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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125521, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655264

RESUMO

The essential oils and antioxidant activity of four Thymus species were evaluated under five light spectra (namely, red, blue, red-blue, white, and greenhouse condition). The highest essential oil yield (4.17%) was observed under red light in T. migricus, while the lowest (1.05%) was observed in T. carmanicus under greenhouse conditions. Light quality also led to difference in essential oil constituents. The highest thymol (66%) was found in T. migricus exposed to blue light, while the least (1.69%) was observed in T. kotschyanus grown under red-blue light. The LED treatments did not induce any significant effect on carvacrol of Thymus species in comparison to the greenhouse condition. Finally, the analysis of variance indicates that the effect of light varied with the studied species. T. migricus performed the highest antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 176.8 µg/mL) under blue light. Overall, essential oil components as well as antioxidants showed significant responses to light emitting diodes wavelengths.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Luz , Timol/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/química , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Análise por Conglomerados , Efeito Estufa , Óleos Voláteis/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Timol/química , Thymus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo
2.
Phytochemistry ; 169: 112126, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644985

RESUMO

Thyme (Thymus spp.) is a valuable genus of Lamiaceae family with different pharmaceutical and food properties. Thymol has also been considered as the major essential oil compound in most of the studied Thymus species. In this research, the gene encoding γ-terpinene synthase (Ttps2) was sequenced in T. vulgaris and in eight Iranian thymes including T. carmanicus, T. daenensis, T. fedtschenkoi, T. kotschyanus, T. migricus, T. pubescens, T. serpyllum, and T. trautvetteri. Genetic relationships based on terpene synthase genes were also determined among the studied species. Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR was done to complete the sequence of all species. The cDNA of the studied species possessed an open reading frame ranging from 1788 to 1794 bp that encode for a protein of 596-598 amino acids, presenting all the conserved motifs characteristics of monoterpene synthases. The taxonomic status of Thymus species was determined based on eight reported sections. The species were classified in three major groups. The first and second group comprised species of Micantes and Mastichina sections. The third cluster included the species belonging to Serpyllum and Pseudothymbra sections. Overall, phylogenetic analysis according to whole sequence of Ttps2 gene can help providing insights in respect to its evolutionary process. Finally, clustering based on the amount of main essential oils components (thymol and carvacrol) was compared with that based on Ttps2 gene classification in the studied Thymus species, showing that clustering is not always in accordance.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(11): e1800319, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207634

RESUMO

In the present research, the essential oil composition, bioactive compounds, anatomical and antioxidant activity of Achillea aucheri were investigated at four phenological stages. The yield of essential oil ranged from 0.1 % (five leaves appearance stage) to 0.7 % (full flowering stage). So, the oils from the plants harvested at the full flowering stage provided higher essential oil contents than those at other stages. The analysis of the essential oils by GC/MS revealed the presence of a large number of components represented mainly by oxygenated monoterpenes (24.36-77.81 %). The compounds revealed high variation at different phenological stages. The major constituents of A. aucheri were carvacrol (1.07-19.17 %), camphor (5.44-9.99 %), δ-cadinene (0.20-13.88 %), thymol (2.15-7.80 %), germacrene D (4.50-7.24 %), 1,8-cineole (1.62-5.54 %) and α-terpineol (1.71-3.42 %). The total phenolic (51.63 mg tannic acid/g DW) and flavonoid (10.88 mg quercetin/g W) contents were more accumulated at the 50 % flowering stage than others. The results revealed that the accumulation of essential oil in A. aucheri increased as the plant grew from the five leaves appearance stage to the 100 % flowering stage with increasing the size and number of secretory structures. Finally, the extracts collected at the 50 % flowering stage showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured based on FTC and DPPH method with the IC50 values ranging from 719.65 µg/mL to 1039.17 µg/mL for the samples.


Assuntos
Achillea/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flores/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Achillea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Radicais Livres/antagonistas & inibidores , Irã (Geográfico) , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Phytochemistry ; 155: 19-29, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056277

RESUMO

Ferula asafoetida is an herbaceous, perennial and monocarpic species of the Apiaceae family with medicinal properties. In this study, the genetic diversity of F. asafetida populations was assessed using SCoT and SRAP molecular markers. Nine SCoT and nine SRAP primer combinations amplified 211 and 194 bands, showing 96.07% and 92.87% of polymorphism, respectively. The dendrograms generated from Jaccard's similarity matrix and the UPGMA method revealed that genetic relationships among the F. asafoetida genotypes were not related to their geographical regions. The analysis also revealed a relatively acceptable differentiation in allele frequencies, illustrating the high genetic diversity and gene flows among the populations. The high percent of diversity among the populations indicated a rich resource of germplasm for breeding programs. Moreover, STRUCTURE analysis showed the high admixture of the studied accessions. According to AMOVA analysis, higher genetic variation occurred within the populations. Total phenolic content was also assessed using the folin-ciocalteu method, observing a relatively extent variety (0.163-0.938 mg TA/g DW) among the populations. In addition, HPLC analysis defined eleven compounds in which p-coumaric and 1,3- caffeoylquinic acids were the most abundant phenolic acids. Finally, Feragheh population possessed the highest TPC (total phenolic content) and gene diversity. Karaj population also exhibited the highest amount of flavonoids and phenolic acids such as kaempferol and p-coumaric acids.


Assuntos
Ferula/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ferula/química , Irã (Geográfico) , Quempferóis/análise , Propionatos/análise , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/análise
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(8): e1800075, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779268

RESUMO

A comparative study was carried out on the methanolic extracts from six Achillea species and the examined polyphenols from these plants on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. A. pachycephala which was richer in flavonoids (15 mg quercetin/g W) and phenolics (111.10 mg tannic acid/g DW) with substantial antioxidant activity (IC50  = 365.5 µg/ml) presented strong anti-AGE properties. Chlorogenic acid, luteolin, quercetin and caffeic acid were identified as the major polyphenols in the extracts by HPLC. In general, polyphenolic content follows the order of A. pachycephalla > A. nobilis > A. filipendulina > A. santolina > A. aucheri > A. millefolium. Most extracts exhibited marked anti-AGE ability in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/methylglyoxal (MG) system, though A. pachycephala showed the highest potential. The formation of AGEs was assessed by monitoring the production of fluorescent products and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Diminution in free radical production (assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays) is discussed as potential mechanism for delay or reduced AGE. The results demonstrate the antiglycative, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Achillea species which can be attributed to polyphenols content and the effectiveness on generation of AGEs, thus Achillea species can be considered as natural sources for slowing down glycation related diseases.


Assuntos
Achillea/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(6): e1700565, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687655

RESUMO

Essential oil (EO) composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were investigated in 17 P. abrotanoides populations collected from different geographical regions in Iran. The highest (3.61%) and lowest (1.25%) essential oil yields were measured in populations from Semnan Province (PSESM2 ) and PISKS from Isfahan Province, respectively. GC/MS analysis identified camphor (4.05 - 35.94%), 1,8-cineole (7.15 - 24.34%), borneol (0 - 21.75%), and α-pinene (2.05 - 10.33%) as the main constituents of Perovskia essential oil. Cluster analysis classified the studied populations into four different groups: (I) high camphene, (II) high camphor/1,8-cineole, (III) high borneol/δ-3-carene, and (IV) high α-cadinol/trans-caryophyllene. The highest flavonoid and phenolic contents were detected in PISAK from Isfahan Province (4.09 ± 0.05 mgQE/gDW, 58.51 ± 1.63 mgGAE/gDW) and PKRGS from Khorasan Province (3.80 ± 0.002 mgQE/gDW, 66.86 ± 0.002 mgGAE/gDW). DPPH and reducing power activity model systems identified PMASA and PKRKL as the populations with the highest antioxidant activity. Finally, the data obtained represented valuable information for introducing elite populations with EO components favorable to pharmaceutical and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Irã (Geográfico) , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/metabolismo
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(6): e1700562, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575789

RESUMO

Total flavonoid content (TFC) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cyd-3-glu) of seed and seed coat extract of 16 genotypes from five species of Carthamus were studied, and their major polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the seed coat extracts were determined using HPLC analysis and DPPH assay, respectively. Additionally, fatty acids composition of the seed oil was analyzed by GC. In general, TFC and Cyd-3-glu content of seed coat extracts were higher than those of seed extracts. A novel breeding line with black seed coat (named A82) depicted lower TFC (3.79 mg QUE/g DW) but higher Cyd-3-glu (24.64 mg/g DW) compared to the white and other seed-pigmented genotypes. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed a strong association with Cyd-3-glu content (r = 0.84), but no correlation with TFC (r = -0.32). HPLC analysis of seed coat extracts revealed that four compounds were dominant constituents including rutin (7.23 - 117.95 mg/100 g DW), apigenin (4.37 - 64.88 mg/100 g DW), quercetin (3.09 - 14.10 mg/100 g DW), and ferulic acid (4.49 - 30.41 mg/100 g DW). Interestingly, the genotype A82 with an appropriate polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids index (5.46%) and a moderate linoleic fatty acid content (64.70%) had higher nutritional and pharmaceutical value than all the other genotypes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Carthamus/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Pharmacogn Mag ; 13(Suppl 3): S676-S683, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142432

RESUMO

Background: Protein glycation and glycotoxicity belong to the main oxidative-stress related complications in diabetes. Perovskia species are used in Asian folk medicine as antidiabetic herbs. Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the ability of the methanolic extract from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. roots to diminish glycation of albumin and to prevent cell damage in vitro. Furthermore, we tested the extract for in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibition of elastase and collagenase. Material and Methods: The aqueous methanol extract was analyzed by UHPLC-MS for the content of polyphenols and terpenoids. The prevention of glycated albumin-induced cell damage was tested in four mammalian cell lines (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, human embryonic kidney cells - HEK293, normal human fibroblasts, and Chinese hamster ovary cells) with the 5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4,5-dimethylthiazoly)-3-(4-sulfophenyl) tetrazolium assay. Results: Glycated albumin is significantly more toxic than native human serum albumin (LC50 from 35.00 to 48.34 µg/mL vs. 5.47-9.10 µg/mL, respectively). The extract, rich in rosmarinic acid (344.27 mg/g dry mass), mitigated the glycated albumin toxicity, and increased glycated albumin-treated cell survival by more than 50%. The inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation was confirmed by monitoring conformational changes. The free radical scavenging activity was higher than Trolox and metal reducing power was one-third to half that of ascorbic acid. The activity of elastase and collagenase was inhibited by 54.75% ± 6.87% and 60.03% ± 7.22%, respectively. Conclusions: The results confirm antiglycative and antiglycotoxic potential of Perovskia root and its traditional antidiabetic use. The high activity can be attributed to rosmarinic acid abundance. SUMMARY: Perovskia is a small genus of aromatic shrubby plants growing in arid regions of Central and South Asia. Different parts are used in folk medicine as antiparasitic, anti-infectious and antidiabetic remedy. Here, we have studied the extract from roots for inhibition of: glycation-induced cytotoxicity, human serum albumin glycation, inflammation-related enzymes, as well as for antioxidant activity. Result: the extract from P. atriplicifolia roots inhibited protein glycation and AGE-induced toxicity in cell cultures. The mechanism is likely to rely on the antioxidant activity of high content of rosmarinic acid. Abbreviations used: AGE: advanced glycation end-products; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; HSA: human serum albumin.

9.
Chem Biodivers ; 14(4)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28170149

RESUMO

The effect of different NaCl concentrations (control, 2, 4 and 6 dS/m) and three harvesting times in different seasons including spring (9 April), summer (5 July), and fall (23 September) was evaluated on essential oil (EO) yield, composition, phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of myrtle. Essential oil yield ranged from 0.2% in control and fall to 1.6% in moderate salinity (4 dS/m) and spring season. The main constituents obtained from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, and linalyl acetate in which α-pinene ranged from 11.70% in moderate and fall to 30.99% in low salinity (2 dS/m) and spring, while 1,8-cineole varied from 7.42% in high salinity (6 dS/m) and summer to 15.45% in low salinity and spring, respectively. Salt stress also resulted in an increase in total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power (FTC) and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model systems was found in plants harvested in spring and summer in high stress condition. The lowest IC50 values obtained in 6 dS/m in spring (375.23 µg/ml) followed by summer (249.41 µg/ml) and fall (618.38 µg/ml). Eight major phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined in three harvesting times using high performance liquid chromatography analysis. In overall, late harvesting time of myrtle in fall can lead to reduce the most of major EO components, while it can improve the amount of phenolic acids.


Assuntos
Myrtus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pressão Osmótica , Estações do Ano , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Myrtus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 14(2)2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558813

RESUMO

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of four fennel populations (England, Spain, Poland and Iran) were investigated during six developmental stages including two vegetative and four reproductive phases. In reproductive phase, the essential oil content of fruits decreased and the maximum content (5.9%) was obtained in immediate fruits. The essential oils were analyzed using GC/MS. trans-Anethole was the main component of the leaves and the fruits oil. In leaves, it ranged from 41.28% in England at late vegetative stage to 56.6% in Poland population at early vegetative stage. Other major compounds of leaves were limonene, α-pinene and (Z)-ß-ocimene. In reproductive phases the trans-anethole increased dramatically. It varied from 85.25% in immature fruits from Poland to 90.7% in pre-mature stage from Spain. The highest phenolic content in the extracts at different growth stages obtained 189 mg TAE/g DW at full mature stage of seed in Iran population. The flavonoid of leaves extract ranged from 3 to 7.5 mg QUE/g DW, while in fruits extract varied from 3 to 10.3 mg QUE/g DW. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and ß-carotene model systems. Immature and full mature growth stages of fennel population from Spain indicated the highest activity in quenching of DPPH radical (74.2% and 74.5, respectively). Antioxidant activities of the extracts had high positive correlation with their phenolic contents in all fruit maturity stages. Finally, it might probably be suggested that in fennel the hot and humid condition can lead to increase trans-anethole, while the hot and dry one can produce higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Foeniculum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum/classificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
11.
Food Chem ; 220: 153-161, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27855883

RESUMO

In this study, the essential oil (EO) composition, flavonoid and phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of fourteen Thymus accessions belonging to ten species were evaluated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 38 compounds with the major constituents including thymol (12.4-79.74%), carvacrol (4.37-42.14%), geraniol (0.3-22.44%), and p-cymene (0.8-12.86%). Cluster analysis identified three groups of high thymol, geraniol/linalool, and high carvacrol. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in T. daenensis-1 (70.6mg tannic acid equivalents (TAE) g-1 DW) and T. vulgaris (8.55mg quercetin equivalents (QE) g-1 DW), respectively. The antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay. The results demonstrated that T. daenensis-3 (IC50=273.36), T. vulgaris (IC50=289.3), and T. fedtschenkoi-3 (IC50=339.22) possessed higher antioxidant activities than the others. Finally, the Thymus species with high bioactive compounds may be recommended for further food applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Fenóis/análise , Thymus (Planta)/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Lineares , Monoterpenos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Taninos/análise , Terpenos/análise , Timol/análise , Thymus (Planta)/classificação
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 60: e17160564, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-951443

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an annual herbaceous plant, cultivated mainly for the seed which is used for edible oil extraction and bird feeding. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of a new pigmented variety of safflower (A82) seeds. The results showed that oral administration of A82 seeds significantly increased the body weight of male rats in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Biochemical tests showed that A82 seeds significantly increased the serum levels of AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) (p<0.05), slightly reduced the serum levels of ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) and significantly reduced ALP (p<0.05) levels in a dose dependent manner. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) and Cr (Creatinine) were not significantly changed in A82 seed treated groups. Also, testosterone levels were not significantly changed by administration of different doses of A82. However, Johnson scoring showed slightly decrease in experimental groups. No organ weight or histological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of A82 seed treated animals. These results indicate that A82 seeds have not any toxic effects in Wistar rats. Future studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism by which A82 seeds alter AST levels and body weight in rat.

13.
Chem Biodivers ; 13(12): 1756-1766, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459231

RESUMO

In the present research, variability in essential oil (EO) composition of five Dorema aucheri populations collected from natural habitats in different regions of Iran, were investigated. The EO content of populations varied from 0.28 to 0.68%. According to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, ß-caryophyllene (7.17 - 35.73%), thymol (23.45 - 29.64%), ß-gurjunene (2.58 - 5.89%), carvacrol (1.32 - 2.67%) and cuparene (1.97 - 2.98%) were the major components. Hierarchical cluster, principal component and canonical correspondence analyses classified the studied populations into three groups based on major EO components. The environmental parameters of the collected sites were also evaluated. According to the results, it might be suggested that sandy soils with high mean annual precipitation were major environmental factors influencing the amount of ß-caryophyllene, while thymol, cuparene and caryophyllen oxide increased in silty and clay soils. Finally, the population collected in high altitudes and clay soils had higher amount of ß-gurjunene.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal
14.
Food Chem ; 213: 196-205, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27451172

RESUMO

In this study, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiglycation properties of methanolic extracts of 23 fennel samples were evaluated and their major compounds were determined using HPLC analysis. The anti-glycative activity of extracts was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by Congo red binding assay and a brown staining method. Among samples, Kh1 from Iran possessed the highest TFC (14.8mgQUEg(-1)), TPC (262mg/g DW) and antioxidant activity (IC50=76µg/ml). The HPLC results revealed high variation in 23 fennel samples according to their major flavonoid (quercetin, apigenin and rutin) and phenolic (chlorogenic, caffeic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) compounds. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts against four food-borne pathogens was also assessed. The seed extracts of Kh1 and En samples showed moderate to good inhibitory activities (MICs=62.5-125µg/ml) against three bacteria, as well as high anti-glycative activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Foeniculum/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Apigenina/análise , Apigenina/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinamatos/análise , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/farmacologia , Rutina/análise , Rutina/farmacologia , Sementes/química
15.
J Food Sci Technol ; 53(1): 721-9, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787992

RESUMO

The effect of seven drying treatments (sun, shade, oven 60 °C, oven 80 °C, oven 100 °C, microwave and freeze-drying) were evaluated with respect total flavonoid (TFC), phenolic (TPC), antioxidant activity, vitamin C and color characteristics of green tea. In general, drying increased antioxidant activity, TPC, TFC and chlorophyll content, while it led to a decrease in vitamin C. The highest TPC (209.17 mg Gallic acid/gdw) and TFC (38.18 mg Quercitin/gdw) were obtained in oven drying at 60 and 100 °C, respectively. Among methods, oven drying at 60 °C revealed the highest radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 167.166 µg/ml), while microwave showed the lowest one (IC50 = 505.5 µg/ml). Similar trend was also observed in reducing power assay. The highest vitamin C (16.36 mg/100gDM) and Chlorophyll a (17.35 mg/l) were obtained in freeze drying. Finally, sun and freeze drying methods were considered as the least and the most desirable drying methods, respectively the final color of green tea leaves.

16.
Biochem Genet ; 47(11-12): 831-42, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19657729

RESUMO

Thymus daenensis is an aromatic medicinal plant endemic to Iran. We used inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to detect genetic polymorphism in this herb using 17 T. daenensis accessions collected from different geographic regions in Iran. The 15 primers chosen for analysis revealed 256 bands, of which 228 (88.9%) were polymorphic. Jaccard's similarity indices based on ISSR profiles were subjected to UPGMA cluster analysis. The generated dendrogram revealed two major groups. The Tc group included the accessions collected from the center of the Zagros Mountains, and the Te group was collected from the extremes of the Zagros range. A principal coordinate analysis confirmed the results of clustering. The results showed that the divergence of accessions based on the Zagros Mountains is more logical in comparison with classification on the basis of provincial borders. Gene diversity and expected heterozygosity were greater in the Tc group than in the Te group, suggesting that the germplasm collected from the center of the Zagros Mountains is more variable.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Thymus (Planta)/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Polimorfismo Genético , Thymus (Planta)/classificação
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