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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468522

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Rim , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
4.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 112960, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116310

RESUMO

This study examined the impact of worldwide governance indicators on the sustainability of the bioenergy industry in selected European countries for the period 1996-2018. Applying the Fixed Effect (FE) Model, the results reveal that the bioenergy industry can significantly grow by improving the quality of worldwide governance indicators in European countries, especially in Western European Countries (WEC). Government effectiveness, rule of law, regulatory quality, and voice and accountability are found to be increasing the growth of the bioenergy industry. Precisely, the results further show that the magnitude of the effect of government effectiveness, voice and accountability, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on bioenergy output is higher in Western European Countries (WEC) as compared to the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). Also, the findings further elaborate that the significant positive impact of regulatory quality and rule of law on bioenergy output is higher in CEEC countries compared to the WEC countries. The finding implies that the growth of the bioenergy industry in European countries can be effectively increased by improving the practice and quality of worldwide governance indicators. The study recommends for European countries to increase the efficiency of worldwide governance in their bioenergy industry to increase the sustainability of bioenergy production and reduce Dioxide Carbon (CO2) emissions. Policymakers in these countries should also invest more in worldwide governance to increase its effectiveness and transparency in the bioenergy industry. The authorities should equally emphasize the effectiveness and transparency of worldwide governance indicators to attain bioenergy security and lessen the dependence on fossil fuels.


Assuntos
Combustíveis Fósseis , Governo , Europa (Continente) , Produto Interno Bruto , Responsabilidade Social
5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(4): 3360-3368, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938158

RESUMO

AIMS: The major cardiovascular (CV) adverse effects observed with sipuleucel-T from large multi-institutional clinical trials included thromboembolic events, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure in up to 0.3% of patients with CV risk factors. The incidence, outcomes, and mechanisms in real-world clinical settings of these CV adverse effects to date have not been fully elucidated. Our study identified a patient with sipuleucel-T-induced inflammatory cardiomyopathy, which led to the identification of CV adverse effects associated with sipuleucel-T from a large pharmacovigilance database and elucidation of its potential mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the MedDRA term 'cardiac disorders' (System Organ Class level), CV adverse events associated with sipuleucel-T versus all other drugs were reviewed from VigiBase, a large pharmacovigilance database. Disproportionality analysis was calculated by the information component (IC), a Bayesian disproportionality indicator. A positive IC025 (IC 95% lower end credibility interval) value (>0) is the traditional threshold used in statistical signal detection at the Uppsala Monitoring Centre. From VigiBase, the total number of CV adverse drug reaction reported with sipuleucel-T was 306 out of a total of 22 980 104 adverse drug reactions in VigiBase on 10/25/2020. MedDRA preferred terms levels were grouped into major CV adverse drug reaction categories where we observed significant reports of myocardial ischaemia, supraventricular tachycardia (particularly atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter), congestive heart failure, and valvular disorders. Myocardial ischemia included acute myocardial infarction (IC025 2.3) with n = 4/26 (15%) of these individual case safety reports considered fatal. Among patients with 'cardiac failure congestive' (IC025 1.5), 11 of these 43 cases (26%) were fatal with 42 (98%) of these cases considered to be solely due to sipuleucel-T. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CV risk factors who are receiving sipuleucel-T may be at higher risk for congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, and supraventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiograms during weekly sipuleucel-T infusions and left ventricular function monitoring with echocardiogram should be considered in these patients. Our findings are suggestive of another rare presentation of T-cell-mediated CV toxicity with cancer immunotherapy.

6.
Cell ; 184(3): 840-843, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545037

RESUMO

We have recently identified a novel lymphocyte that is a dual expresser (DE) of TCRαß and BCR. DEs in T1D patients are predominated by a public BCR clonotype (clone-x) that encodes a potent autoantigen that cross-activates insulin-reactive T cells. Betts and colleagues were able to detect DEs but alleged to not detect high DE frequency, clone-x, or similar clones in T1D patients. Unfortunately, the authors did not follow our methods and when they did, their flow cytometric data at two sites were conflicting. Moreover, contrary to their claim, we identified clones similar to clone-x in their data along with clones bearing the core motif (DTAMVYYFDYW). Additionally, their report of no increased usage of clone-x VH/DH genes by bulk B cells confirms rather than challenges our results. Finally, the authors failed to provide data verifying purity of their sorted DEs, making it difficult to draw reliable conclusion of their repertoire analysis. This Matters Arising Response paper addresses the Japp et al. (2021) Matters Arising paper, published concurrently in Cell.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Linfócitos B , Células Clonais , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta , Linfócitos T
8.
Heliyon ; 6(8): e04454, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904237

RESUMO

The need for light intensity has made dye degradation very costly for industry. In this work, Fenton reagent was used for the efficient degradation of an aqueous solution of dye without the need for a light source. The influences of the pH of the media, the initial concentrations of Fe2+, H2O2, and methylene blue (MB) dye; in addition to temperature on the oxidation of MB dye were studied. The optimum amounts of the Fenton reagent were 4mM of Fe2+ and 70mM of H2O2 at 20 mg/L of dye. The optimum ratio of 0.05 of Fe2+/H2O2 was found to give the best result for the decolorization of dye. The Fenton process was effective at pH 3 with a maximum dye decolorization efficiency of 98.8% within 30 min of reaction, corresponding to a COD removal of 85%. The decolorization process was thermodynamically feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The activation energy (Ea) was 33.6 kJ/mol suggesting that the degradation reaction proceeded with a low energy barrier.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14035, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820192

RESUMO

Achieving the broadband response of metamaterial absorbers has been quite challenging due to the inherent bandwidth limitations. Herein, the investigation was made of a unique kind of visible light metamaterial absorber comprising elliptical rings-shaped fractal metasurface using tungsten metal. It was found that the proposed absorber exhibits average absorption of over 90% in the visible wavelength span of 400-750 nm. The features of perfect absorption could be observed because of the localized surface plasmon resonance that causes impedance matching. Moreover, in the context of optoelectronic applications, the absorber yields absorbance up to ~ 70% even with the incidence obliquity in the range of 0°-60° for transverse electric polarization. The theory of multiple reflections was employed to further verify the performance of the absorber. The obtained theoretical results were found to be in close agreement with the simulation results. In order to optimize the results, the performance was analyzed in terms of the figure of merit and operating bandwidth. Significant amount of absorption in the entire visible span, wide-angle stability, and utilization of low-cost metal make the proposed absorber suitable in varieties of photonics applications, in particular photovoltaics, thermal emitters and sensors.

10.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(5): 2248-2252, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754482

RESUMO

Teaching methodology has a great impact on the learning outcomes in an undergraduate's education. Objectives: 1. To assess the effectiveness of small group discussions (SGD) over lecture in learning the principles of family medicine among 2nd-year MBBS students. 2. To assess the perception of students on SGD over lecture in learning principles of family medicine among 2nd-year MBBS students. Materials and Methods: This medical education, quasi-experimental study was conducted at a medical college in north Kerala. Study subjects were the 2nd-year MBBS students of this college. They participated after giving informed consent and were divided into two groups using serial roll number. The study was conducted for 2 months after getting ethical clearance. Study tools included PowerPoint presentation slides, literature regarding principles of family medicine, structured questionnaire, and question paper for posttest. Statistical analysis was done with an independent sample Z-test and Mann-Whitney test, using SPSS 20 software. Results: SGD show a definite advantage over lecture-based learning in improving the attention span of students, understanding the principles of family medicine, and recall. The scores for the overall learning experience was found to be significantly higher for SGD. Evaluating the effectiveness of training on the Kirkpatrick model showed that learners show better satisfaction and learning in small groups. Conclusion: Students strongly preferred SGD over lectures as the teaching-learning methodology for principles of family medicine. SGD is a more effective instructional tool in improving the attention span of students, understanding the principles of family medicine, and recall. The overall learning satisfaction was found to be significantly higher with SGD for learning the principles of family medicine.

12.
Indian Heart J ; 72(1): 7-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423565

RESUMO

AIM: The primary objective of this review is to develop practice-based expert group opinions on the cardiovascular (CV) safety and utility of modern sulfonylureas (SUs) in cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs). BACKGROUND: The United States Food and Drug Administration issued new guidance to the pharmaceutical industry in 2008 regarding the development of new antihyperglycemic drugs. The guidance expanded the scope for the approval of novel antihyperglycemic drugs by mandating CVOTs for safety. A few long-term CVOTs on dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have been completed, while others are ongoing. SUs, which constitute one of the key antihyperglycemic agents used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), have been used as comparator agents in several CVOTs. However, the need for CVOTs on modern SUs remains debatable. In this context, a multinational group of endocrinologists convened for a meeting and discussed the need for CVOTs of modern SUs to evaluate their utility in the management of patients with T2DM. At the meeting, CVOTs of modern SUs conducted to date and the hypotheses derived from the results of these trials were discussed. REVIEW RESULTS: The expert group analyzed the key trials emphasizing the CV safety of modern SUs and also reviewed the results of various CVOTs in which modern SUs were used as comparators. Based on literature evidence and individual clinical insights, the expert group opined that modern SUs are cardiosafe and that since they have been used as comparators in other CVOTs, CVOTs of SUs are not required. CONCLUSION: Modern SUs can be considered a cardiosafe option for the management of patients with diabetes mellitus and CV disease; thus CVOTs among individuals with T2DM are not required.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Prova Pericial , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
World J Diabetes ; 11(4): 126-136, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disease state with serious adverse metabolic complications, including glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes that currently has no cure. Identifying and understanding roles of various modulators of body composition and glucose homeostasis is required for developing effective cures. Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is a member of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan family that has mainly been investigated for its role in regulating proliferation and survival of epithelia and tumor cells, but little is known about its roles in regulating obesity and glucose homeostasis. AIM: To examine the role of Sdc1 in regulating body fat and glucose metabolism. METHODS: We used female wild type and Sdc1 knockout (Sdc1 KO) mice on BALB/c background and multiple methods. Metabolic measurements (rates of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure) were performed using an open-flow indirect calorimeter with additional features to measure food intake and physical activity. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were measured by established tolerance test methods. RESULTS: Although our primary goal was to investigate the effects of Sdc1 deficiency on body fat and glucose homeostasis, we uncovered that Sdc1 regulates multiple metabolic parameters. Sdc1KO mice have reduced body weight due to significant decreases in fat and lean masses under both chow and high fat diet conditions. The reduced body weight was not due to changes in food intakes, but Sdc1 KO mice exhibited altered feeding behavior as they ate more during the dark phase and less during the light phase than wild type mice. In addition, Sdc1 KO mice suffered from high rate of energy expenditure, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: These results reveal critical multisystem and opposing roles for Sdc1 in regulating normal energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The results will have important implications for targeting Sdc1 to modulate metabolic parameters. Finally, we offer a novel hypothesis that could reconcile the opposing roles associated with Sdc1 deficiency.

14.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(6): F1500-F1512, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281417

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) due to cisplatin is a significant problem that limits its use as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. T cell receptor+CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) T cells constitute the major T cell population in the human and mouse kidney, express programmed cell death protein (PD)-1, and protect from ischemic AKI. However, the pathophysiological roles of DN T cells in cisplatin-induced AKI is unknown. In this study, wild-type mice were treated with cisplatin (30 mg/kg) or vehicle, and the effects on kidney DN T cell numbers and function were measured. In vitro experiments evaluated effects of kidney DN T cells on cisplatin-induced apoptosis and PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) in renal epithelial cells. Adoptive transfer experiments assessed the therapeutic potential of DN T cells during cisplatin-induced AKI. Our results show that kidney DN T cell population increased at 24 h and declined by 72 h after cisplatin treatment. Cisplatin treatment increased kidney DN T cell proliferation, apoptosis, CD69, and IL-10 expression, whereas CD62L, CD44, IL-17A, interferon-γ, and TNF-α were downregulated. Cisplatin treatment decreased both PD-1 and natural killer 1.1 subsets of kidney DN T cells with a pronounced effect on the PD-1 subset. In vitro kidney DN T cell coculture decreased cisplatin-induced apoptosis in kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, increased Bcl-2, and decreased cleaved caspase 3 expression. Cisplatin-induced expression of PD ligand 1 was reduced in proximal tubular epithelial cells cocultured with DN T cells. Adoptive transfer of DN T cells attenuated kidney dysfunction and structural damage from cisplatin-induced AKI. These results demonstrate that kidney DN T cells respond rapidly and play a protective role during cisplatin-induced AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Transferência Adotiva , Apoptose , Cisplatino , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/transplante , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/imunologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
World J Diabetes ; 11(1): 13-25, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938470

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that usually strikes early in life, but can affect individuals at almost any age. It is caused by autoreactive T cells that destroy insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Epidemiological studies estimate a prevalence of 1 in 300 children in the United States with an increasing incidence of 2%-5% annually worldwide. The daily responsibility, clinical management, and vigilance required to maintain blood sugar levels within normal range and avoid acute complications (hypoglycemic episodes and diabetic ketoacidosis) and long term micro- and macro-vascular complications significantly affects quality of life and public health care costs. Given the expansive impact of T1D, research work has accelerated and T1D has been intensively investigated with the focus to better understand, manage and cure this condition. Many advances have been made in the past decades in this regard, but key questions remain as to why certain people develop T1D, but not others, with the glaring example of discordant disease incidence among monozygotic twins. In this review, we discuss the field's current understanding of its pathophysiology and the role of genetics and environment on the development of T1D. We examine the potential implications of these findings with an emphasis on T1D inheritance patterns, twin studies, and disease prevention. Through a better understanding of this process, interventions can be developed to prevent or halt it at early stages.

18.
J Clin Invest ; 12(9): 9, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380812

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing ß cells in islets of Langerhans. Many genetic and immunological insights into autoimmune disease pathogenesis were initially uncovered in the context of T1D and facilitated by preclinical studies using the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. Recently, the study of T1D has led to the discovery of fatty acid esters of hydroxyl fatty acids (FAHFAs), which are naturally occurring hybrid peptides that modulate inflammation and diabetes pathogenesis, and a hybrid lymphocyte that expresses both B and T cell receptors. Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy stearic acids (PAHSAs) are the most extensively studied FAHFA. In this issue of the JCI, Syed et al. have shown that PAHSAs both attenuate autoimmune responses and promote ß cell survival in NOD mice. Given the lack of effective T1D therapies and the paucity of known side effects of PAHSAs, this lipid may have therapeutic potential for individuals at risk for or newly diagnosed with T1D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Ésteres , Hidroxiácidos , Linfócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Ácido Palmítico , Peptídeos
19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(3): 668-672, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391442

RESUMO

Hypertension is a global health problem and affects more than one billion people worldwide. Long term hypertension is associated with grave complications and therefore maintaining blood pressure within normal range is essential and ensuring patient's drug compliance is an important sector of patient care. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to find out the causes of poor compliance to antihypertensive medications. This cross sectional study was carried out in Medical Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad, Pakistan from 1st September 2017 to 30th October 2018. One hundred ninety three (193) patients were included through non probability consecutive sampling and were divided into two groups on the basis of compliance. The data was collected with the help of a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 20. Out of 193 hypertensive patients, 88(45.6%) were male while 105(54.4%) were females, with minimum age of 24 years and maximum age of 95 years and mean age of 61.98±12.81SD. Minimum duration of hypertension was 5 months and maximum was 30 years with mean duration of hypertension and standard deviation (SD) of 6.26±6.51 years. One hundred & Twenty (62.2%) patients were non-compliant, while 73(37.8%) were compliant to medication. Forgetfulness of medicine 85(70.8%) and non-affordability 62(52.5%) were the most common causes of noncompliance. This study documented a significantly higher proportion of medication non-adherence among hypertensive patients, with drug forgetfulness and affordability being found as the most common cause.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipertensão , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cell ; 177(6): 1583-1599.e16, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150624

RESUMO

T and B cells are the two known lineages of adaptive immune cells. Here, we describe a previously unknown lymphocyte that is a dual expresser (DE) of TCR and BCR and key lineage markers of both B and T cells. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), DEs are predominated by one clonotype that encodes a potent CD4 T cell autoantigen in its antigen binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that this peptide has an optimal binding register for diabetogenic HLA-DQ8. In concordance, a synthetic version of the peptide forms stable DQ8 complexes and potently stimulates autoreactive CD4 T cells from T1D patients, but not healthy controls. Moreover, mAbs bearing this clonotype are autoreactive against CD4 T cells and inhibit insulin tetramer binding to CD4 T cells. Thus, compartmentalization of adaptive immune cells into T and B cells is not absolute, and violators of this paradigm are likely key drivers of autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Antígenos HLA-DQ/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DQ/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos , Ligação Proteica/imunologia
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