established criteria for cellular schwannoma, and were composed of interlacing fascicles of spindle cells lacking Verocay bodies with minimal Antoni B pattern and variable chronic inflammation and foamy histiocytes. Rare findings included haemosiderin deposition (n = 6), necrosis (n = 4), brisk mitotic activity (>10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields) (n = 2), focal epithelioid morphology (n = 2), myxoid areas (n = 2), neuroblastoma-like pattern (n = 1) and granular cells (n = 1). Immunohistochemical stains demonstrated expression of Schwann cell markers (S100 protein, SOX10, collagen IV) and preserved H3 K27 trimethylation in all cases tested. Fourteen patients had postoperative follow-up, ranging from 2 months to 21 years (mean = 66 months). In patients with follow-up, local recurrence/persistence developed in six cases; five tumours were initially incompletely resected. No metastatic disease or deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial cellular schwannomas share morphological and immunophenotypical features with cellular schwannomas at others sites may demonstrate locally aggressive growth but appear to lack metastatic potential.

9.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 18(2): E42, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065714

RESUMO

Colloid cysts are typically slow-growing lesions that account for approximately 1% of primary intracranial neoplasms and predominantly exist intraventricularly. These benign lesions typically can exist symptom-free for years and do not require surgical intervention. However, if the location of the colloid cyst is symptomatic, surgical debulking may be indicated. In this intraoperative video, we illustrate the case of an 8 cm, intra/extra-ventricular colloid cyst that appeared as a craniopharyngioma on preoperative imaging, but upon resection via a trans-middle temporal gyrus approach, was found to be very atypically filled with a thick, "tarry" substance, which we hypothesize is due to serial, subacute lesional hemorrhages. After debulking and piecemeal resection of the majority of the mass with ultrasonic aspiration and microsurgical tools, a hard, calcified nodule was left tenaciously adherent to the superior cerebellar artery to prevent damage to this vascular structure.

10.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ganglioglioma is a low-grade central nervous system neoplasm with a pediatric predominance, accounting for 10% of all brain tumors in children. Gangliogliomas of the cervicomedullary junction (GGCMJs) and brainstem (GGBSs) present a host of management challenges, including a significant risk of surgical morbidity. At present, understanding of the prognostic factors-including BRAF V600E status-is incomplete. Here, the authors report a single-institution GGCMJ and GGBS experience and review the pertinent literature. METHODS: A prospectively maintained neurosurgical database at a large tertiary care academic referral center was retrospectively queried for cases of GGCMJ pathologically confirmed in the period from 1995 to 2015; appropriate cases were defined by diagnosis codes and keywords. Secondary supplemental chart review was conducted to confirm or capture relevant data. The primary study outcome was treatment failure as defined by evidence of radiographic recurrence or progression and/or clinical or functional decline. A review of the literature was conducted as well. RESULTS: Five neurosurgically managed GGBS patients were identified, and the neoplasms in 4 were classified as GGCMJ. All 5 patients were younger than 18 years old (median 15 years, range 4-16 years) and 3 (60%) were female. One patient underwent gross-total resection, 2 underwent aggressive subtotal resection (STR), and 2 underwent stereotactic biopsy only. All patients who had undergone STR or biopsy required repeat resection for tumor control or progression. Progressive disease was treated with radiotherapy in 2 patients, chemotherapy in 2, and chemoradiotherapy alone in 1. Immunostaining for BRAF V600E was positive in 3 patients (60%). All 5 patients experienced at least one major complication, including wound infection, foot drop, hemiparesis, quadriparesis, cranial neuropathy, C2-3 subluxation, syringomyelia, hydrocephalus, aspiration, and coma. Overall mortality was 20%, with 1 death observed over 11 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: GGBS and GGCMJ are rare, benign posterior fossa tumors that carry significant perioperative morbidity. Contemporary management strategies are heterogeneous and include combinations of resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The BRAF V600E mutation is frequently observed in GGBS and GGCMJ and appears to have both prognostic and therapeutic significance with targeted biological agents.

11.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated as pathologic actors in phenotypically aggressive vestibular schwannoma (VS), potentially mediated via programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). The authors hypothesized that PD-L1 is a key regulator of the VS immune microenvironment. METHODS: Forty-six consecutive, radiation-naïve, sporadic VSs that were subtotally resected at primary surgery were assessed via immunohistochemical analysis, including analysis of CD163 and PD-L1 expression. Pathologic data were correlated with clinical endpoints, including tumor control, facial nerve function, and complications. RESULTS: Baseline parameters were equivalent between stable and progressive post-subtotal resection (STR) VS. CD163 percent positivity and M2 index were significantly increased among tumors that remained stable (34% vs 21%, p = 0.02; 1.13 vs 0.99, p = 0.0008), as well as patients with favorable House-Brackmann grade I or II facial nerve function (31% vs 13%, p = 0.04; 1.11 vs 0.97, p = 0.05). PD-L1 percent positivity was significantly associated with tumor progression (1% vs 11%, p = 0.01) and unfavorable House-Brackmann grade III-VI facial nerve function (1% vs 38%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, PD-L1 was independently significant in all models (likelihood ratio 4.4, p = 0.04), while CD163 was dependent in all iterations. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to prior reports, in this study, the authors observed significantly increased levels of M1, CD163+ TAMs in association with VS that progressed after STR. Progressive tumors are characterized by increased PD-L1, potentially highlighting a mechanism of immune evasion that results in TAM deactivation, tumor growth, and further infiltration of anti-tumor immune cells. Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 may offer therapeutic promise, particularly in the setting of disease control after STR.

12.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518983

RESUMO

Benign notochordal cell tumors (BNCTs) are considered to be benign intraosseous lesions of notochord origin; however, recent spine studies have suggested the possibility that some chordomas arise from BNCTs. Here, the authors describe two cases demonstrating histological features of BNCT and concomitant chordoma involving the clivus, which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have not been previously documented at this anatomical site.An 18-year-old female presented with an incidentally discovered clival mass. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 2.8-cm nonenhancing lesion in the upper clivus that was T2 hyperintense and T1 hypointense. She underwent an uneventful endoscopic transsphenoidal resection. Histologically, the tumor demonstrated areas of classic chordoma and a distinct intraosseous BNCT component. The patient completed adjuvant radiation therapy. Follow-up showed no recurrence at 18 months.A 39-year-old male presented with an incidentally discovered 2.8-cm clival lesion. The nonenhancing mass was T2 hyperintense and T1 hypointense. Surgical removal of the lesion was performed through an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Histological analysis revealed areas of BNCT with typical features of chordoma. Follow-up did not demonstrate recurrence at 4 years.These cases document histologically concomitant BNCT and chordoma involving the clivus, suggesting that the BNCT component may be a precursor of chordoma.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 131: 243-251.e2, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelioid glioblastoma (eGBM) is a very rare histologic variant of glioblastoma that has not been studied in isolation and, therefore, its optimal management has been largely assumed, but not confirmed. The aim of this study was to analyze all reported cases describing the presentation and clinical features to better understand the clinical significance of this histologic diagnosis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from 2005 to April 2019 identifying cases of eGBM that satisfied selection criteria for analysis. Survival was investigated using Kaplan-Meier estimations, and then univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses for primary end point overall survival (OS) and second end point progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: A total cohort of 59 eGBM cases from 28 articles were included for final analysis. Median age of patients at diagnosis was 30 years, with 29 (46%) female patients. When reported, 100% (37/37) cases were IDH1-wild-type and 63% (19/30) were positive for the BRAF V600E mutation by immunohistochemistry. Median OS and PFS were estimated to be 11.0 months (95% confidence interval, 6.5-13.0) and 7.0 months (95% confidence interval, 3.0-10.0), respectively. Surgical extent of resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy all predicted superior OS and PFS on multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). No biomarkers prognosticated survival. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the histologic diagnosis of eGBM does not deviate from the clinical course of the broader glioblastoma diagnosis, despite being a unique histologic identity. These results argue against the temptation to deviate from the traditional management paradigm of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy for glioblastoma based on this histology alone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Raras , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 78(9): 791-797, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373367

RESUMO

Adult spinal cord ependymomas are typically low grade and have a relatively favorable clinical course following gross total resection. We report 4 cases of anaplastic spinal cord ependymoma with MYCN amplification, an exceptionally rare finding. All cases occurred in the spinal cord of adolescent and young adult women and had morphological and immunohistochemical features of anaplastic ependymomas (World Health Organization grade III). Chromosomal microarray analysis demonstrated amplification of 2p24 (including MYCN) in all cases. One patient died 6 months after surgery. Another patient recently had removal of metastatic nodules in the thoracic region, following gross total resection and adjuvant radiation therapy of a lumbar ependymoma 1 year previously. One patient responded well after chemotherapy but died after multiple relapses 82 months after diagnosis. We found MYCN amplification reported in 2 other ependymomas, both anaplastic and arising in the spinal cord of adult females (Brain Pathol 2001;11:133-43). One patient had multiple recurrences in the spinal cord and an intracranial metastasis. Although MYCN amplification is rare in ependymomas, the current and previously reported cases suggest that this is associated with higher-grade histology, spinal location, and often unfavorable prognosis. The clinical significance and therapeutic implications of MYCN amplification in ependymomas require further evaluation.

15.
Neurooncol Pract ; 6(3): 163-178, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386032

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare CNS cancer that typically occurs in children younger than 3 years of age. Histologically, AT/RTs are embryonal tumors that contain a rhabdoid component as well as areas with primitive neuroectodermal, mesenchymal, and epithelial features. Compared to other CNS tumors of childhood, AT/RTs are characterized by their rapid growth, short symptomatic prodrome, and large size upon presentation, often leading to brain compression and intracranial hypertension requiring urgent intervention. For decades, the mainstay of care has been a combination of maximal safe surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Despite advances in each of these modalities, the relative paucity of data on these tumors, their inherently aggressive course, and a lack of molecular data have limited advances in treatment over the past 3 decades. Recent large-scale, multicenter interdisciplinary studies, however, have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors. Multiple clinical trials testing molecularly targeted therapies are underway, offering hope for patients with AT/RT and their families.

17.
J Neurooncol ; 144(3): 433-443, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have reported the loss of trimethylation at lysine (K) 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3) in high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). However, the diagnostic potential of this finding in MPNSTs remains yet to be fully substantiated. Correspondingly, our aim was to pool systematically-identified metadata in the literature and substantiate the incidence of H3K27me3 loss in this setting. METHODS: Searches of 7 electronic databases from inception to May 2019 were conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against pre-specified criteria. The incidence of loss was then pooled by random-effects meta-analysis of proportions. RESULTS: Nine pertinent studies described a total of 823 high-grade MPNST samples. When pooled, incidence (sensitivity) of complete H3K27me3 loss was estimated to be 53% (95% CI 42-64%). For MPNST subtypes, estimated incidences of complete loss in NF1 subtype was 52% (95% CI 41-62), in sporadic subtype was 53% (95% CI 36-70%), in the epithelioid subtype was 0% (95% CI 0-7%), and radiation-associated subtype was 98% (95% CI 86-100%). Finally, incidence of incomplete loss (specificity) in 1231 MPNST-mimic samples was estimated to be 96% (95% CI 90-99%). Certainty of these outcomes ranged from very low to high. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of complete H3K27me3 loss is substantial in high-grade MPNSTs and is low in MPNST-mimics. Greater cohort study and biological investigation will validate the certainty of these findings as well as elucidate their true molecular and clinical significances.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Histonas/genética , Neurofibrossarcoma/diagnóstico , Neurofibrossarcoma/genética , Humanos , Lisina , Prognóstico
18.
J Neurol Surg Rep ; 80(1): e10-e13, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941279

RESUMO

Objectives To present a rare case of traumatic facial neuroma involving the geniculate ganglion and review relevant literature. Patient Thirty-year-old man. Intervention Microsurgical resection via combined mastoid-middle fossa approach with great auricular nerve interpositional graft. Main Outcome Measures Patient demographics and pre- and postoperative facial nerve function. Results A 30-year-old man with a reported history of prior Bell's palsy developed progressive complete (House-Brackmann VI) right facial paralysis following blunt trauma. Imaging was strongly suggestive of a geniculate ganglion hemangioma. As the patient had no spontaneous improvement in his poor facial function over the course of 9 months, he underwent resection of the facial nerve lesion with great auricular nerve graft interposition via a combined mastoid-middle fossa approach. Histopathology demonstrated disorganized fascicles, with axonal clustering reminiscent of sprouting/regeneration following trauma. No cellular proliferation or vascular malformation was present. Conclusion Traumatic facial nerve neuromas can occur following temporal bone trauma and can closely mimic primary facial nerve tumors. Akin to the management of geniculate ganglion hemangioma and schwannoma, preoperative facial function largely dictates if and when surgery should be pursued.

19.
Mod Pathol ; 32(9): 1236-1243, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028365

RESUMO

Primary high-grade infiltrating gliomas of the spinal cord are rare, with prior series including limited numbers of cases and reporting poor outcomes. Additionally, the molecular profile of high-grade infiltrating gliomas of the spinal cord has not been well characterized. We identified 13 adult patients whose surgery had been performed at our institution over a 26-year-period. Radiologically, nine cases harbored regions of post-contrast enhancement. Existing slides were reviewed, and when sufficient tissue was available, immunohistochemical stains (IDH1-R132H, H3-K27M, H3K27-me3, ATRX, p53 and BRAF-V600E), and a targeted 150-gene neuro-oncology next-generation sequencing panel were performed. The 13 patients included 11 men and 2 women with a median age of 38 years (range = 18-69). Histologically, all were consistent with an infiltrating astrocytoma corresponding to 2016 WHO grades III (n = 5) and IV (n = 8). By immunohistochemistry, six cases were positive for H3K27M, all showing concomitant loss of H3K27-me3. Next-generation sequencing was successfully performed in ten cases. Next-generation sequencing studies were successfully performed in four of the cases positive for H3K27M by immunohistochemistry, and all were confirmed as H3F3A K27M-mutant. Additional recurrent mutations identified included those of TERT promoter (n = 3), TP53 (n = 5), PPM1D (n = 3), NF1 (n = 3), ATRX (n = 2), and PIK3CA (n = 2). No HIST1H3B, HIST1H3C, IDH1, IDH2, or BRAF mutations were detected. Ten patients have died since first surgery, with a median survival of 13 months and 1 year of 46%. Median survival was 48.5 months for H3K27M-positive cases, compared to 1 month for those with TERT promoter mutation and 77 months for those harboring neither (p = 0.019). Median survival for cases with TP53 mutations was 11.5 months and for those with PPM1D mutations was 84 months. Our findings suggest that high-grade infiltrating gliomas of the spinal cord in adults represent a heterogeneous group of tumors, with variable outcomes possibly related to their molecular profiles.

20.
Front Oncol ; 9: 92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873381

RESUMO

Diffuse Midline Gliomas with Histone 3-Lysine-27-Methionine (H3K27M) mutation constitute the majority of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG), which is the most aggressive form of pediatric glioma with a dire prognosis. DIPG are lethal tumors found in younger children with a median survival <1 year from diagnosis. Discovery of the characteristic H3K27M mutations offers opportunity and hope for development of targeted therapies for this deadly disease. The H3K27M mutation, likely through epigenetic alterations in specific H3 lysine trimethylation levels and subsequent gene expression, plays a significant role in pathogenesis of DIPG. Animal models accurately depicting molecular characteristics of H3K27M DIPG are important to elucidate underlying pathologic events and for preclinical drug evaluation. Here we review the past and present DIPG models and describe our efforts developing patient derived cell lines and xenografts from pretreated surgical specimens. Pre-treated surgical samples retain the characteristic genomic and phenotypic hallmarks of DIPG and establish orthotopic tumors in the mouse brainstem that recapitulate radiographic and morphological features of the original human DIPG tumor. These models that contain the H3K27M mutation constitute a valuable tool to further study this devastating disease and ultimately may uncover novel therapeutic vulnerabilities.

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