Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 14-19, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917783

RESUMO

On August 1, 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared its 10th Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in an area with a high volume of cross-border population movement to and from neighboring countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda as the highest priority countries for Ebola preparedness because of the high risk for cross-border spread from DRC (1). Countries might base their disease case definitions on global standards; however, historical context and perceived risk often affect why countries modify and adapt definitions over time, moving toward or away from regional harmonization. Discordance in case definitions among countries might reduce the effectiveness of cross-border initiatives during outbreaks with high risk for regional spread. CDC worked with the ministries of health (MOHs) in DRC, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda to collect MOH-approved Ebola case definitions used during the first 6 months of the outbreak to assess concordance (i.e., commonality in category case definitions) among countries. Changes in MOH-approved Ebola case definitions were analyzed, referencing the WHO standard case definition, and concordance among the four countries for Ebola case categories (i.e., community alert, suspected, probable, confirmed, and case contact) was assessed at three dates (2). The number of country-level revisions ranged from two to four, with all countries revising Ebola definitions by February 2019 after a December 2018 peak in incidence in DRC. Case definition complexity increased over time; all countries included more criteria per category than the WHO standard definition did, except for the "case contact" and "confirmed" categories. Low case definition concordance and lack of awareness of regional differences by national-level health officials could reduce effectiveness of cross-border communication and collaboration. Working toward regional harmonization or considering systematic approaches to addressing country-level differences might increase efficiency in cross-border information sharing.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S342-S350, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite approximately 2.6 million stillbirths occurring annually, there is a paucity of systematic biological investigation and consequently knowledge on the causes of these deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We investigated the utility of minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), placental examination, and clinical history, in attributing the causes of stillbirth in a South African LMIC setting. METHODS: This prospective, observational pilot study undertook sampling of brain, lung, and liver tissue using core biopsy needles, blood and cerebrospinal fluid collection, and placental examination. Testing included microbial culture and/or molecular testing and tissue histological examination. The cause of death was determined for each case by an international panel of medical specialists and categorized using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision application to perinatal deaths. RESULTS: A cause of stillbirth was identifiable for 117 of 129 (90.7%) stillbirths, including an underlying maternal cause in 63.4% (n = 83) and an immediate fetal cause in 79.1% (n = 102) of cases. The leading underlying causes of stillbirth were maternal hypertensive disorders (16.3%), placental separation and hemorrhage (14.0%), and chorioamnionitis (10.9%). The leading immediate causes of fetal death were antepartum hypoxia (35.7%) and fetal infection (37.2%), including due to Escherichia coli (16.3%), Enterococcus species (3.9%), and group B Streptococcus (3.1%). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot, proof-of-concept study, focused investigation of stillbirth provided granular detail on the causes thereof in an LMIC setting, including provisionally highlighting the largely underrecognized role of fetal sepsis as a dominant cause.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S291-S301, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) network aims to generate reliable data on the causes of death among children aged <5 years using all available information, including minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS). The sensitive nature of MITS inevitably evokes religious, cultural, and ethical questions influencing the feasibility and sustainability of CHAMPS. METHODS: Due to limited behavioral studies related to child MITS, we developed an innovative qualitative methodology to determine the barriers, facilitators, and other factors that affect the implementation and sustainability of CHAMPS surveillance across 7 diverse locations in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We employed a multimethod grounded theory approach and analytical structure based on culturally specific conceptual frameworks. The methodology guided data interpretation and collective analyses confirming how to define dimensions of CHAMPS feasibility within the cultural context of each site while reducing subjectivity and bias in the process of interpretation and reporting. RESULTS: Findings showed that the approach to gain consent to conduct the MITS procedure involves religious factors associated with timing of burial, use of certain terminology, and methods of transporting the body. Community misperceptions and uncertainties resulted in rumor surveillance and consistency in information sharing. Religious pronouncements, recognition of health priorities, attention to pregnancy, and advancement of child health facilitated community acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: These findings helped formulate program priorities, guided site-specific adaptations in surveillance procedures, and verified inferences drawn from CHAMPS epidemiological and formative research data. Results informed appropriate community sensitization and engagement activities for introducing and sustaining mortality surveillance, including MITS.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S257-S259, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598658

RESUMO

Current understanding of the causes of under-5 childhood deaths in low- and middle-income countries relies heavily on country-level vital registration data and verbal autopsies. Reliable data on specific causes of deaths are crucial to target interventions more effectively and achieve rapid reductions in under-5 mortality. The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) network aims to systematically describe causes of child death and stillbirth in low- and middle-income countries using minimally invasive tissue sampling. The articles in this supplement introduce the set of foundational epidemiologic, demographic surveillance, social behavioral science, and laboratory methods. Undergirding the CHAMPS surveillance system designed to determine causes of child mortality.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S361-S373, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current estimates for causes of childhood deaths are mainly premised on modeling of vital registration and limited verbal autopsy data and generally only characterize the underlying cause of death (CoD). We investigated the potential of minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) for ascertaining the underlying and immediate CoD in children 1 month to 14 years of age. METHODS: MITS included postmortem tissue biopsies of brain, liver, and lung for histopathology examination; microbial culture of blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), liver, and lung samples; and molecular microbial testing on blood, CSF, lung, and rectal swabs. Each case was individually adjudicated for underlying, antecedent, and immediate CoD by an international multidisciplinary team of medical experts and coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). RESULTS: An underlying CoD was determined for 99% of 127 cases, leading causes being congenital malformations (18.9%), complications of prematurity (14.2%), human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (12.6%), diarrheal disease (8.7%), acute respiratory infections (7.9%), injuries (7.9%), and malignancies (7.1%). The main immediate CoD was pneumonia, sepsis, and diarrhea in 33.9%, 19.7%, and 10.2% of cases, respectively. Infection-related deaths were either an underlying or immediate CoD in 78.0% of cases. Community-acquired pneumonia deaths (n = 32) were attributed to respiratory syncytial virus (21.9%), Pneumocystis jirovecii (18.8%), cytomegalovirus (15.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (12.5%). Seventy-one percent of 24 sepsis deaths were hospital-acquired, mainly due to Acinetobacter baumannii (47.1%) and K. pneumoniae (35.3%). Sixty-two percent of cases were malnourished. CONCLUSIONS: MITS, coupled with antemortem clinical information, provides detailed insight into causes of childhood deaths that could be informative for prioritization of strategies aimed at reducing under-5 mortality.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S351-S360, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postmortem minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a potential alternative to the gold standard complete diagnostic autopsy for identifying specific causes of childhood deaths. We investigated the utility of MITS, interpreted with available clinical data, for attributing underlying and immediate causes of neonatal deaths. METHODS: This prospective, observational pilot study enrolled neonatal deaths at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. The MITS included needle core-biopsy sampling for histopathology of brain, lung, and liver tissue. Microbiological culture and/or molecular tests were performed on lung, liver, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and stool samples. The "underlying" and "immediate" causes of death (CoD) were determined for each case by an international panel of 12-15 medical specialists. RESULTS: We enrolled 153 neonatal deaths, 106 aged 3-28 days. Leading underlying CoD included "complications of prematurity" (52.9%), "complications of intrapartum events" (15.0%), "congenital malformations" (13.1%), and "infection related" (9.8%). Overall, infections were the immediate or underlying CoD in 57.5% (n = 88) of all neonatal deaths, including the immediate CoD in 70.4% (58/81) of neonates with "complications of prematurity" as the underlying cause. Overall, 74.4% of 90 infection-related deaths were hospital acquired, mainly due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (52.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (20.9%). Streptococcus agalactiae was the most common pathogen (5/15 [33.3%]) among deaths with "infections" as the underlying cause. CONCLUSIONS: MITS has potential to address the knowledge gap on specific causes of neonatal mortality. In our setting, this included the hitherto underrecognized dominant role of hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant bacterial infections as the leading immediate cause of neonatal deaths.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S333-S341, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598661

RESUMO

Mortality surveillance and cause of death data are instrumental in improving health, identifying diseases and conditions that cause a high burden of preventable deaths, and allocating resources to prevent these deaths. The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) network uses a standardized process to define, assign, and code causes of stillbirth and child death (<5 years of age) across the CHAMPS network. A Determination of Cause of Death (DeCoDe) panel composed of experts from a local CHAMPS site analyzes all available individual information, including laboratory, histopathology, abstracted clinical records, and verbal autopsy findings for each case and, if applicable, also for the mother. Using this information, the site panel ascertains the underlying cause (event that precipitated the fatal sequence of events) and other antecedent, immediate, and maternal causes of death in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision and the World Health Organization death certificate. Development and use of the CHAMPS diagnosis standards-a framework of required evidence to support cause of death determination-assures a homogenized procedure leading to a more consistent interpretation of complex data across the CHAMPS network. This and other standardizations ensures future comparability with other sources of mortality data produced externally to this project. Early lessons learned from implementation of DeCoDe in 5 CHAMPS sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh have been incorporated into the DeCoDe process, and the implementation of DeCoDe has the potential to spur health systems improvements and local public health action.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S274-S279, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598663

RESUMO

Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) provide a foundation for characterizing and defining priorities and strategies for improving population health. The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) project aims to inform policy to prevent child deaths through generating causes of death from surveillance data combined with innovative diagnostic and laboratory methods. Six of the 7 sites that constitute the CHAMPS network have active HDSSs: Mozambique, Mali, Ethiopia, Kenya, Bangladesh, and South Africa; the seventh, in Sierra Leone, is in the early planning stages. This article describes the network of CHAMPS HDSSs and their role in the CHAMPS project. To generate actionable health and demographic data to prevent child deaths, the network depends on reliable demographic surveillance, and the HDSSs play this crucial role.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S280-S290, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598665

RESUMO

The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) program is a 7-country network (as of December 2018) established by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to identify the causes of death in children in communities with high rates of under-5 mortality. The program carries out both mortality and pregnancy surveillance, and mortality surveillance employs minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) to gather small samples of body fluids and tissue from the bodies of children who have died. While this method will lead to greater knowledge of the specific causes of childhood mortality, the procedure is in tension with cultural and religious norms in many of the countries where CHAMPS works-Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and South Africa. Participatory Inquiry Into Community Knowledge of Child Health and Mortality Prevention (PICK-CHAMP) is a community entry activity designed to introduce CHAMPS to communities and gather initial perspectives on alignments and tensions between CHAMPS activities and community perceptions and priorities. Participants' responses revealed medium levels of overall alignment in all sites (with the exception of South Africa, where alignment was high) and medium levels of tension (with the exception of Ethiopia, where tension was high). Alignment was high and tension was low for pregnancy surveillance across all sites, whereas Ethiopia reflected low alignment and high tension for MITS. Participants across all sites indicated that support for MITS was possible only if the procedure did not interfere with burial practices and rituals.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S311-S321, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598666

RESUMO

Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) laboratories are employing a variety of laboratory methods to identify infectious agents contributing to deaths of children <5 years old and stillbirths in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In support of this long-term objective, our team developed TaqMan Array Cards (TACs) for testing postmortem specimens (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, lung tissue, respiratory tract swabs, and rectal swabs) for >100 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targets in total (30-45 per card depending on configuration). Multipathogen panels were configured by syndrome and customized to include pathogens of significance in young children within the regions where CHAMPS is conducted, including bacteria (57 targets covering 30 genera), viruses (48 targets covering 40 viruses), parasites (8 targets covering 8 organisms), and fungi (3 targets covering 3 organisms). The development and application of multiplex real-time PCR reactions to the TAC microfluidic platform increased the number of targets in each panel while maintaining assay efficiency and replicates for heightened sensitivity. These advances represent a substantial improvement in the utility of this technology for infectious disease diagnostics and surveillance. We optimized all aspects of the CHAMPS molecular laboratory testing workflow including nucleic acid extraction, quality assurance, and data management to ensure comprehensive molecular testing of specimens and high-quality data. Here we describe the development and implementation of multiplex TACs and associated laboratory protocols for specimen processing, testing, and data management at CHAMPS site laboratories.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(Supplement_4): S262-S273, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598664

RESUMO

Despite reductions over the past 2 decades, childhood mortality remains high in low- and middle-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In these settings, children often die at home, without contact with the health system, and are neither accounted for, nor attributed with a cause of death. In addition, when cause of death determinations occur, they often use nonspecific methods. Consequently, findings from models currently utilized to build national and global estimates of causes of death are associated with substantial uncertainty. Higher-quality data would enable stakeholders to effectively target interventions for the leading causes of childhood mortality, a critical component to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by eliminating preventable perinatal and childhood deaths. The Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) Network tracks the causes of under-5 mortality and stillbirths at sites in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through comprehensive mortality surveillance, utilizing minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), postmortem laboratory and pathology testing, verbal autopsy, and clinical and demographic data. CHAMPS sites have established facility- and community-based mortality notification systems, which aim to report potentially eligible deaths, defined as under-5 deaths and stillbirths within a defined catchment area, within 24-36 hours so that MITS can be conducted quickly after death. Where MITS has been conducted, a final cause of death is determined by an expert review panel. Data on cause of death will be provided to local, national, and global stakeholders to inform strategies to reduce perinatal and childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(41): 1116-1118, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049274

RESUMO

Mortality surveillance and vital registration are limited in Sierra Leone, a country with one of the highest mortality rates among children aged <5 years worldwide, approximately 120 deaths per 1,000 live births (1,2). To inform efforts to strengthen surveillance, stillbirths and deaths in children aged <5 years from multiple surveillance streams in Bombali Sebora chiefdom were retrospectively reviewed. In total, during January 2015-November 2016, 930 deaths in children aged <5 years were identified, representing 73.3% of the 1,269 deaths that were expected based on modeled estimates. The "117" telephone alert system established during the Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic captured 683 (73.4%) of all reported deaths in children aged <5 years, and was the predominant reporting source for stillbirths (n = 172). In the absence of complete vital events registration, 117 call alerts markedly improved the completeness of reporting of stillbirths and deaths in children aged <5 years.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança , Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Vigilância da População , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Notificação de Abuso , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(41): 1109-1115, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049279

RESUMO

Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré). Nearly all participants (92%) were aware of Ebola prevention measures, but 27% believed that Ebola could be transmitted by ambient air, and 49% believed they could protect themselves from Ebola by avoiding mosquito bites. Of the participants, 95% reported taking actions to avoid getting Ebola, especially more frequent handwashing (93%). Nearly all participants (91%) indicated they would send relatives with suspected Ebola to Ebola treatment centers, and 89% said they would engage special Ebola burial teams to remove corpses with suspected Ebola from homes. Of the participants, 66% said they would prefer to observe an Ebola-affected corpse from a safe distance at burials rather than practice traditional funeral rites involving corpse contact. The findings were used to guide the ongoing epidemic response and recovery efforts, including health communication, social mobilization, and planning, to prevent and respond to future outbreaks or sporadic cases of Ebola.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Guiné/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vaccine ; 35(49 Pt B): 6915-6923, 2017 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2014-2016, an Ebola epidemic devastated Guinea; more than 3800 cases and 2500 deaths were reported to the World Health Organization. In August 2015, as the epidemic waned and clinical trials of an experimental, Ebola vaccine continued in Guinea and neighboring Sierra Leone, we conducted a national household survey about Ebola-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) and opinions about "hypothetical" Ebola vaccines. METHODS: Using cluster-randomized sampling, we selected participants aged 15+ years old in Guinea's 8 administrative regions, which had varied cumulative case counts. The questionnaire assessed socio-demographic characteristics, experiences during the epidemic, Ebola-related KAP, and Ebola vaccine attitudes. To assess the potential for Ebola vaccine introduction in Guinea, we examined the association between vaccine attitudes and participants' characteristics using categorical and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Of 6699 persons invited to participate, 94% responded to at least 1 Ebola vaccine question. Most agreed that vaccines were needed to fight the epidemic (85.8%) and that their family would accept safe, effective Ebola vaccines if they became available in Guinea (84.2%). These measures of interest and acceptability were significantly more common among participants who were male, wealthier, more educated, and lived with young children who had received routine vaccines. Interest and acceptability were also significantly higher among participants who understood Ebola transmission modes, had witnessed Ebola response teams, knew Ebola-affected persons, believed Ebola was not always fatal, and would access Ebola treatment centers. In multivariable analyses of the majority of participants living with young children, interest and acceptability were significantly higher among those living with vaccinated children than among those living with unvaccinated children. DISCUSSION: The high acceptability of hypothetical vaccines indicates strong potential for introducing Ebola vaccines across Guinea. Strategies to build public confidence in use of Ebola vaccines should highlight any similarities with safe, effective vaccines routinely used in Guinea.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Vacinas contra Ebola/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Ebola/efeitos adversos , Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Guiné/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 73(3): e51-e58, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27741033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) is a WHO-recommended intervention for prevention of heterosexual HIV transmission which very few African couples have received. We report the successful nationwide implementation of CVCT in Rwanda. METHODS: From 1988 to 1994 in Rwanda, pregnant and postpartum women were tested for HIV and requested testing for their husbands. Partner testing was associated with more condom use and lower HIV and sexually transmitted infection rates, particularly among HIV-discordant couples. After the 1994 genocide, the research team continued to refine CVCT procedures in Zambia. These were reintroduced to Rwanda in 2001 and continually tested and improved. In 2003, the Government of Rwanda (GoR) established targets for partner testing among pregnant women, with the proportion rising from 16% in 2003 to 84% in 2008 as the prevention of mother-to-child transmission program expanded to >400 clinics. In 2009, the GoR adopted joint posttest counseling procedures, and in 2010 a quarterly follow-up program for discordant couples was established in government clinics with training and technical assistance. An estimated 80%-90% of Rwandan couples have now been jointly counseled and tested resulting in prevention of >70% of new HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Rwanda is the first African country to have established CVCT as standard of care in antenatal care. More than 20 countries have sent providers to Rwanda for CVCT training. To duplicate Rwanda's success, training and technical assistance must be part of a coordinated effort to set national targets, timelines, indicators, and budgets. Governments, bilateral, and multilateral funding agencies must jointly prioritize CVCT for prevention of new HIV infections.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Operacional , Cooperação do Paciente , Prática de Saúde Pública , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Programas Voluntários , Características da Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Sexo Seguro
18.
MMWR Suppl ; 65(3): 12-20, 2016 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27388930

RESUMO

CDC's response to the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa was the largest in the agency's history and occurred in a geographic area where CDC had little operational presence. Approximately 1,450 CDC responders were deployed to Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone since the start of the response in July 2014 to the end of the response at the end of March 2016, including 455 persons with repeat deployments. The responses undertaken in each country shared some similarities but also required unique strategies specific to individual country needs. The size and duration of the response challenged CDC in several ways, particularly with regard to staffing. The lessons learned from this epidemic will strengthen CDC's ability to respond to future public health emergencies. These lessons include the importance of ongoing partnerships with ministries of health in resource-limited countries and regions, a cadre of trained CDC staff who are ready to be deployed, and development of ongoing working relationships with U.S. government agencies and other multilateral and nongovernment organizations that deploy for international public health emergencies. CDC's establishment of a Global Rapid Response Team in June 2015 is anticipated to meet some of these challenges. The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).


Assuntos
/organização & administração , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Guiné/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Libéria/epidemiologia , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(9): 1653-5, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27268508

RESUMO

Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , População Rural , Coinfecção/história , Coinfecção/transmissão , Coinfecção/virologia , Guiné/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/história , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , História do Século XXI , Hospitalização , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 95(2): 452-6, 2016 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352876

RESUMO

In August 2012, laboratory tests confirmed a mixed outbreak of epidemic typhus fever and trench fever in a male youth rehabilitation center in western Rwanda. Seventy-six suspected cases and 118 controls were enrolled into an unmatched case-control study to identify risk factors for symptomatic illness during the outbreak. A suspected case was fever or history of fever, from April 2012, in a resident of the rehabilitation center. In total, 199 suspected cases from a population of 1,910 male youth (attack rate = 10.4%) with seven deaths (case fatality rate = 3.5%) were reported. After multivariate analysis, history of seeing lice in clothing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-5.8), delayed (≥ 2 days) washing of clothing (aOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.6-9.6), and delayed (≥ 1 month) washing of beddings (aOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.0-11) were associated with illness, whereas having stayed in the rehabilitation camp for ≥ 6 months was protective (aOR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.10-0.40). Stronger surveillance and improvements in hygiene could prevent future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Bartonella quintana/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Ftirápteros/microbiologia , Rickettsia prowazekii/isolamento & purificação , Febre das Trincheiras/epidemiologia , Tifo Epidêmico Transmitido por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Bartonella quintana/patogenicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Centros de Reabilitação , Rickettsia prowazekii/patogenicidade , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Febre das Trincheiras/diagnóstico , Febre das Trincheiras/mortalidade , Febre das Trincheiras/transmissão , Tifo Epidêmico Transmitido por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Tifo Epidêmico Transmitido por Piolhos/mortalidade , Tifo Epidêmico Transmitido por Piolhos/transmissão
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA