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West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 196-203, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856300


INTRODUCTION: Most experts recommend norepinephrine as the first-line agent in septic shock. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness and safety of norepinephrine in patients with septic shock. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Epistemonikos, as well as MEDLINE from 1966 till August 2019. Screening of full texts, evaluation for eligibility, and data extraction were done by four independent reviewers. We estimated risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD) using a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The primary outcomes included the number of participants who achieved the target mean arterial pressure (MAP), time to achieve the target MAP, and number of participants with all-cause 28-day mortality. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay in the intensive care unit, length of hospital stay, incidence of arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, vasopressor-free days, and number of participants with all-cause 90-day mortality. RESULTS: We identified 11 randomized controlled trials with a total of 4,803 participants. There was no difference in the number of participants who achieved the target MAP between those patients receiving norepinephrine and other vasopressors (RR 1.44; 95% CI, 0.32 to 6.54; P = 0.640; I2 = 94%; two trials, 116 participants). There was no significant difference in time to achieve the target MAP (MD -0.05; 95%, CI, -0.32 to 0.21; P = 0.690; I2 = 26%; two trials, 1763 participants) and all-cause 28-day mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.02; P = 0.160; I2 = 0%; seven trials, 4,139 participants). Regarding the secondary outcome, norepinephrine may significantly reduce the incidence of arrhythmia as compared to other vasopressors (RR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.97; P = 0.030; I2 = 64%; six trials, 3974 participants). There was no difference in the incidence of myocardial infarction (RR 1.28; 95% CI, 0.79 to 2.09), vasopressor-free day (RR 0.46; 95% CI, -1.82 to 2.74) and all-cause 90-day mortality (RR 1.08; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.21) between norepinephrine and vasopressors. CONCLUSION: In minimizing the occurrence of an arrhythmia, norepinephrine is superior to other vasopressors, making it safe to be used in septic shock. However, there was insufficient evidence concerning mortality and achievement of the target MAP outcomes.

Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
Malays J Med Sci ; 26(1): 87-98, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914896


Background: Pre-hospital delay is currently a major factor limiting early reperfusion among ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients worldwide. This study aims to determine pre-hospital factors affecting symptom-to-door time among STEMI patients in Malaysia. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 222 STEMI patients admitted to two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia. By determining symptom-to-door time, the study population was categorised into two definitive treatment seeking groups: early (≤ 3 h) and delayed (> 3 h). Data was collected focusing on socio-demographical data, risk factors and comorbidities, clinical presentation, situational factors and action taken by patients. Results: The mean age of our patients was 58.0 (SD = 11.9) years old, and the population consisted of 186 (83.8%) males and 36 (16.2%) females. Our study found that the median symptom-to-door time was 130.5 (IQR 240) min, with 64% of subjects arriving early and 36% arriving late. Pre-hospital delays were found to be significant among females (adj OR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.02, 5.76; P = 0.046), patients with recurrence of similar clinical presentations (adj OR = 2.74; 95% CI: 1.37, 5.46; P = 0.004), patients experiencing atypical symptoms (adj OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.11, 6.31; P = 0.029) and patients who chose to have their first medical contact (FMC) for their symptoms with a general practitioner (adj OR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.20, 6.56; P = 0.018). However, patients with hyperlipidaemia (adj OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93; P = 0.030), self-perceived cardiac symptoms (adj OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.73; P = 0.005) and symptoms that began in public places (adj OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.69; P = 0.010) tended to seek treatment earlier. Conclusion: The symptom-to-door time among the Malaysian population is shorter in comparison to other developing countries. Nevertheless, identified, modifiable pre-hospital factors can be addressed to further shorten symptom-to-door time among STEMI patients.

Int J Emerg Med ; 6(1): 37, 2013 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24135122


BACKGROUND: We performed a multicenter controlled trial to assess the knowledge and attitude (KA) about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among secondary school children in a district in Malaysia. METHODS: This was a prospective intervention study. The primary endpoint of the study was to determine the level of KA about resuscitation after CPR training. The six schools and classes from selected schools were chosen by randomization among the form three and four classes using sealed envelopes. A fully validated questionnaire consisting of three sections (sociodemographic, knowledge and attitude) was given to the pupils before and 2 weeks after the intervention. The intervention group was given a lecture, video show, pamphlet and 1-h practical session on CPR training. The control group received a placebo in order to overcome the learning effect. The maximum scores for the knowledge and attitude sections were 72 and 28, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used for specific objectives to determine the changes in knowledge and attitude level pre- and post-intervention for both study groups. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as significant at 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The mean (SD) total knowledge scores for the intervention (n = 216) and control (n = 252) groups were 62.43 (13.68) and 62.29 (12.11), respectively (maximum score 72) (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the mean (SD) total attitude scores for the intervention and the control groups were 19.33 (4.51) and 17.85 (4.52), respectively (maximum score 28) (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in mean knowledge and attitude scores between the intervention and control groups with regard to time (pre- and post-intervention). The mean difference in knowledge and attitude scores between both study groups was 8.31 (p < 0.001) and 2.39 (p < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The level of knowledge and attitudes of secondary school children was shown to be acceptable prior to the intervention. Furthermore, a brief CPR training program improved their level of knowledge and attitudes significantly as compared to those who had never been trained.