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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 52, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a clinical risk prediction score for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure defined as intubation after a trial of NIV in non-surgical patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of a multihospital electronic health record database. PATIENTS: Non-surgical adult patients receiving NIV as the first method of ventilation within two days of hospitalization. MEASUREMENT: Primary outcome was intubation after a trial of NIV. We used a non-random split of the cohort based on year of admission for model development and validation. We included subjects admitted in years 2010-2014 to develop a risk prediction model and built a parsimonious risk scoring model using multivariable logistic regression. We validated the model in the cohort of subjects hospitalized in 2015 and 2016. MAIN RESULTS: Of all the 47,749 patients started on NIV, 11.7% were intubated. Compared with NIV success, those who were intubated had worse mortality (25.2% vs. 8.9%). Strongest independent predictors for intubation were organ failure, principal diagnosis group (substance abuse/psychosis, neurological conditions, pneumonia, and sepsis), use of invasive ventilation in the prior year, low body mass index, and tachypnea. The c-statistic was 0.81, 0.80 and 0.81 respectively, in the derivation, validation and full cohorts. We constructed three risk categories of the scoring system built on the full cohort; the median and interquartile range of risk of intubation was: 2.3% [1.9%-2.8%] for low risk group; 9.3% [6.3%-13.5%] for intermediate risk category; and 35.7% [31.0%-45.8%] for high risk category. CONCLUSIONS: In patients started on NIV, we found that in addition to factors known to be associated with intubation, neurological, substance abuse, or psychiatric diagnoses were highly predictive for intubation. The prognostic score that we have developed may provide quantitative guidance for decision-making in patients who are started on NIV.

2.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition to the new ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision) coding system in the U.S. poses challenges to the ability to consistently and accurately measure trends in comorbidities and complications. We examined the prevalence of comorbidities and postoperative medical complications before and after the transition from ICD-9 to ICD-10 among patients who underwent primary total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). We hypothesized that the transition to ICD-10 codes was associated with discontinuity and slope change in comorbidities and medical complications. METHODS: The Elixhauser comorbidities and medical complications were identified using the Premier Healthcare database from fiscal year (FY)2011 to FY2018. Using multivariable segmented regression models, we examined the changes in the levels and slopes after the transition from ICD-9 to ICD-10 coding. Odds ratios (ORs) of <1 and >1 indicate decreases and increases, respectively, in levels and slopes. RESULTS: Overall, 2,006,581 patients who underwent primary THA or TKA were identified. The mean age was 65.9 ± 10.5 years, and the median length of the hospital stay was 2 days (interquartile range [IQR], 2 to 3 days). Of the comorbidities studied, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and obesity had a statistically significant but clinically small discontinuity after the transition from ICD-9 to ICD-10 coding. Of the complications, pneumonia (OR = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48 to 0.90), acute respiratory failure (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.52 to 2.33), sepsis (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.45 to 4.44), and urinary tract infection (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.32 to 2.42) demonstrated statistically significant discontinuity. Alcohol abuse and paralysis had an increasing prevalence before the ICD transition, followed by a decreasing prevalence after the transition. In contrast, metastatic cancer, weight loss, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) showed a decreasing prevalence before the ICD transition followed by an increasing prevalence after the transition. Generally, complications showed a decreasing prevalence over time. CONCLUSIONS: The discontinuities after the transition from ICD-9 to ICD-10 coding were relatively small for most comorbidities. Medical complications generally showed a decreasing trend over the quarters studied. These findings support caution when conducting joint replacement studies that rely on ICD coding and include the ICD coding transition period.

3.
Neurocrit Care ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the USA. While cardiopulmonary dysfunction can result in poor outcomes following severe TBI, the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) is poorly understood. We examined the association of severe AKI with hospital mortality and healthcare utilization following isolate severe TBI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2014. We identified a cohort of adult patients with isolated severe TBI and described the incidence of severe AKI, corresponding to Acute Kidney Injury Network stage 3 disease or greater. We examined the association of severe AKI with the primary outcome of hospital mortality using multivariable logistic regression models. In secondary analyses, we examined the association of severe AKI with dialysis catheter placement, tracheostomy and gastrostomy utilization, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: There were 37,851 patients who experienced isolated severe TBI during the study period. Among these patients, 787 (2.1%) experienced severe (Stage 3 or greater) AKI. In multivariable models, the development of severe AKI in the hospital was associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.64-2.52), need for tracheostomy (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.52-2.89), PEG tube placement (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.45-2.45), and increased hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of severe AKI is relatively low (2.1%), but is associated with increased mortality and multiple markers of increased healthcare utilization following severe TBI.

4.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(3): 730-737, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in older hip fracture patients is associated with increased complication rates and mortality. As postoperative nutrition delivery is essential to surgical recovery, postoperative nutritional supplements including oral nutritional supplements or tube feeding formulas can improve postoperative outcomes in malnourished hip/femur fracture patients. The association between early postoperative nutritional supplements utilisation and hospital length of stay was assessed in malnourished hip/femur fracture patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of malnourished hip/femur fracture patients undergoing surgery from 2008 to 2018. Patients were identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes and nutritional supplement utilisation via hospital charge codes. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes included infectious complications, hospital mortality, ICU admission, and costs. Propensity matching (1:1) and univariable analysis were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 160 151 hip/femur fracture surgeries were identified with a coded-malnutrition prevalence of 8.7%. Early postoperative nutritional supplementation (by hospital day 1) occurred in 1.9% of all patients and only 4.9% of malnourished patients. Propensity score matching demonstrated early nutritional supplements were associated with significantly shorter length of stay (5.8 [6.6] days vs 7.6 [5.8] days; P<0.001) without increasing hospital costs. No association was observed between early nutritional supplementation and secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Malnutrition is underdiagnosed in hip/femur fracture patients, and nutritional supplementation is underutilised. Early nutritional supplementation was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay without an increase in costs. Nutritional supplementation in malnourished hip/femur fracture patients could serve as a key target for perioperative quality improvement.

5.
Anesth Analg ; 132(2): 512-523, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthesiologists caring for patients with do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders may have ethical concerns because of their resuscitative wishes and may have clinical concerns because of their known increased risk of morbidity/mortality. Patient heterogeneity and/or emphasis on mortality outcomes make previous studies among patients with DNR orders difficult to interpret. We sought to explore factors associated with morbidity and mortality among patients with DNR orders, which were stratified by surgical subgroups. METHODS: Exploratory retrospective cohort study in adult patients undergoing prespecified colorectal, vascular, and orthopedic surgeries was performed using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use File data from 2010 to 2013. Among patients with preoperative DNR orders (ie, active DNR order written in the patient's chart before surgery), factors associated with 30-day mortality, increased length of stay, and inpatient death were determined via penalized regression. Unadjusted and adjusted estimates for selected variables are presented. RESULTS: After selection as above, 211,420 patients underwent prespecified procedures, and of those, 2755 (1.3%) had pre-existing DNR orders and met above selection to address morbidity/mortality aims. By specialty, of these patients with a preoperative DNR, 1149 underwent colorectal, 870 vascular, and 736 orthopedic surgery. Across groups, 36.2% were male and had a mean age 79.9 years (range 21-90). The 30-day mortality was 15.4%-27.2% and median length of stay was 6-12 days. Death at discharge was 7.0%, 13.1%, and 23.0% in orthopedics, vascular, and colorectal patients with a DNR, respectively. The strongest factors associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality were preoperative septic shock in colorectal patients, preoperative ascites in vascular patients, and any requirement of mechanical ventilation at admission in orthopedic patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with DNR orders undergoing common surgical procedures, the association of characteristics with morbidity and mortality varies in both direction and magnitude. The DNR order itself should not be the defining measure of risk.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): e209-e212, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094965

RESUMO

Using the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-12), we measured the prevalence of disability in all eligible patients during a 4-month period who were presenting for preoperative evaluation at a US Veterans Affairs hospital. Overall disability was at least moderate in more than half of these patients (total n = 472 at Durham, NC). Two of the 6 WHODAS domains, "Getting Around" and "Participation in Society," contributed most to the overall scores-25% and 20%, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of domain-specific disabilities on postoperative outcomes and to identify potential interventions to address these vulnerabilities.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Período Pré-Operatório , Veteranos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Prevalência , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
7.
Can J Anaesth ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We estimated the rate of unplanned hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions following ambulatory surgery centre (ASC) procedures, and identified factors associated with their occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective cohort included adult patients who underwent ASC procedures within a large community practice from January 2010 to December 2014. Patients were categorized into two groups: unplanned postoperative hospital/ICU admission within 24 hr of procedure or uneventful discharge. Demographics, comorbidities, anesthesia type, procedure type, procedure group, and ASC facility were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 211,389 patients included, there were 211,147 uneventful discharges (99.89%) and 242 unplanned hospital admissions (0.11%), of which 75 were ICU admissions (0.04%). The multivariable logistic regression model for hospital admission showed an increased risk associated with age > 50 yr (odds ratio [OR], 1.53); American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (III vs II: OR, 1.45; IV vs II: OR, 1.88), comorbidity (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: OR, 2.63; diabetes mellitus: OR, 1.62; transient ischemic attack: OR, 2.48) procedure (respiratory: OR, 2.92; digestive: OR, 2.66; musculoskeletal system: OR, 2.53), anesthetic management (general anesthesia [GA] and peripheral nerve block vs GA: OR, 1.79), and ASC facility (189BB: OR, 2.29; 30E9A: OR, 7.41; and BD21F: OR, 1.69). The multivariable logistic regression model for ICU admission showed increased risk of unplanned ICU admission associated with ASA physical status (ASA III vs II: OR, 3.0; ASA IV vs II: OR, 8.52), procedure (musculoskeletal system: OR, 2.45), and ASC facility (00E6C: OR, 3.14; 189BB: OR, 2.77; 30E9A: OR, 2.59; and BD21F: OR, 3.71). CONCLUSION: While a small percentage of adult patients who underwent ASC procedures required unplanned hospital admission (0.07%), approximately one-third of these admissions were to the ICU (0.04%). Facility was at least as strong a predictor of hospital admission as the patient- and/or procedure-specific variables.

8.
Perioper Med (Lond) ; 9: 29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029348

RESUMO

Background: Small randomized trials of early postoperative oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) suggest various health benefits following colorectal surgery (CRS). However, real-world evidence of the impact of early ONS on clinical outcomes in CRS is lacking. Methods: Using a nationwide administrative-financial database (Premier Healthcare Database), we examined the association between early ONS use and postoperative clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective open or laparoscopic CRS between 2008 and 2014. Early ONS was defined as the presence of charges for ONS before postoperative day (POD) 3. The primary outcome was composite infectious complications. Key secondary efficacy (intensive care unit (ICU) admission and gastrointestinal complications) and falsification (blood transfusion and myocardial infarction) outcomes were also examined. Propensity score matching was used to assemble patient groups that were comparable at baseline, and differences in outcomes were examined. Results: Overall, patients receiving early ONS were older with greater comorbidities and more likely to be Medicare beneficiaries with malnutrition. In a well-matched sample of early ONS recipients (n = 267) versus non-recipients (n = 534), infectious complications were significantly lower in early ONS recipients (6.7% vs. 11.8%, P < 0.03). Early ONS use was also associated with significantly reduced rates of pneumonia (P < 0.04), ICU admissions (P < 0.04), and gastrointestinal complications (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in falsification outcomes. Conclusions: Although early postoperative ONS after CRS was more likely to be utilized in elderly patients with greater comorbidities, the use of early ONS was associated with reduced infectious complications, pneumonia, ICU admission, and gastrointestinal complications. This propensity score-matched study using real-world data suggests that clinical outcomes are improved with early ONS use, a simple and inexpensive intervention in CRS patients.

9.
J Music Ther ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895698

RESUMO

Perioperative music decreases pain, anxiety, and analgesia requirements while increasing patient satisfaction. We investigated the acceptability of perioperative music at a women's and children's hospital in Singapore, seeking to uncover barriers and facilitators to implementation in routine practice over a 12-week period. We used an undergraduate-led Rapid Qualitative Inquiry approach that includes data collection from multiple sources, iterative analysis, and additional data collection when necessary. Participants consisted of anesthesiologists and nurses working in the preoperative area, operating room, and postoperative recovery areas. In Stage 1, nurses and anesthesiologists answered a survey assessing attitudes and knowledge about perioperative music and attended a presentation introducing the intervention. In Stage 2, the results of the Stage 1 survey were disclosed, and nurses and anesthesiologists completed a second survey (Stage 1 survey questions with an additional query about implementation). Twenty-nine nurses were interviewed with semi-structured questions on barriers and facilitators to implementation. In Stage 3, nurses retook the Stage 2 survey after one month of implementation. The implementation of perioperative music was both acceptable and feasible in Singapore. The nurses' and anesthesiologists' acceptability increased over time with mostly positive qualitative feedback. Implementation barriers, including patient interest, timing of patient turnover, and added staff workload, appeared minor and could potentially be overcome by utilizing the intervention in the preoperative instead of postoperative area, deploying music in operating rooms with slower turnover, and evenly distributing staff workload. Local implementation stakeholders may make additional recommendations for scaling-up perioperative music interventions to fit other workflows while improving the patient experience.

10.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1193-1200, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warnings are common, their impact on perioperative outcomes is unclear. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is associated with increased bleeding and kidney injury in patients with sepsis, leading to an FDA black box warning in 2013. Among patients undergoing musculoskeletal surgery in a subset of hospitals where colloid use changed from HES to albumin following the FDA warning, we examined the rate of major perioperative bleeding post- versus pre-FDA warning. METHODS: The authors of this article used a retrospective, quasi-experimental, repeated cross-sectional, interrupted time series study of patients undergoing musculoskeletal surgery in hospitals within the Premier Healthcare Database, in the year before and year after the 2013 FDA black box warning. We examined patients in 23 "switcher" hospitals (where the percentage of colloid recipients receiving HES exceeded 50% before the FDA warning and decreased by at least 25% in absolute terms after the FDA warning) and patients in 279 "nonswitcher" hospitals. Among patients having surgery in "switcher" and "nonswitcher" hospitals, we determined monthly rates of major perioperative bleeding during the 12 months after the FDA warning, compared to 12 months before the FDA warning. Among patients who received surgery in "switcher" hospitals, we conducted a propensity-weighted segmented regression analysis assessing differences-in-differences (DID), using patients in "nonswitcher" hospitals as a control group. RESULTS: Among 3078 patients treated at "switcher" hospitals (1892 patients treated pre-FDA warning versus 1186 patients treated post-FDA warning), demographic and clinical characteristics were well-balanced. Two hundred fifty-one (13.3%) received albumin pre-FDA warning, and 900 (75.9%) received albumin post-FDA warning. Among patients undergoing surgery in "switcher" hospitals during the pre-FDA warning period, 282 of 1892 (14.9%) experienced major bleeding during the hospitalization, compared to 149 of 1186 (12.6%) following the warning. In segmented regression, the adjusted ratio of slopes for major perioperative bleeding post- versus pre-FDA warning was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.04). In the DID estimate using "nonswitcher" hospitals as a control group, the ratio of ratios was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.46-1.86), indicating no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a subset of hospitals where colloid use for musculoskeletal surgery changed following a 2013 FDA black box warning regarding HES use in sepsis. Among patients undergoing musculoskeletal surgery at these "switcher" hospitals, there was no significant decrease in the rate of major perioperative bleeding following the warning, possibly due to incomplete practice change. Evaluation of the impact of systemic changes in health care may contribute to the understanding of patient outcomes in perioperative medicine.


Assuntos
Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Medicamentos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/uso terapêutico , Sistema Musculoesquelético/cirurgia , Substitutos do Plasma/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066620945911, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine racial and ethnic differences in the utilization of 3 interventions (tracheostomy placement, gastrostomy tube placement, and hospice utilization) among patients with severe acute brain injury (SABI). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data from the National Inpatient Sample, from 2002 to 2012. PATIENTS: Adult patients with SABI defined as a primary diagnosis of stroke, traumatic brain injury, or post-cardiac arrest who received greater than 96 hours of mechanical ventilation. EXPOSURE: Race/ethnicity, stratified into 5 categories (white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and other). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data from 86 246 patients were included in the cohort, with a mean (standard deviation) age of 60 (18) years. In multivariable analysis, compared to white patients, black patients had an 20% increased risk of tracheostomy utilization (relative risk [RR]: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.16-1.24, P < .001), Hispanic patients had a 10% increased risk (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.14, P < .001), Asian patients had an 8% increased risk (RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.16, P = .02), and other race patients had an 10% increased risk (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04-1.16, P < .001). A similar relationship was observed for gastrostomy utilization. In multivariable analysis, compared to white patients, black patients had a 25% decreased risk of hospice discharge (RR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.67-0.85, P < .001), Hispanic patients had a 20% decreased risk (RR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69-0.94, P < .01), and Asian patients had a 47% decreased risk (RR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.39-0.73, P < .001). There was no observed relationship between race/ethnicity and in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Minority race was associated with increased utilization of tracheostomy and gastrostomy, as well as decreased hospice utilization among patients with SABI. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying these race-based differences in critical care.

12.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in left ventricular dysfunction, which can lead to hypotension and secondary brain injuries. Although echocardiography is often used to examine cardiovascular function in multiple clinical settings, its use and association with outcomes following severe TBI are not known. To address this gap, we used the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) to describe utilization patterns of echocardiography and examine its association with mortality following severe TBI. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large administrative trauma registry maintained by the NTDB from 2007 to 2014. Patients >18 years with isolated severe TBI, and without concurrent severe polytrauma, were included in the study. We examined echocardiogram utilization patterns (including overall utilization, factors associated with utilization, and variation in utilization) and the association of echocardiography utilization with hospital mortality, using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 47,808 patients, echocardiogram was utilized as part of clinical care in 2548 patients (5.3%). Clinical factors including vascular comorbidities and hemodynamic instability were associated with increased use of echocardiograms. Nearly half (46.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 40.3%-51.7%) of the variation in echocardiogram utilization was explained at the individual hospital level, above and beyond patient and injury factors. Exposure to an echocardiogram was associated with decreased odds of in-hospital mortality following severe TBI (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.87; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiogram utilization following severe TBI is relatively low, with wide variation in use at the hospital level. The association with decreased in-hospital mortality suggests that the information derived from echocardiography may be relevant to improving patient outcomes but will require confirmation in further prospective studies.

13.
J Surg Res ; 255: 583-593, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is frequently recommended for multimodal analgesia to reduce opioid use. We hypothesized that increased NSAID utilization will decrease opioid requirements without leading to significant complications in older adult trauma patients undergoing hip fracture repair. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional cohort study of 190,057 adult trauma patients over a 6-y period (2008-2014) in the national Premier Healthcare Database was performed. Patients aged 65 or older undergoing femur repair and hip arthroplasty following fractures due to falls were analyzed. Primary outcome was opioid use, and secondary outcomes included transfusion requirements, length of stay (LOS), and organ system dysfunction. Continuous outcomes were analyzed using mixed-effect linear regression models to assess the effect of NSAIDs on the day of surgery. Fixed effects were included for patient and hospital characteristics, comorbidities, co-treatments, and surgery. Random intercepts for each hospital were included to control for clustering. Categorical outcomes were similarly analyzed using mixed-effect logistic regression models. RESULTS: NSAIDs decreased opioids prescribed (12.01 versus 11.43 morphine milligram equivalents) (odds ratio [OR], -0.23; confidence interval [CI] = -0.41, -0.06) without overall increased bleeding (40.83% versus 43.18%; OR, 1.02; CI = 0.99, 1.05). NSAIDs were associated with reduced LOS (5.61 versus 5.96 d; CI = -0.24, -0.12), intensive care unit admissions (9.73% versus 10.59%; OR, 0.91; CI = 0.86, 0.96), and pulmonary complications (OR, 0.88; CI = 0.83, 0.93). Additionally, there was a 21% prescribing variability based solely on hospital. CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs were associated with decreased opioid requirements, hospital LOS, and intensive care unit admissions in older adult trauma patients without overall increase in bleeding. NSAIDs should be considered in multimodal pain regimens, moreover, given prescribing variability guidelines are needed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Prognostic.

14.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(3): 393-397, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600803

RESUMO

Graphical models have emerged as a tool to map out the interplay between multiple measured and unmeasured variables, and can help strengthen the case for a causal association between exposures and outcomes in observational studies. In Part 1 of this methods series, we will introduce the reader to graphical models for causal inference in perioperative medicine, and set the framework for Part 2 of the series involving advanced methods for causal inference.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Medicina Perioperatória/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Perioperatória/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nutrition delivery is essential to surgical recovery; unfortunately, postoperative dietary intake is often poor. Recent surgical guidelines recommend use of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) to improve nutrition delivery. Our aim was to examine prevalence of coded ONS use over time and coded malnutrition rates in postoperative patients. METHODS: The Premier Healthcare Database (PHD) was queried for postoperative patients found to have charges for ONS between 2008-2014. ONS use identified via charge codes. Descriptive statistics utilized to examine prevalence of malnutrition and ONS utilization. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with ONS use. RESULTS: A total of 2,823,532 surgical encounters were identified in PHD in 172 hospitals utilizing ONS charge codes. ONS-receiving patients were 72% Caucasian, 65% Medicare patients with mean age of 66 ± 16.5 years. Compared with patients not receiving ONS, ONS patients had higher van Walraven severity scores (7.3 ± 7.8 vs 2.3 ± 5.6, P < .001) with greater comorbidities. Overall coded malnutrition prevalence was 4.3%. Coded malnutrition diagnosis increased from 4.4% to 5.2% during study period. Only 15% of malnourished patients received ONS. Individual hospital practice explained much of variation in early postoperative ONS use. CONCLUSION: In this large surgical population, inpatient ONS use is most common in older, Caucasian, Medicare patients with high comorbidity burden. Despite increased malnutrition during study period, observed ONS prescription rate did not increase. Our data indicate current ONS utilization in surgical patients, even coded with malnutrition, is limited and is a critical perioperative quality improvement opportunity.

16.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(3): 398-405, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527658

RESUMO

Although RCTs represent the gold standard in clinical research, most clinical questions cannot be answered using this technique, because of ethical considerations, time, and cost. The goal of observational research in clinical medicine is to gain insight into the relationship between a clinical exposure and patient outcome, in the absence of evidence from RCTs. Observational research offers additional benefit when compared with data from RCTs: the conclusions are often more generalisable to a heterogenous population, which may be of greater value to everyday clinical practice. In Part 2 of this methods series, we will introduce the reader to several advanced methods for supporting the case for causality between an exposure and outcome, including: mediation analysis, natural experiments, and joint effects methods.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Medicina Perioperatória/métodos , Humanos
17.
J Urban Health ; 97(6): 814-822, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367203

RESUMO

Drug overdoses are a national and global epidemic. However, while overdoses are inextricably linked to social, demographic, and geographical determinants, geospatial patterns of drug-related admissions and overdoses at the neighborhood level remain poorly studied. The objective of this paper is to investigate spatial distributions of patients admitted for drug-related admissions and overdoses from a large, urban, tertiary care center using electronic health record data. Additionally, these spatial distributions were adjusted for a validated socioeconomic index called the Area Deprivation Index (ADI). We showed spatial heterogeneity in patients admitted for opioid, amphetamine, and psychostimulant-related diagnoses and overdoses. While ADI was associated with drug-related admissions, it did not correct for spatial variations and could not account alone for this spatial heterogeneity.

19.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(6): 25, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323058

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately 20% of patients undergoing surgery develop persistent lower extremity pain following total knee arthroplasty. Animal studies have confirmed that prolonged tourniquet time increases the risk of endoneural ischemia and can mediate or modulate the development of chronic pain. The use of Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) adjacent to nerve tissue, previously described as ONG has been shown to detect early neural compromise and has demonstrated clinical utility in carpal tunnel diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: In this pilot study, we recruited 10 healthy adult volunteers to undergo oxyneurography (ONG) and sensory nerve conduction testing (sNCT). We performed testing on the upper and lower extremities in each individual. The tourniquet was applied followed by measurements of sNCT and ONG as described. We observed a significant drop in the mean ONG index at 3 and 5 min following tourniquet inflation in upper and lower extremities. Similar to raw ONG values, there was significant variability in sNCT measurements, which in general increased from baseline with tourniquet inflation. In the upper extremity, there was a significant increase in sNCT with tourniquet inflation, while in the lower extremity, there was a trend towards significance. The use of ONG can be supported as a diagnostic tool to detect nerve ischemia and to potentially reduce the incidence of tourniquet-mediated or -modulated neural ischemia and reduce the development of chronic post-tourniquet pain.

20.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049672

RESUMO

Using the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS-12), we measured the prevalence of disability in all eligible patients during a 4-month period who were presenting for preoperative evaluation at a US Veterans Affairs hospital. Overall disability was at least moderate in more than half of these patients (total n = 472 at Durham, NC). Two of the 6 WHODAS domains, "Getting Around" and "Participation in Society," contributed most to the overall scores-25% and 20%, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of domain-specific disabilities on postoperative outcomes and to identify potential interventions to address these vulnerabilities.

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