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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805912

RESUMO

The high incidence of obesity is associated with an increasing risk of several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sustained obesity is characterized by a chronic and unsolved inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to a greater expression of proinflammatory adipokines, excessive lipid storage and adipogenesis. The purpose of this review is to clarify how inflammatory mediators act during adipose tissue dysfunction in the development of insulin resistance and all obesity-associated diseases. In particular, we focused our attention on the role of inflammatory signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), which represent a relevant component of adipose alterations during obesity. Furthermore, we reported the most recent evidence in the literature on nutraceutical supplementation in the management of the adipose inflammatory state, and in particular on their potential effect on common inflammatory mediators and pathways, responsible for WAT and BAT dysfunction. Although further research is needed to demonstrate that targeting pro-inflammatory mediators improves adipose tissue dysfunction and activates thermogenesis in BAT and WAT browning during obesity, polyphenols supplementation could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy to prevent progression of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Termogênese , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Curcumina/química , Dieta , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Intestinos/química , Lipídeos/química , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Pathogens ; 9(12)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353177

RESUMO

The worldwide increased difficulty to counteract gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in sheep, due to progressing anthelmintic resistance, has led to the evaluation of other alternative helminth control options, mainly from plants. The anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous Punica granatum macerate was evaluated in sheep naturally infected by GIN in southern Italy. The macerate was chemically characterized by chromatographic analysis coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and an aliquot was concentrated to obtain a dry extract. A part was characterized, the remaining washed with methanol to obtain an insoluble residue and methanol phase. In the methanol fraction, the quantitatively predominant gallic acid was purified to obtain the pure molecule. The three fractions thus obtained were used for in vitro studies (i.e., egg hatch test) to verify anthelmintic efficacy. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from sheep naturally infected by GINs. Fractions were diluted in H2O/DMSO 0.5% at 1.00, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.05, and 0.005 mg/mL concentrations. Thiabendazole (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) and deionized water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Egg hatch test results indicated that all fractions caused a significant (p < 0.05) egg hatch inhibition within 48 h of exposure highlighting a high (>82%) efficacy in vitro at all tested doses. Maximal egg hatching inhibition effect was exhibited by the methanol fraction (99.3% and 89.3% at 1 and 0.005 mg/mL concentrations), followed by the insoluble residue and gallic acid (94.7% and 85.3% and 94.0% and 82.7% at 1 and 0.005 mg/mL, respectively). The current study validated the anthelmintic potential of traditional P. granatum macerate against GIN infection in sheep, thus highlighting the role of gallic acid as principal component and justifying a need to undertake further in vivo studies on these ethno-veterinary remedies.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050071

RESUMO

During the transition period, dairy cows experience great physiological stress caused by changes in metabolism and in the immune and endocrine systems. A pro-inflammatory state is another difficulty faced by even apparently healthy animals. The most significant negative consequences of inflammation in dairy cows are substantial impairment of milk production and deleterious effects on cows' health in extreme cases. Nonetheless, a certain degree of inflammation is necessary to sustain physiological adaptations. In recent years, many studies have attempted to determine whether the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in the transition period of dairy cows could positively affect milk production and cows' health by controlling the inflammation status. This literature indicates that NSAIDs that act as preferential inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) activity show important side effects (e.g., increased risk of retained placenta, culling, or metritis) even if milk production is, on average, ameliorated. In contrast, preferential inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity have overall positive effects on cows' health, with potential beneficial effects on milk production. Furthermore, it is important to note that with certain NSAID treatments, milk discarding is mandatory to prevent contamination with drug residues, but increased milk production can compensate for the loss of milk revenue during the withdrawal period.

4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927638

RESUMO

Pathophysiological mechanisms correlating diabetes mellitus with associated complications are still not completely clear, even though oxidative stress seems to play a pivotal role. Literature data suggest that cell damages induced by hyperglycemia, although multifactorial, have a common pathway in oxidative/nitrosative stress. The present study evaluated the effects of Betula etnensis Raf. bark extract, a plant belonging to the Betulaceae family endemic to Sicily, on oxidative stress and in preventing and/or retarding diabetes-associated complications in streptozotocin diabetic rats treated with the extract at dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight per day for 28 consecutive days. The extract administration significant decreased food and water intake, fasting blood glucose, weight loss and polyuria, compared with untreated diabetic animals. Furthermore, oxidative stress markers particularly, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and nitrite/nitrate levels, non-proteic thiol groups (RSH), γ-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (γ-GCS) activities and expression, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (i-NOS e-NOS) expression, significantly changed by streptozocin treatment, were markedly restored both in plasma and tissues together with nuclear sirtuins activity (Sirt1). Results suggested that B. etnensis bark alcoholic extract is able to counteract oxidative stress and to ameliorate some general parameters related to diabetes.

5.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 107(3): 266-280, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607636

RESUMO

C-peptide therapy protects against diabetic micro- and macrovascular damages and neuropatic complications. However, to date, the role of C-peptide in preventing diabetes-related bone loss has not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate if C-peptide infusion improves bone quality in diabetic rats. Twenty-three male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group; sham diabetic control group; diabetic plus C-peptide group. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection and C-peptide was delivered subcutaneously for 6 weeks. We performed micro-CT and histological testing to assess several trabecular microarchitectural parameters. At the end, diabetic plus C-peptide rats had a higher serum C-peptide (p = 0.02) and calcium (p = 0.04) levels and tibia weight (p = 0.02) than the diabetic control group. The diabetic plus C-peptide group showed a higher trabecular thickness and cross-sectional thickness than the diabetic control group (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03). Both the normal control and diabetic plus C-peptide groups had more Runx-2 and PLIN1 positive cells in comparison with the diabetic control group (p = 0.045 and p = 0.034). Diabetic rats receiving C-peptide had higher quality of trabecular bone than diabetic rats not receiving this treatment. If confirmed, C-peptide could have a role in improving bone quality in diabetes.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Peptídeo C/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
6.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 10(3): 268-274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670822

RESUMO

Background and aim: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD is worsened by the simultaneous occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causing an enhancement of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Although insulin resistance appears the link between NAFLD and T2DM, current pharmacological treatments of T2DM failed to produce relevant benefits in preventing T2DM-related liver dysfunction. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we evaluated the effect of Bergacyn, an innovative formulation originating from the combination of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF) and Cynara cardunculus (CyC). Experimental procedure: 80 adult patients with a history of at least 12 months of T2DM and NAFLD received orally BPF (300 mg/daily) Cyc (300 mg/daily), separately or formulated in combination 50/50% (Bergacyn; 300 mg/daily), or placebo all containing 300 mg of bergamot albedo fibers micronized and co-grinded as excipients. Results and conclusion: Serum measurements and liver ultrasound analyses showed that concomitant administration of BPF and CyC produced significant improvement of NAFLD biomarkers in patients with T2DM. This effect was associated with a substantial reduction of oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers, thus contributing to a significant improvement of NO-mediated reactive vasodilation. Furthermore, the effect of Bergacyn showed a synergistic effect of both extracts, thus suggesting that this peculiar formulation represents a novel therapeutic strategy to counteract vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients suffering from T2DM and NAFLD. Further studies in larger cohort of diabetic patients are required to better identify the potential of Bergacyn on metabolic disorders accompanying T2DM and NAFLD.

7.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429274

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia and insulin-resistance are often associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) thereby representing a true issue worldwide due to increased risk of developing cardiovascular and systemic disorders. Although clear evidence suggests that circulating fatty acids contribute to pathophysiological mechanisms underlying NAFLD and hyperlipidemia, further studies are required to better identify potential beneficial approaches for counteracting such a disease. Recently, several artichoke extracts have been used for both reducing hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD, though the mechanism is unclear. Here we used a wild type of Cynara Cardunculus extract (CyC), rich in sesquiterpens and antioxidant active ingredients, in rats fed a High Fat Diet (HFD) compared to a Normal Fat Diet (NFD). In particular, in rats fed HFD for four consecutive weeks, we found a significant increase of serum cholesterol, triglyceride and serum glucose. This effect was accompanied by increased body weight and by histopathological features of liver steatosis. The alterations of metabolic parameters found in HFDs were antagonised dose-dependently by daily oral supplementation of rats with CyC 10 and 20 mg/kg over four weeks, an effect associated to significant improvement of liver steatosis. The effect of CyC (20 mg/kg) was also associated to enhanced expression of both OCTN1 and OCTN2 carnitine-linked transporters. Thus, present data suggest a contribution of carnitine system in the protective effect of CyC in diet-induced hyperlipidemia, insulin-resistance and NAFLD.


Assuntos
Cynara , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto/efeitos dos fármacos , Simportadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213889

RESUMO

Brassica incana Ten. is an edible plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family. In this work, the phenolic composition and the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the leaves and the flowering tops of B. incana grown wild in Sicily (Italy) were studied for the first time. A total of 17 and 20 polyphenolic compounds were identified in the leaf and in the flowering top extracts, respectively, by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analysis. Brassica incana extracts showed in vitro antioxidant properties; the leaf extract displayed greater radical scavenging activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test than the flowering top extract (IC50 = 1.306 ± 0.049 mg/mL and 2.077 ± 0.011 mg/mL), which in turn had a stronger ferrous ion chelating ability than the other (IC50 = 0.232 ± 0.002 mg/mL and 1.147 ± 0.016 mg/mL). The cytotoxicity of the extracts against human colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines was evaluated through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release determination. The extracts showed cytotoxic efficacy against Caco-2 cells, with the flowering top extract being the most effective (about 90% activity at the highest concentration tested). In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the extracts exhibited no toxicity, indicating their potential safety.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163602

RESUMO

Betula etnensis Raf. (Birch Etna) belonging to the Betulaceae family grows on the eastern slope of Etna. Many bioactive compounds present in Betula species are considered promising anticancer agents. In this study, we evaluated the effects of B. etnensis Raf. bark methanolic extract on a human colon cancer cell line (CaCo2). In order to elucidate the mechanisms of action of the extract, cellular redox status, cell cycle, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in ferroptosis induction were evaluated. Cell viability and proliferation were tested by tetrazolium (MTT) assayand cell cycle analysis, while cell death was evaluated by annexin V test and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Cellular redox status was assessed by measuring thiol groups (RSH) content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels and (γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase) γ-GCS and HO-1 expressions. The extract significantly reduced cell viability of CaCo2, inducing necrotic cell death in a concentration-depending manner. In addition, an increase in ROS levels and a decrease of RSH content without modulation in γ-GCS expression were detected, with an augmentation in LOOH levels and drastic increase in HO-1 expression. These results suggest that the B. etnensis Raf. extract promotes an oxidative cellular microenvironment resulting in CaCo2 cell death by ferroptosis mediated by HO-1 hyper-expression.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Betula/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Oncol Rep ; 36(4): 2298-304, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27573437

RESUMO

Cancers of the digestive tract, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC), are among those most responsive to dietary modification. Research has shown that approximately 75% of all sporadic cases of CRC are directly influenced by diet. Many natural compounds have been investigated for their potential usefulness as cancer chemopreventive agents as they have been thought to suppress carcinogenesis mainly during the initiation phase due to their radical scavenger activity. Since there is an increasing interest in the in vivo protective effects of natural compounds contained in plants against oxidative damage involved in several human diseases such as cancer, the aim of the present research was to test the effects of a Celtis aetnensis (Tornab.) Strobl twig extract on a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco2). In order to elucidate the mechanisms of action of this extract, LDH release, GSH content, ROS levels, caspase-3 and γ-GCS expression were also evaluated. The results revealed that the Celtis aetnensis extract reduced the cell viability of the Caco2 cells inducing apoptosis at the lowest concentration and necrosis at higher dosages. In addition, this extract caused an increase in the levels of ROS, a decrease in RSH levels and in the expression of HO-1. The expression of γ-GCS was not modified in the Celtis aetnensis-treated Caco-2 cells. These results suggest an interference of this extract on the oxidant/antioxidant cell balance with consequent cell damage. The present study supports the growing body of data suggesting the bioactivities of Celtis aetnensis (Tornab.) Strobl and its potential impact on cancer therapy and on human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ulmaceae/química
11.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 30(3): 360-5, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25032744

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the bioactivity of the methanol fraction (MF) and n-hexane fraction (HF) of Thymus capitatus leaves in relation to their constituents analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of T. capitatus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria associated with respiratory diseases (13 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative) were determined using a microdilution method. The MF was particularly effective on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), ferric-reducing antioxidant power and ß-carotene bleaching assays. A strong activity using ß-carotene bleaching test was observed with the MF (IC50 of 0.7 µg/mL after 30 min of incubation). In the hypoglycaemic test, a selective α-amylase inhibitory activity was detected with the HF begging the most active (IC50 of 422.5 µg/mL). T. capitatus may represent a source of natural bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/enzimologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
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