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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e033702, 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in the developing world and is a public health problem, in particular among pregnant women, where it may lead to severe or fatal complications. A recombinant HEV vaccine, 239 (Hecolin; Xiamen Innovax Biotech, Xiamen, China), is licensed in China, but WHO calls for further studies to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in vulnerable populations, and to evaluate protection in pregnancy. We are therefore conducting a phase IV trial to assess the effectiveness, safety and immunogenicity of the HEV 239 vaccine when given in women of childbearing age in rural Bangladesh, where HEV infection is endemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Enrolment of a target of approximately 20 000 non-pregnant women, aged 16-39 years, started on 2 October 2017 in Matlab, Bangladesh. Sixty-seven villages were randomised by village at a 1:1 ratio to receive either the HEV vaccine or the control vaccine (hepatitis B vaccine). A 3-dose vaccination series at 0, 1 and 6 months is ongoing, and women are followed up for 24 months. The primary outcome is confirmed HEV disease among pregnant women. After vaccination, participants are requested to report information about clinical hepatitis symptoms. Participants who become pregnant are visited at their homes every 2 weeks to collect information about pregnancy outcome and to screen for clinical hepatitis. All suspected hepatitis cases undergo laboratory testing for diagnostic evaluation. The incidence of confirmed HEV disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women will be compared between the HEV vaccinated and control groups, safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine will also be evaluated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was reviewed and approved by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Research Review Committee and Ethical Review Committee, and the Directorate General of Drug Administration in Bangladesh, and by the Regional Ethics Committee in Norway. This article is based on the protocol version 2.2 dated 29 June 2017. We will present the results through peer-reviewed publications and at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov with the registry name "Effectiveness Trial to Evaluate Protection of Pregnant Women by Hepatitis E Vaccine in Bangladesh" and the identifier NCT02759991.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 356-362, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using a reversible multistate model, we prospectively examined neuropsychiatric (NP) events for attribution, outcome and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in an international, inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Annual assessments for 19 NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes, physician determination of outcome and patient HRQoL (short-form (SF)-36 scores) were measured. Time-to-event analysis and multistate modelling examined the onset, recurrence and transition between NP states. RESULTS: NP events occurred in 955/1827 (52.3%) patients and 592/1910 (31.0%) unique events were attributed to SLE. In the first 2 years of follow-up the relative risk (95% CI) for SLE NP events was 6.16 (4.96, 7.66) and non-SLE events was 4.66 (4.01, 5.43) compared with thereafter. Patients without SLE NP events at initial assessment had a 74% probability of being event free at 10 years. For non-SLE NP events the estimate was 48%. The majority of NP events resolved over 10 years but mortality was higher in patients with NP events attributed to SLE (16%) versus patients with no NPSLE events (6%) while the rate was comparable in patients with non-SLE NP events (7%) compared with patients with no non-SLE events (6%). Patients with NP events had lower SF-36 summary scores compared with those without NP events and resolved NP states (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NP events occur most frequently around the diagnosis of SLE. Although the majority of events resolve they are associated with reduced HRQoL and excess mortality. Multistate modelling is well suited for the assessment of NP events in SLE.

3.
J Autoimmun ; 106: 102340, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

4.
J Rheumatol ; 47(1): 72-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To construct a Frailty Index (FI) as a measure of vulnerability to adverse outcomes among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort. METHODS: The SLICC inception cohort consists of recently diagnosed patients with SLE followed annually with clinical and laboratory assessments. For this analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which sufficient information was available for construction of an FI. Following a standard procedure, variables from the SLICC database were evaluated as potential health deficits. Selected health deficits were then used to generate a SLICC-FI. The prevalence of frailty in the baseline dataset was evaluated using established cutpoints for FI values. RESULTS: The 1683 patients with SLE (92.1% of the overall cohort) eligible for inclusion in the baseline dataset were mostly female (89%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.4) years and mean (SD) disease duration 18.8 (15.7) months at baseline. Of 222 variables, 48 met criteria for inclusion in the SLICC-FI. Mean (SD) SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range from 0 to 0.51. At baseline, 27.1% (95% CI 25.0-29.2) of patients were classified as frail, based on SLICC-FI values > 0.21. CONCLUSION: The SLICC inception cohort permits feasible construction of an FI for use in patients with SLE. Even in a relatively young cohort of patients with SLE, frailty was common. The SLICC-FI may be a useful tool for identifying patients with SLE who are most vulnerable to adverse outcomes, but validation of this index is required prior to its use.

5.
Acta Paediatr ; 109(1): 122-133, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283046

RESUMO

AIM: This paper aimed to analyse the association between small for size at birth, stunting, recovery from stunting and pubertal development in a rural Bangladeshi cohort. METHODS: The participants were 994 girls and 987 boys whose mothers participated in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial. The birth cohort was followed from birth to puberty 2001-2017. Pubertal development according to Tanner was self-assessed. Age at menarche was determined and in boys, consecutive height measurements were used to ascertain whether pubertal growth spurt had started. The exposures and outcomes were modelled by Cox's proportional hazards analyses and logistic regression. RESULTS: There was no difference in age at menarche between girls that were small or appropriate for gestational age at birth. Boys born small for gestational age entered their pubertal growth spurt later than those with appropriate weight. Children who were stunted had later pubertal development, age at menarche and onset of growth spurt than non-stunted children. Children who recovered from infant or early childhood stunting had similar pubertal development as non-stunted children. CONCLUSION: Infant and childhood stunting was associated with a later pubertal development. Recovery from stunting was not associated with earlier puberty in comparison with non-stunted children.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(1): 67-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, associations, and outcomes of different types of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease in a multiethnic/multiracial, prospective inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated annually for 19 neuropsychiatric (NP) events including 7 types of PNS disease. SLE disease activity, organ damage, autoantibodies, and patient and physician assessment of outcome were measured. Time to event and linear regressions were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Of 1,827 SLE patients, 88.8% were female, and 48.8% were white. The mean ± SD age was 35.1 ± 13.3 years, disease duration at enrollment was 5.6 ± 4.2 months, and follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.6 years. There were 161 PNS events in 139 (7.6%) of 1,827 patients. The predominant events were peripheral neuropathy (66 of 161 [41.0%]), mononeuropathy (44 of 161 [27.3%]), and cranial neuropathy (39 of 161 [24.2%]), and the majority were attributed to SLE. Multivariate Cox regressions suggested longer time to resolution in patients with a history of neuropathy, older age at SLE diagnosis, higher SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 scores, and for peripheral neuropathy versus other neuropathies. Neuropathy was associated with significantly lower Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical and mental component summary scores versus no NP events. According to physician assessment, the majority of neuropathies resolved or improved over time, which was associated with improvements in SF-36 summary scores for peripheral neuropathy and mononeuropathy. CONCLUSION: PNS disease is an important component of total NPSLE and has a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life. The outcome is favorable for most patients, but our findings indicate that several factors are associated with longer time to resolution.

7.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(1): 146-152, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: aPL are present in between 20 and 30% of patients with SLE. They can cause vascular events (VE) or pregnancy morbidity. aCL and anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI) are measured in clinical practice. Domain I (DI) of ß2GPI is the main site for aPL binding. We investigated the prevalence of IgG anti-DI, aCL and anti-ß2GPI antibodies in early SLE and their association with mortality and development of VE. METHODS: Samples from 501 patients with SLE that had been obtained and stored early during their disease were tested for IgG anti-DI, aCL and anti-ß2GPI antibodies by ELISA. LA status and history of VE were obtained by reviewing medical records. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate mortality and occurrence of VE, comparing groups with and without aPL in early disease. RESULTS: Of 501 patients, 190 (38%) had at least one of these aPL, of whom 112 had anti-DI alone. Of 276 patients with complete vascular history, 83 had experienced VE. The 39 patients who were double or triple-ELISA-positive for any combination of the three aPL were more likely to have or develop lupus anticoagulant (P<0.0001) than those who were single-ELISA-positive or negative. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, they showed a trend towards developing more VE (P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: IgG anti-DI antibodies were present in early serum samples from 29% of patients and were more common than IgG aCL or anti-ß2GPI. There was some evidence suggesting that double or triple-ELISA-positivity for these antibodies identified a group with worse outcomes.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810284

RESUMO

In the aftermath of nutrition transition and ever-increasing sedentarism, adolescents globally are exposed to negative health consequences. Diverse sociocultural influences play a critical role in their adoption of unhealthy dietary practices and suboptimal physical activity behaviors. Context-specific understandings of how these sociocultural influences shape adolescents' dietary and physical activity patterns in a rural, resource-limited setting remained elusive. Aiming to address the gap, this qualitative study explored adolescents' and mothers' perception of broader sociocultural aspects that sculpt the food choices, eating habits and physical activity behaviors of adolescents in Matlab, Bangladesh. Six digitally-recorded focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim, translated into English and analyzed thematically. Marked taste-driven dietary preference of adolescents and its prioritization within family by the mothers, popularity of street foods, better understanding of the importance of food hygiene and safety contrasting with narrow perception of balance and diversity in diet, peer influence along with deficient school and community food environment, internalization and rigidity of gender norms were found to be exerting major influence. The findings highlighted key targets for community-based nutrition interventions and endorsed thorough consideration of socio-cultural factors in formulating strategies to promote healthful eating and physical activity behaviors among the adolescents.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of data regarding healthcare costs associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We describe costs associated with damage states across the disease course using multi-state modeling. METHODS: Patients from 33 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis. Annual data on demographics, disease activity, damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index [SDI]), hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures were collected. Ten-year cumulative costs (Canadian dollars) were estimated by multiplying annual costs associated with each SDI state by the expected state duration using a multi-state model. RESULTS: 1687 patients participated, 88.7% female, 49.0% of Caucasian race/ethnicity, mean age at diagnosis 34.6 years (SD 13.3), and mean follow up 8.9 years (range 0.6-18.5). Annual costs were higher in those with higher SDIs (SDI ≥ 5: $22 006 2019 CDN, 95% CI $16 662, $27 350 versus SDI=0: $1833, 95% CI $1134, $2532). Similarly, 10-year cumulative costs were higher in those with higher SDIs at the beginning of the 10-year interval (SDI ≥ 5: $189 073, 95% CI $142 318, $235 827 versus SDI=0: $21 713, 95% CI $13 639, $29 788). CONCLUSION: Patients with the highest SDIs incur 10-year cumulative costs that are almost 9-fold higher than those with the lowest SDIs. By estimating the damage trajectory and incorporating annual costs, damage can be used to estimate future costs, critical knowledge for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) has been shown to predict mortality, but its association with other important outcomes is unknown. We examined the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with damage accrual in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: The baseline visit was defined as the first at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. Damage accrual was measured by the increase in SDI between the baseline assessment and the last study visit. Multivariable negative binomial regression estimated the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of increase in the SDI during follow-up, adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (standard deviation, SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (interquartile range) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08) with a range of 0-0.51. Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 653 patients (42.2%) had an increase in SDI. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with higher rates of increase in the SDI during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.19; 95% CI 1.13-1.25), after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity/region, education, baseline SLEDAI-2K, baseline SDI, and baseline use of corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressives. CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts damage accrual in incident SLE, which further supports the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

13.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 09 09.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503320

RESUMO

In South Asia, maternal and child undernutrition is common with consequences for short- and long-term health. In the MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab) in Bangladesh 4436 pregnant women were allocated to early or later start of food supplements and different micronutrient alternatives. Children of mothers who received food supplementation from week 9 combined with multiple micronutrients showed a halved infant mortality rate. The early initiation of prenatal food supplementation reduced the risk of stunting up to five years and was associated with more favourable metabolic markers. The MINIMat study is run by icddr,b in Bangladesh and Uppsala University in collaboration with seven other universities. Twenty Ph.D. students have so far defended their theses and more than 100 scientific papers have been published.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Mortalidade Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Status Econômico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Paridade , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Blood Rev ; : 100610, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471128

RESUMO

Beta-2-Glycoprotein I (ß2GPI) plays a number of essential roles throughout the body. ß2GPI, C-reactive protein and thrombomodulin are the only three proteins that possess the dual capability to up and down regulate the complement and coagulation systems depending upon external stimulus. Clinically, ß2GPI is the primary antigen in the autoimmune condition antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is typically characterised by pregnancy morbidity and vascular thrombosis. This protein is also capable of adopting at least two distinct structural forms, but it has been argued that several other intermediate forms may exist. Thus, ß2GPI is a unique protein with a key role in haemostasis, homeostasis and immunity. In this review, we examine the genetics, structure and function of ß2GPI in the body and how these factors may influence its contribution to disease pathogenesis. We also consider the clinical implications of ß2GPI in the diagnosis of APS and as a potentially novel therapeutic target.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e025154, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: WHO has set a goal to reduce the prevalence of stunted child growth by 40% by the year 2025. To reach this goal, it is imperative to establish the relative importance of risk factors for stunting to deliver appropriate interventions. Currently, most interventions take place in late infancy and early childhood. This study aimed to identify the most critical prenatal and postnatal determinants of linear growth 0-24 months and the risk factors for stunting at 2 years, and to identify subgroups with different growth trajectories and levels of stunting at 2 years. METHODS: Conditional inference tree-based methods were applied to the extensive Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial database with 309 variables of 2723 children, their parents and living conditions, including socioeconomic, nutritional and other biological characteristics of the parents; maternal exposure to violence; household food security; breast and complementary feeding; and measurements of morbidity of the mothers during pregnancy and repeatedly of their children up to 24 months of age. Child anthropometry was measured monthly from birth to 12 months, thereafter quarterly to 24 months. RESULTS: Birth length and weight were the most critical factors for linear growth 0-24 months and stunting at 2 years, followed by maternal anthropometry and parental education. Conditions after birth, such as feeding practices and morbidity, were less strongly associated with linear growth trajectories and stunting at 2 years. CONCLUSION: The results of this study emphasise the benefit of interventions before conception and during pregnancy to reach a substantial reduction in stunting.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e028937, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic non-malignant pain has a major impact on the well-being, mood and productivity of those affected. Opioids are increasingly prescribed to manage this type of pain, but with a risk of other disabling symptoms, when their effectiveness has been questioned. This trial is designed to implement and evaluate a patient-centred intervention targeting withdrawal of strong opioids in people with chronic pain. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial will assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a group-based multicomponent intervention combined with individualised clinical facilitator led support for the management of chronic non-malignant pain against the control intervention (self-help booklet and relaxation compact disc). An embedded process evaluation will examine fidelity of delivery and investigate experiences of the intervention. The two primary outcomes are activities of daily living (measured by Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pain Interference Short Form (8A)) and opioid use. The secondary outcomes are pain severity, quality of life, sleep quality, self-efficacy, adverse events and National Health Service (NHS) healthcare resource use. Participants are followed up at 4, 8 and 12 months, with a primary endpoint of 12 months. Between-group differences will indicate effectiveness; we are looking for a difference of 3.5 points on our pain interference outcome (scale 40 to 77). We will undertake an NHS perspective cost-effectiveness analysis using quality adjusted life years. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Full approval was given by Yorkshire & The Humber - South Yorkshire Research Ethics Committee on 13 September, 2016 (16/YH/0325). Appropriate local approvals were sought for each area in which recruitment was undertaken. The current protocol version is 1.6 date 19 December 2018. Publication of results in peer- reviewed journals will inform the scientific and clinical community. We will disseminate results to patient participants and study facilitators in a study newsletter as well as a lay summary of results on the study website. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN49470934; Pre-results.

17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423346

RESUMO

Introduction: Preterm birth is the major cause of under-five mortality. Population-based data on determinants and proportions of children born preterm are limited, especially from low-income countries. This study aimed at assessing time trends and social, reproductive and environmental determinants of preterm births based on a population-based pregnancy cohort over 25 years in rural Bangladesh. Methods: In this cohort study in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, we used data from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 1990 to 2014. Gestational age at birth was based on the reported last menstrual period and verified by ultrasound assessments. Preterm birth proportions were assessed within strata of social and reproductive characteristics, and time series analysis was performed with decomposition for trend and seasonality. We also determined the prevented fractions of preterm birth reduction associated with social and demographic changes during the follow-up period. Results: Analyses were based on 63 063 live births. Preterm birth decreased from 29% (95% CI 28.6 to 30.1) in 1990-1994 to 11% (95% CI 10.5 to 11.6) in 2010-2014. Low education, older age and multi-parity were associated with higher proportions of preterm births across the study period. Preterm births had a marked seasonal variation. A rapid increase in women's educational level and decrease in parity were associated with the decline in preterm births, and 27% of the reduction observed from 1990 to 2014 could be attributed to these educational and reproductive changes. Conclusion: The reduction in preterm birth was to a large extent associated with the sociodemographic transition, especially changes in maternal education and parity. The persistent seasonal variation in the proportion of preterm birth may reflect the environmental stressors for pregnant women across the study period. Continued investments in girls' education and family planning programmes may contribute to further reduction of preterm births in Bangladesh.

18.
Biosci Rep ; 39(8)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375555

RESUMO

Nigella sativa seeds are traditionally reputed as possessing anti-diabetic properties. As a result, we aim to explore the mechanism of its anti-hyperglycemic activity. The present study uses various experimental designs including gastrointestinal (GI) motility, intestinal disaccharidase activity and inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut. The animals used as type 2 diabetic models were induced with streptozotocin to make them as such. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed to confirm that the animals were indeed diabetic. The extract reduced postprandial glucose, suggesting it interfered with glucose absorption in the gut. It also improved glucose (2.5g/kg, b/w) tolerance in rats. Furthermore, treatment with N. sativa produced a significant improvement in GI motility, while reduced disaccharidase enzyme activity in fasted rats. The extract produced a similar effect within an acute oral sucrose (2.5g/kg, b/w) load assay. Following sucrose administration, a substantial amount of unabsorbed sucrose was found in six different parts of the GI tract. This indicates that N. sativa has the potentiality to liberate GI content and reduce or delay glucose absorption. A potential hypoglycemic activity of the extract found in insulin release assay, where the extract significantly improved insulin secretion from isolated rat islets. These concluded present findings give rise to the implication that N. sativa seeds are generating postprandial anti-hyperglycemic activity within type 2 diabetic animal models via reducing or delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption in the gut as well as improving insulin secretion in response to the plasma glucose.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is irreversible change in organs due to disease activity, concomitant disease or medication side-effects. It is measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics Damage Index (SDI) and is associated with increased mortality. Previous reports have suggested associations between damage accrual and various ethnic, disease and treatment factors, but there is a dearth of long-term follow-up data from large multi-ethnic cohorts. We describe a study of damage and mortality in 300 patients from London, UK followed for up to 40 years. METHODS: We carried out retrospective analysis of medical records and SDI scores of 300 patients followed for up to 40 years (median 13.3 years). Characteristics of the groups who did and did not develop damage and those who died or survived to the end of follow-up were compared using univariable and multivariable analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyse factors affecting mortality and accrual of damage. RESULTS: Damage developed in 231/300 (77%) of patients. There was a linear accrual of damage over 40 years follow-up. Factors associated with damage were African/Caribbean ethnicity, renal and cerebral involvement, early use of high-dose corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, anti-RNP and antiphospholipid antibodies. Damage was strongly associated with mortality. Of 87 patients who died, 93% had damage compared with 70% of survivors (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Development of damage is strongly associated with increased mortality. We identified groups at increased risk of developing damage, including those treated with high-dose steroids and immunosuppressants within the first two years.

20.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(7)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261970

RESUMO

The present study was designed to investigate the duration-dependent changes in the biochemical attributes of sesame in response to waterlogging stress. Sesame plants (Sesamum indicum L. cv. BARI Til-4) were subjected to waterlogging for 2, 4, 6, and 8 days during the vegetative stage and data were measured following waterlogging treatment. The present study proves that waterlogging causes severe damage to different attributes of the sesame plant. The plants showed an increasing trend in lipid peroxidation as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methylglyoxal contents that corresponded to increased stress duration. A prolonged period of waterlogging decreased leaf relative water content and proline content. Photosynthetic pigments, like chlorophyll (chl) a, b, and chl (a+b) and carotenoid contents, also decreased over time in stressed plants. Glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents increased under waterlogging, while the GSH/GSSG ratio and ascorbate content decreased, indicating the disruption of redox balance in the cell. Ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity increased under waterlogging, while dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase activity mostly decreased. Waterlogging modulated the glyoxalase system mostly by enhancing glyoxalase II activity, with a slight increase in glyoxalase I activity. The present study also demonstrates the induction of oxidative stress via waterlogging in sesame plants and that stress levels increase with increased waterlogging duration.

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