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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131661, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426135

RESUMO

There is little doubt that 'rock phosphate' reserves are decreasing, with phosphorus (P) peak to be reached in the coming decades. Hence, removal and recovery of phosphorus (P) from alternative nutrient-rich waste streams is critical and of great importance owing to its essential role in agricultural productivity. Adsorption technique is efficient, cost-effective, and sustainable for P recovery from waste streams which otherwise can cause eutrophication in receiving waters. As selective P sorption using rare earth elements (REE) are gaining considerable attention, this review extensively focuses on P recovery by utilising a range of REE-incorporated adsorbents. The review briefly provides existing knowledge of P in various waste streams, and examines the chemistry and behaviour of REE in soil and water in detail. The impact of interfering ions on P removal using REE, adsorbent regeneration for reuse, and life cycle assessment of REE are further explored. While it is clear that REE-sorbents have excellent potential to recover P from wastewaters and to be used as fertilisers, there are gaps to be addressed. Future studies should target recovery and reuse of REE as P fertilisers using real wastewaters. More field trials of synthesized REE-sorbents are highly recommended before practical application.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Fósforo , Adsorção , Eutrofização , Fertilizantes
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(36): 49967-49988, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945092

RESUMO

Environmental sustainability has become a major concern for policymakers across the globe. In this regard, understanding the factors responsible for environmental degradation is particularly important for developing nations. Against this backdrop, this study aims to evaluate the impacts of environmental regulations and other vital macroeconomic aggregates on the ecological footprints in the context of four fossil fuel-dependent South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The major findings from the econometric analysis, accounting for cross-sectional dependency, slope heterogeneity, and structural break issues in the data, reveal that environmental regulations portray significant roles in directly and indirectly reducing the ecological footprints across South Asia. Besides, the elasticity estimates verify the authenticity of the environmental Kuznets curve and the pollution haven hypotheses. On the other hand, non-renewable and renewable energy consumptions are found to increase and decrease the ecological footprints, respectively. Moreover, renewable energy use and environmental regulations are found to jointly reduce the ecological footprints further. More importantly, environmental regulations are predicted to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of economic growth, non-renewable energy use, and foreign direct investment inflows while increasing the favorable environmental impacts associated with renewable energy use. Furthermore, the country-specific impacts of environmental regulations on the ecological footprints are found to be more or less homogeneous to the corresponding panel estimates. The environmental Kuznets curve and pollution haven hypotheses are evidenced to hold for the majority of the four South Asia nations. In line with these findings, several relevant policy-level suggestions are put forward.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Estudos Transversais , Paquistão , Energia Renovável
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 45663-45675, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876370

RESUMO

Safe drinking water is directly linked to good human health. An excessive amount of manganese (Mn) in drinking water supplies causes people show symptoms of neurotoxicity. In this study, the level of Mn in potable water sourced from tube wells located in 9 (nine) districts of Bangladesh was monitored. In total, 170 (one hundred and seventy) water samples were collected and Mn was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The levels of Mn found in the tube well water samples of Sirajganj, Meherpur, Chuadanga, Jhenaidah, Magura, Faridpur, Jashore, Satkhira, and Khulna were 0.37-1.86, 0.10-4.11, 0.30-0.76, 0.26-0.94, 0.01-0.18, 0.21-1.78, 0.08-1.23, 0.05-0.27, and 0.01-2.11 mg/L, respectively. Results revealed that Mn level was beyond the highest contaminated levels of 0.1 mg/L and 0.4 mg/L, which are recommended by Bangladesh Drinking Standard (BDS) and World Health Organization (WHO), respectively. The maximum Mn contaminated level reached up to 4.11 mg/L (mean, 0.53 mg/L). The Mn level in tube well water exceeded 51.1% and 75.9% set by the recommended value of WHO and BDS, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated hazard quotient (HQ) value for Mn was observed to be greater than unity, indicating both children and adults risked potential non-carcinogenic health issues. The water supply authorities should take steps to provide Mn-free drinking water for communities.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adulto , Arsênio/análise , Bangladesh , Criança , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Manganês/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8113, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854093

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) is increasingly being recognized as an important contaminant due to its various industrial applications and mining operations. Environmental remediation approaches for Sb are still lacking, as is the understanding of Sb environmental chemistry. In this study, biosolid biochar (BSBC) was produced and utilized to remove antimonate (Sb(V)) from aqueous solution. Zirconium (Zr), Zirconium-iron (Zr-Fe) and Fe-O coated BSBC were synthesized for enhancing Sb(V) sorption capacities of BSBC. The combined results of specific surface area, FTIR, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS, and XPS confirmed that Zr and/or Zr-Fe were successfully coated onto BSBC. The effects of reaction time, pH, initial Sb(V) concentration, adsorbate doses, ionic strength, temperature, and the influence of major competitive co-existing anions and cations on the adsorption of Sb(V) were investigated. The maximum sorption capacity of Zr-O, Zr-Fe, Zr-FeCl3, Fe-O, and FeCl3 coated BSBC were 66.67, 98.04, 85.47, 39.68, and 31.54 mg/g respectively under acidic conditions. The XPS results revealed redox transformation of Sb(V) species to Sb(III) occurred under oxic conditions, demonstrating the biochar's ability to behave as an electron shuttle during sorption. The sorption study suggests that Zr-O and Zr-O-Fe coated BSBC could perform as favourable adsorbents for mitigating Sb(V) contaminated waters.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124488, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246815

RESUMO

A novel biochar metal oxide composite was synthesized for effective removal of arsenate (As(V)) from aqueous solution. The materials synthesized for As(V) removal was based on a biosolid-derived biochar (BSBC) impregnated with zirconium (Zr) and zirconium-iron (Zr-Fe). The synthesized materials were comprehensively characterized with a range of techniques including Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET-N2) surface area, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirmed that loading of Zr and Zr-Fe onto the biochar surface was successful. The influence of pH, biochar density, ionic strength, As(V) dose rate, major anions and cations on As(V) removal was also investigated. Under all pH and reaction conditions the Zr-Fe composite biochar removed the greatest As(V) from solution of the materials tested. The maximum sorption capacity reached 15.2 mg/g for pristine BSBC (pH 4.0), while modified Zr-BSBC and Zr-FeBSBC composites achieved 33.1 and 62.5 mg/g (pH 6), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy) suggested that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The ZrBSBC and Zr-FeBSBC showed excellent reusability and stability over four cycles. Unmodified biochar resulted in partial reduction of As(V) under oxic conditions, whilst modified biochars did not influence the oxidation state of As. All results demonstrated that the Zr and Zr-Fe BSBC composites could perform as promising adsorbents for efficient arsenate removal from natural waters.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142082, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919317

RESUMO

Extensive evidence of elevated arsenic (As) in the food-chain, mainly rice, wheat and vegetables exists. Nevertheless, the importance of exposure from food towards total As exposure and associated health risks in areas with natural occurring As in drinking water is still often neglected, and accordingly mitigations are largely focused on drinking water only. In this study, the contribution of food over drinking water to overall As exposure was estimated for As exposed populations in Bihar, India. Increased lifetime cancer risk was predicted using probabilistic methods with input parameters based on detailed dietary assessment and estimation of As in drinking water, cooked rice, wheat flour and potato collected from 91 households covering 19 villages. Median total exposure was 0.83 µg/kgBW/day (5th and 95th percentiles were 0.21 and 11.1 µg/kgBW/day) and contribution of food (median = 49%) to overall exposure was almost equal to that from drinking water (median = 51%). More importantly and contrary to previous studies, food was found to contribute more than drinking water to As exposure, even when drinking water As was above the WHO provisional guide value of 10 µg/L. Median and 95th percentile excess lifetime cancer risks from food intake were 1.89 × 10-4 and 7.32 × 10-4 respectively when drinking water As was below 10 µg/L and 4.00 × 10-4 and 1.83 × 10-3 respectively when drinking water As was above 10 µg/L. Our results emphasise the importance of food related exposure in As-endemic areas, and, perhaps surprisingly, particularly in areas with high As concentrations in drinking water - this being partly ascribed to increases in food As due to cooking in high As water. These findings are timely to stress the importance of removing As from the food chain and not just drinking water in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Oryza , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Índia/epidemiologia , Triticum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127882, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818846

RESUMO

This study reports the distribution, contamination level, and possible sources of 54 metal (oid)s in the soils found around brick kilns in south-western Bangladesh. In total, 40 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of five brick kilns in four directions at 250 m intervals. This study reveals that the mean respective concentrations of caesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), lead (Pb), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), terbium (Tb), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), thorium (Th), germanium (Ge), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), silver (Ag), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W), were 7.83, 3.19, 22.93, 85.93, 9.61, 36.86, 7.30, 1.23, 5.76, 1.13, 0.99, 3.14, 0.45, 2.91, 17.72, 3.04, 30.07, 185.13, 13.99, 0.30, 5.34, 1.26, and 2.61 µg g-1. Furthermore, those amounts exceeded their respective shale values. The pollution evaluation indices indicated a moderate level of contamination by Cs, Pb, Th, Ag, Hf, Ta, W, and lanthanides but excluding lanthanum (La) and lutetium (Lu). The pollution load index revealed pollution at two brickfields. Multivariate statistics reported that coal combustion in the brick kilns is the primary source of lanthanides, actinides, Y, Zr, and Hf in the soil, while other elements derived mostly from natural sources. A portion originated from coal combustion in brick kilns and agricultural activities. Changes in metal (oid)s concentrations were non-linear with the distance between the kilns and sampling points. Consequently, further studies are required and should consider meteorological factors and severity of human impact in the study area.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Bangladesh , Disprósio , Humanos , Praseodímio , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 399: 123029, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937709

RESUMO

Trace element contamination from abandoned mine sites is a major threat to the environment. The distribution of trace elements in various particle size fractions of soils from abandoned mine sites plays a critical role in designing remediation approaches. This study investigated the geochemical distribution of trace element enrichment and mineralogical composition in various particle size fractions from contrasting abandoned mine sites (Webbs Consols, Halls Peak and Mole River, Australia). Results revealed that arsenic and other element concentrations increased with decreasing particle size for samples from Webbs Consols and Halls Peak. The highest arsenic (3.05%), lead (3.23%) and zinc (1110 mg/kg) were found in the finest fraction (<0.053 mm). In Mole River, the highest concentration of arsenic (10.8%), lead (209 mg/kg) and zinc (351 mg/kg) were observed in coarse fractions. Arsenic fractionation by sequential extraction showed that arsenic was strongly associated with the amorphous and crystalline iron phases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed that tooeleite (a ferric arsenite mineral, also confirmed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)), arsenopyrite, scorodite and arsenolite were the dominant arsenic minerals. The study showed elevated levels of arsenic bearing minerals across particle sizes which has significant implications for remediation approaches at abandoned mine sites.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) means that an infant should be breastfed only for the first six months of life to achieve optimal child development and to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this analysis was to determine the individual-, household-, and community-level factors associated with EBF practice in Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 1,440 women-child pairs data were analysed extracted from 2011 and 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models were used separately for individual-, household-, and community level factors to identify the different level of factors associated with EBF practice. RESULTS: Around 61% women in Bangladesh practiced EBF with significant variation across several individual-, household-, and community-level factors. At the individual level, higher odds of EBF practice was found among mothers' received higher number of antenatal care and lower age of child. Mothers' higher education and engagement in formal jobs were found negatively associated with EBF practice. At the community level, higher odds of EBF was found among women live in Barishal, Dhaka, and Rajshahi divisions, and resided in the community with moderate level of female education, higher level of fertility, and higher use of antenatal and delivery care. CONCLUSIONS: One in every three children in Bangladesh do not breastfeed exclusively which needs special attention for the policymakers. In this case, educated women engaged in income generating activities and women did not use antenatal care should be given priority. At the community level, priority should be given for the women's resides in the community with lower level of antenatal and delivery healthcare services use.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Microsc Microanal ; 26(4): 768-792, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284076

RESUMO

Alluvial mineral sands rank among the most complex subjects for mineral characterization due to the diverse range of minerals present in the sediments, which may collectively contain a daunting number of elements (>20) in major or minor concentrations (>1 wt%). To comprehensively characterize the phase abundance and chemistry of these complex mineral specimens, a method was developed using hyperspectral x-ray and cathodoluminescence mapping in an electron probe microanalyser (EPMA), coupled with automated cluster analysis and quantitative analysis of clustered x-ray spectra. This method proved successful in identifying and quantifying over 40 phases from mineral sand specimens, including unexpected phases with low modal abundance (<0.1%). The standard-based quantification method measured compositions in agreement with expected stoichiometry, with elemental detection limits in the range of <10­1,000 ppm, depending on phase abundance, and proved reliable even for challenging mineral species, such as the multi-rare earth element (REE) bearing mineral xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4] for which 24 elements were analyzed, including 12 overlapped REEs. The mineral identification procedure was also capable of characterizing mineral groups that exhibit significant compositional variability due to the substitution of multiple elements, such as garnets (Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cr), pyroxenes (Mg, Ca, Fe), and amphiboles (Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al).

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134774, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734495

RESUMO

In arsenic (As) endemic areas of south-east Asia, where a subsistence rice-based diet is prevalent, As exposure from food is mainly focused on rice intake. However, consumption of wheat is substantial and increasing. We present a probabilistic assessment of increased cancer risk from wheat-based food intake in a study population of rural Bihar, India where As exposure is endemic. Total As in wheat grains (43.64 ±â€¯48.19 µg/kg, n = 72) collected from 77 households across 19 villages was found to be lower than reported As in wheat grains from other south-east Asian countries but higher than a previous study from Bihar. This is the first study where As concentration in wheat flour was used for risk estimation, bearing in mind that it was the flour obtained after indigenous household processing of the grains that was used for making the home-made bread (chapati) which contributed 95% of wheat intake for the studied population. Interestingly, while 78% of the surveyed participants (n = 154) consumed rice every day, chapati was consumed every day by 99.5% of the participants. In contrast to previous studies, where As concentration in wheat grains was found to be lower than the flour due to the removal of the bran on grinding, we did not find any appreciable lowering of arsenic in the wheat flour (49.80 ±â€¯74.08 µg/kg, n = 58), most likely due to external contamination during processing and grinding. Estimated gender adjusted excess lifetime cancer risk of 1.23 × 10-4 for the studied rural population of Bihar indicated risk higher than the 10-4-10-6 range, typically used by the USEPA as a threshold to guide regulatory values. Hence, our findings suggest As exposure from wheat-based food intake to be of concern not only in As endemic areas of rural Bihar but also in non-endemic areas with similar wheat-based diet due to public distribution of the wheat across India.


Assuntos
Triticum , Arsênio , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Oryza
12.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125070, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629236

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) exposure from surface and groundwater in Peru is being recognised as a potential threat but there are limited studies on As in the food-chain and none on As in Peruvian rice. In this study, we have determined the As content in rice cultivated in the Tumbes river basin located in the northern province of Peru, an area known for extensive rice cultivation. We collected rice and soil samples from agricultural fields, soil was collected using grid sampling technique while rice was collected from the heaps of harvested crop placed across the fields. The average total As concentration in rice was 167.94 ±â€¯71 µg kg-1 (n = 29; range 68.39-345.31 µg kg-1). While the rice As levels were not highly elevated, the As content of few samples (n = 7) greater than 200 µg kg-1 could contribute negatively to human health upon chronic exposure. Average concentration of As in soil was 8.63 ±â€¯7.8 mg kg-1 (n = 30) and soil to grain transfer factor was 0.025 ±â€¯0.018 for 12 matched samples. Compared to our previous pilot study in 2006 (samples collected from the same agricultural fields but not from exact locations) there was a 41% decrease in As soil concentration in this study. Rice samples collected in 2006 (n = 5) had a mean concentration of 420 ±â€¯109 µg kg-1. Our data provides a baseline of rice grain As concentrations in Peruvian province of Tumbes and warrants further studies on factors affecting uptake of As by the rice varieties cultivated in Peru and any potential human health risks.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Peru , Projetos Piloto , Rios , Solo
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219968, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweightness in Bangladesh is increasing, while underweightness also continues to persist. A better understanding of the patterns and socioeconomic risk factors of both conditions, particularly among women, is critical in order to promote the development of interventions to improve maternal health in Bangladesh. This study therefore sought to assess the patterns of under- and overweightness between 2004 and 2014 and to examine the predictors of individual and community-level inequalities of under- and overnutrition in Bangladesh. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 10, 431, and 16,478 ever-married nonpregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years who did not give birth in the two months preceding the survey were extracted from the 2004 and 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys, respectively. Body mass index was used to measure weight status, and underweightness, at-risk for overweightness, overweightness, and obesity were the main outcome variables. Patterns of nutritional change over time was examined by considering the annual average rate of change. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression and quantile regression were used to identify the inequalities. RESULTS: In 2014, the age-adjusted prevalence values of underweightness, at-risk for overweightness, overweightness, and obesity were 19.7%, 14.9%, 18.1% and 4.0%, respectively. A higher average annual rate of reduction of underweightness was found among wealthier, highly educated, and wealthier community-living women, while a rate of increase of overweightness was found among poorer, uneducated, and poor community-living women. Individual and community-level inequalities of malnutrition were observed among these populations. In comparison with women living in low wealth communities, women from wealthier communities were at an increased risk of being at-risk for overweightness [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-1.91], overweight (AOR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.27-2.00), and obese (AOR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.42-3.18). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the coexistence of a double burden of under- and overnutrition in Bangladesh and that the prevalence of overweightness surpasses that of underweightness. The burdens of under- and overnutrition are strongly associated with women's individual socioeconomic positions and the nature of the community in which they live.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(6): 2521-2532, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054070

RESUMO

Ingestion of food grain grown in metal-contaminated soils may cause serious effects on human health. This study assessed the concentrations of Pb, As, Cd and Zn in agricultural soils and in rice grains near a former secondary lead smelter in Khulna, Bangladesh. It analyzed 29 samples of surface soil and rice grain collected around 500 m of the smelter. Contamination factor (Cf), pollution load index and total hazard quotient (THQ) were calculated to determine ecological and human health risks. Cd was not detected in any of the samples. For the soil samples, medians of the concentrations of Pb, As and Zn were 109, 6.2 and 514 mg/kg, respectively. For the rice grain samples, medians of the concentrations of Pb, As and Zn were 4, 1.4 and 25 mg/kg fw, respectively. Medians of the concentrations of Pb and As in rice grain were higher compared to their maximum allowable limit (0.2 mg/kg), which indicate potential health risks to inhabitants near the Pb smelter. The mean values of Cf for Pb, As, and Zn were, respectively, 11.6, 2.1 and 7.4. For Pb, around 41% of the samples had Cf > 6 indicating very strong contamination. THQ values for Pb and As were greater than 1.0, which evinces the health hazards of these trace elements. Measures should be taken to prevent trace elements exposure from Pb smelter in the study area.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Bangladesh , Exposição Dietética/análise , Humanos , Chumbo , Metalurgia , Medição de Risco , Sementes/química
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 351, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065865

RESUMO

Lead smelters are important source of metal pollution. This study assessed ecological risks of three heavy metals (Pb, As, and Zn) in agricultural soils surrounding five Pb smelters from Khulna district in Bangladesh. A total of 81 surface soil samples collected within 500-m radius of the smelters were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Concentrations of Pb, As, and Zn ranged within 6-3902, 1.8-9.6, and 45.4-563 mg/kg, respectively. About half of the Pb samples (~ 51%) exceeded soil quality standard target value (85 mg/kg), and the concentrations gradually decreased with horizontal distance from the smelter. The value of pollution index (PI) measured for Pb, As, and Zn varied respectively in the range of 0-195, 0.6-3.2, and 0.67-8.28, with mean values of 11.7, 1.9, and 3.92. The value of integrated pollution index (IPI) calculated for these metals remained between 0.58 and 66.2 with a mean of 5.7, and that designates ~ 96% of the sampled soils as moderately or highly contaminated. Potential ecological risk (PER) calculated for the metals indicate that all the samples were within low to moderate risk, and the descending order of PER of the metals was Pb > As > Zn.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Bangladesh , Ecologia , Poluição Ambiental , Chumbo , Metalurgia , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(2): 80, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656497

RESUMO

Rainwater is a typical source of drinking water in the coastal areas of Bangladesh given the acute scarcity of drinking water. This study assessed potability of harvested rainwater of primary schools in southwest coastal Bangladesh. Water samples collected from 23 primary schools of Mongla sub-district under Bagerhat district were evaluated for indicator bacteria (total coliform (TC) and E. coli) and physico-chemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solid, Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cd). Median concentrations of TC and E. coli in the harvested rainwater samples were respectively 3000 cfu/100 ml and 6 cfu/100 ml. However, concentrations of these indicator bacteria were lower at the consumption points which received a prior treatment. Concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum allowable limit for drinking water indicated by WHO and Bangladesh drinking water guideline value in 92% and 61% of the samples respectively, and the mean concentration was 0.08 mg/l (8 times higher than the WHO guideline value). The Pb contamination possibly occurred from the painting on roof railing and roof stair room. Therefore, consumption of harvested rainwater at primary schools may cause substantial health risk for the school-going children.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Água Potável/microbiologia , Chuva/química , Chuva/microbiologia , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 93: 1104-1115, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274041

RESUMO

Bio-inspired materials with the multiscale skeleton show intrinsic multifunctional integration. This special biological characteristic is designed and developed to encourage scientists and engineers to multiobjective artificial physicals with multiscale frameworks. This review focuses on some recent development in the areas of classical biomaterials including lotus leaves, butterfly wings, red rose petals, spider silks and the associated multiscale frameworks acquiring function coalescence. We have also addressed some queries and standpoints for bio-inspired form of drug delivery using pathogens, which sheds light on delivery of proteins, small interfering RNA and other therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico
18.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 476, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth is an important indicator of health status and quality of life of a country's population. However, little is known about the determinants of HALE as yet globally or even country-specific level. Thus, we examined the factors that are associated with HALE at birth in low- and lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: In accordance with the World Bank (WB) classification seventy-nine low- and lower-middle-income countries were selected for the study. Data on HALE, demographic, socioeconomic, social structural, health, and environmental factors from several reliable sources, such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, Population Reference Bureau, WB, Heritage Foundation, Transparency International, Freedom House, and International Center for Prison Studies were obtained as selected countries. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and regression analysis were performed to reach the research objectives. RESULTS: The lowest and highest HALE were observed in Sierra Leone (44.40 years) and in Sri Lanka (67.00 years), respectively. The mean years of schooling, total fertility rate (TFR), physician density, gross national income per capita, health expenditure, economic freedom, carbon dioxide emission rate, freedom of the press, corruption perceptions index, prison population rate, and achieving a level of health-related millennium development goals (MDGs) were revealed as the correlates of HALE. Among all the correlates, the mean years of schooling, TFR, freedom of the press, and achieving a level of health-related MDGs were found to be the most influential factors. CONCLUSION: To increase the HALE in low- and lower-middle-income countries, we suggest that TFR is to be reduced as well as to increase the mean years of schooling, freedom of the press, and the achievement of a level of health-related MDGs.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Aggress Behav ; 44(3): 294-305, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417590

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV), an actual or threatened physical, sexual, or psychological abuse by a current or former partner or spouse, is a common global public health issue. Understanding both the prevalence of IPV during pregnancy and its potential impact on the health of pregnant women is important for the development and implementation of interventions to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between maternal experiences of IPV during pregnancy and pregnancy complications. A health-facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2015 to April 2016 among 400 randomly selected women who were admitted to the postnatal wards of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital for delivery. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to assess relationships between variables of interest after controlling for potential confounders. Results indicated that 39.0% of women reported physical IPV and 26.3% of women reported sexual IPV during pregnancy. Additionally, 69.5% of women experienced medical complications (MCs); of this group, 44.3% experienced obstetric complications (OCs) and 79.3% experienced any pregnancy complication (AC) during their last pregnancy. The experience of physical IPV during pregnancy was significantly associated with the experience of MCs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-4.01), OCs (AOR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01-7.12) and AC (AOR: 5.26, 95% CI: 2.98-10.52). Women who experienced sexual IPV during pregnancy were also at increased risk of suffering from any MC, any OC, and AC. Maternal experience of IPV during pregnancy is positively associated with pregnancy complications. Preventing IPV directed at pregnant women might reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arch Public Health ; 75: 12, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28174626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing in low- and middle-income countries, while underweight remains a significant health problems. However, the association between double burden of nutrition and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes is still unclear in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal undernutrition and excessive body weight on a range of maternal and child health outcomes. METHODS: In this study, we used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and 2014 data sets to cover the maternal, child and non-communicable diseases related health outcomes. The study considered a range of outcome variables including pregnancy complication, cesarean delivery, diabetes, hypertension, stunting, and wasting, low birth weight, genital discharge, genital sore/ulcer, stillbirth, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, preterm birth and prolonged labor. The key exposure variable was maternal body mass index. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to examine the association between outcomes and exposure variables. RESULTS: Maternal overweight and obesity has increased from 10% in 2004 to 24% in 2014, a 240% increase in 10 years. Between 2004 and 2014, maternal undernutrition declined from 33% to 18%, a reduction rate of only 54% in 10 years. Compared to normal-weight women, overweight and obese women were more likely to have experienced pregnancy complication, cesarean delivery, diabetes, and hypertension. Underweight women were 1.3 times more likely to have children with stunting and 1.6 times more likely to experience wasting compared to normal weight women. Maternal BMI was not significantly associated with increased risk of genital sore or ulcer, genital discharge, menstrual irregularities, or low birth weight though in certain cases risk was higher. CONCLUSIONS: High maternal overweight and obesity were observed to have significant adverse effects on health outcomes, while underweight was a risk factor for newborn health. The findings show that weight management is necessary to prevent adverse birth and health outcomes in Bangladesh. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Data related to health was collected by following the guidelines of ICF international and Bangladesh Medical Research Council. The registration number of data collection is 132989.0.000 and the data-request was registered on March 11, 2015.

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