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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is frequently found in poultry of which only motile serovars have zoonotic significance due to their potential to induce human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial resistance, being a public health concern, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serotypes affecting food chain has greater impact worldwide. AIM: Information on circulation of zoonotic Salmonella strains in commercial poultry farm level is limited in many parts of the world. This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the zoonotic Salmonella strains circulating in the broiler farm environment with their detailed antimicrobial resistance profiling. METHODS: Pooled faecal samples were collected randomly from commercial broiler farms of Chattogram district, Bangladesh. Standard bacteriological procedure was followed to isolate Salmonella, and identification was confirmed by genus specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After phenotypic characterisation of resistance profile against eight antimicrobials by disc diffusion technique, all strains were screened by PCR for some selected resistance genes. RESULTS: Out of the 350 samples, Salmonella was isolated and identified from 86 samples. In antimicrobial sensitivity testing, more than 98.8% isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and 94.2% to tetracycline followed by enrofloxacin (56%) and ciprofloxacin (50%). Notably, 94% isolates were found to be MDR. The results of PCR assays revealed that 81.4% of the isolates were carrying the tetA gene, 19.8% the tetB and 10.47% the tetC gene. The prevalence of the isolates bearing the blaTEM , blaCTX-M and Sul-I gene were 95.4%, 7.0 % and 37.2 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: There is a great risk to secure healthy poultry products due to the circulation of these MDR zoonotic Salmonella.

2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 575, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392406

RESUMO

Motor vehicles operating on the road are a significant source of Particulate Matter (PM) emissions depending on the fuels used in the vehicles. Gasoline and Diesel vehicles are directly responsible for the tailpipe PM emissions (specifically PM2.5: particles ≤ 2.5 µm), known as primary PM2.5 emissions. The other major direct emissions from the vehicles, which include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) contribute to the formation of secondary organic PM, also known as secondary organic aerosols (SOA), through some inter-related chemical reactions. The SOAs are highly toxic and contribute to a portion of total PM emissions. In this research, emission scenarios of both primary PM2.5 and SOA for a car-dependent expanding Australian city (Adelaide) were analyzed. The variability of traffic characteristics on road was considered and conducted a probabilistic emissions inventory for tailpipe primary PM2.5 and precursors, while statistical analysis of the probable chemical conversion ratios was considered for the SOA inventory. It was found that the tailpipe emissions from the vehicles were higher than the air quality standard, while the SOA contribution from the vehicles was not significantly high but contributed to the increase of total PM concentration. The analysis of the chemical transformation of SOA precursors justified the importance of conducting more detailed emissions modelling for sustainable urban air quality planning.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gasolina/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
Aging Cell ; 20(8): e13381, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227219

RESUMO

Transcriptome-based drug screening is emerging as a powerful tool to identify geroprotective compounds to intervene in age-related disease. We hypothesized that, by mimicking the transcriptional signature of the highly conserved longevity intervention of FOXO3 (daf-16 in worms) overexpression, we could identify and repurpose compounds with similar downstream effects to increase longevity. Our in silico screen, utilizing the LINCS transcriptome database of genetic and compound interventions, identified several FDA-approved compounds that activate FOXO downstream targets in mammalian cells. These included the neuromuscular blocker atracurium, which also robustly extends both lifespan and healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans. This longevity is dependent on both daf-16 signaling and inhibition of the neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor subunit unc-38. We found unc-38 RNAi to improve healthspan, lifespan, and stimulate DAF-16 nuclear localization, similar to atracurium treatment. Finally, using RNA-seq transcriptomics, we identify atracurium activation of DAF-16 downstream effectors. Together, these data demonstrate the capacity to mimic genetic lifespan interventions with drugs, and in doing so, reveal that the neuromuscular acetylcholine receptor regulates the highly conserved FOXO/DAF-16 longevity pathway.

4.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057150

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNA molecules formed by the back splicing process. Compared to linear mRNA molecules they are more stable. CircRNA acts as miRNA sponges, regulates translation, epigenetic alterations, etc. However, the most significant aspect of circRNAs has been its role in regulating the hallmark of cancer and diabetes mellitus. Several circRNAs are extensively expressed in individuals with cancer and diabetics. Dysregulated expression of various circRNAs plays a crucial part in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present review, we present the current understanding of cricRNAs biogenesis, regulatory mechanisms, reviews of recent findings and circRNA as potential biomarker.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA Circular/genética , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética
5.
J Adv Vet Anim Res ; 8(1): 116-122, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860021

RESUMO

Objectives: Demodicosis is a vital skin problem in dogs. The present study has determined the prevalence and associated risk factors of demodicosis in dogs and the response to treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 skin scrapings were collected from dogs having dermatological lesions brought to the Teaching and Training Pet Hospital and Research Center of Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University for treatment purpose. The collected scrapings were dissolved in 10% potassium hydroxide to detect mites through microscopic examination. Various risk factors like breed, age, sex, hair type, health status, and management system (indoor and outdoor) were analyzed using the logistic regression model. Positive cases were treated with oral ivermectin (Scabo®; at 0.6 mg/kg/day) along with amitraz 12.5% (Ridd®) diluted to 0.05% for rubbing on the body after bathing with chlorhexidine shampoo (PetHex®). Clavulanate amoxicillin (Moxaclav®) and omega-3 fatty acids (OMG-3®) were also suggested to prevent secondary bacterial infection and to maintain skin and hair coat integrity. The recovery rate was observed every 2-4 weeks of treatment upto 11-13 weeks. Results: The overall prevalence of demodicosis was recorded as 27%. Hair type, health status, and management system were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the occurrence of demodicosis in dogs. Following treatment, the first negative skin scraping for mite was noticed at 8-10 weeks of treatment, and in all cases, clinical signs completely disappeared at 80-90 days of treatment. Conclusion: A good percentage of the dogs having dermatological lesions was determined as demodicosis. Long-term oral ivermectin and topical amitraz, an oral antibiotic, and nutritional therapy are effective against canine demodicosis. Keeping long-haired dogs with good body condition and indoor management is highly suggestive of preventing and controlling the disease.

6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 420: 115532, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845054

RESUMO

Limited information is available regarding the effects of arsenic exposure on immune function. We have recently reported that chronic exposure to As was associated asthma, as determined by spirometry and respiratory symptoms. Because T helper 2 (Th2)-driven immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma, we studied the associations of serum Th1 and Th2 mediators with the As exposure markers and the features of asthma among individuals exposed to As. A total of 553 blood samples were selected from the same study subjects recruited in our previous asthma study. Serum levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were analyzed by immunoassay. Subjects' arsenic exposure levels (drinking water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Arsenic exposure levels of the subjects showed significant positive associations with serum Th2-mediators- interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin without any significant changes in Th1 mediators- interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. The ratios of Th2 to Th1 mediators were significantly increased with increasing exposure to As. Notably, most of the Th2 mediators were positively associated with serum levels of total immunoglobulin E and eotaxin. The serum levels of Th2 mediators were significantly higher in the subjects with asthma than those without asthma. The results of our study suggest that the exacerbated Th2-driven immune responses are involved in the increased susceptibility to allergic asthma among individuals chronically exposed to As.


Assuntos
Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/sangue , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(9): 689-707, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851540

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate near infrared-induced phototoxicity toward lung cancer cells, and the biodegradability and effect on immune cells of glucose-derived carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). Methods: The human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line was used as a model to study the phototoxicity of CNPs. The biodegradability and the effect on immune cells was demonstrated in primary human neutrophils and macrophages. Results: Near infrared-activated CNPs elicited rapid cell death, characterized by the elevation of heat shock proteins and the induction of DNA damage. CNPs were found to be noncytotoxic toward primary human macrophages and were susceptible to biodegradation when cocultured with human neutrophils. Conclusions: Our results identify CNPs as promising platforms for photothermal therapy of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nanopartículas , Células A549 , Carbono , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Terapia Fototérmica
8.
Mar Policy ; 126: 104422, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568881

RESUMO

COVID-19 is now a major global health crisis, can lead to severe food crisis unless proper measures are taken. Though a number of scientific studies have addressed the possible impacts of COVID-19 in Bangladesh on variety of issues, problems and food crises associated with aquatic resources and communities are missing. Therefore, this study aimed at bridging the gap in the existing situation and challenges of COVID-19 by linking its impact on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries with dependent population. The study was conducted based on secondary data analysis and primary fieldwork. Secondary data focused on COVID-19 overview and number of confirmed, recovered and death cases in Bangladesh; at the same time its connection with small-scale fisheries, aquatic food production, demand and supply was analyzed. Community perceptions were elicited to present how the changes felt and how they affected aquatic food system and small-scale fisheries and found devastating impact. Sudden illness, reduced income, complication to start production and input collection, labor crisis, transportation abstraction, complexity in food supply, weak value chain, low consumer demand, rising commodity prices, creditor's pressure were identified as the primary affecting drivers. Dependent people felt the measures taken by the Government should be based on protecting both the health and food security. Scope of alternative income generating opportunities, rationing system, training and motivational program could improve the situation. The study provides insight into policies adopted by the policy makers to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries.

9.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 29, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distractor efficiency and the optimum number of functional distractors per item in One Best Answer Questions have been debated. The prevalence of non-functional distractors has led to a reduction in the number of distractors per item with the advantage of adding more items in the test. The existing literature eludes a definite answer to the question of what distractor efficiency best matches excellent psychometric indices. We examined the relationship between distractor efficiency and the psychometric indices of One Best Answer Questions in search of an answer. METHODS: We analysed 350 items used in 7 professional examinations and determined their distractor efficiency and the number of functional distractors per item. The items were sorted into five groups - excellent, good, fair, remediable and discarded based on their discrimination index. We studied how the distractor efficiency and functional distractors per item correlated with these five groups. RESULTS: Correlation of distractor efficiency with psychometric indices was significant but far from perfect. The excellent group topped in distractor efficiency in 3 tests, the good group in one test, the remediable group equalled excellent group in one test, and the discarded group topped in 2 tests. CONCLUSIONS: The distractor efficiency did not correlate in a consistent pattern with the discrimination index. Fifty per cent or higher distractor efficiency, not hundred percent, was found to be the optimum.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Psicometria
10.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 32, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) targets the LDL-receptor (LDLR) which raises LDL-levels. In addition, PCSK9 has proinflammatory immunological effects. Here, we investigate the role of PCSK9 in relation to the inflammatory activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: PCSK9-levels were determined at baseline by ELISA in 160 patients with RA not previously treated with biologics. The patients started anti-TNF-α (adalimumab, infliximab, or etanercept) treatment and were followed-up for 1 year. Disease activity was determined by DAS28. Effects of PCSK9 on cytokine production from macrophages of healthy individuals and synoviocytes from RA patients and inhibition by anti-PCSK9 antibodies were studied in supernatants by ELISA. RESULTS: A significantly lower level of PCSK9 at baseline, p = 0.035, was observed in patients who reached remission within 1 year, defined as DAS28 < 2.6, compared to those not in remission. At 12 months of TNF-α antagonist treatment, the mean DAS28 was reduced but was significantly greater in patients with highest quartile PCSK9 (Q4) compared to those at lowest PCSK9 (Q1) in both crude (p = 0.01) and adjusted analysis (p = 0.004). In vitro, PCSK9 induced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in macrophages and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) in synoviocytes. These effects were inhibited by anti-PCSK9 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of PCSK9 at baseline are associated with being DAS28-responder to anti-TNF-α treatment in RA. An underlying cause could be that PCSK9 stimulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages and synoviocytes, effects inhibited by anti-PCSK9 antibodies. PCSK9 could thus play an immunological role in RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 143939, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310218

RESUMO

We present the first annually resolved and statistically reliable tree-ring δ18O (δ18OT) chronologies for the three South Asian tropical moist forest tree species (Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss., Toona ciliata M. Roem., and Lagerstroemia speciosa Roxb.) which differ in their shade tolerance and resistance to water stress. We found significantly higher mean δ18OT values in light-demanding T. ciliata than in intermediate shade tolerant C. tabularis and shade tolerant L. speciosa (p < 0.001). δ18OT in C. tabularis was mainly influenced by pre-monsoon vapor pressure deficit (VPD; r = -0.54, p < 0.01) and post monsoon maximum temperature (Tmax) (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). δ18OT in T. ciliata was strongly negatively correlated with a dry season drought index PDSI (r = -0.65, p < 0.001) and VPD (r = -0.58, p < 0.001). Pre-monsoon Tmax was strongly positively linked with δ18OT in L. speciosa (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), indicating that climatic influences on δ18OT are species-specific and vary among tree functional types. Although there was a week correlation between local precipitation and δ18OT in our studied species, we found a strong correlation between δ18OT and precipitation at a larger spatial scale. Linear mixed effect models revealed that multiple factors improved model performance only in C. tabularis, yielding the best model, which combined VPD and Tmax. The top models in T. ciliata and L. speciosa included only the single factors PDSI and Tmax, highlighting that the way C. tabularis interacts with climate is more complex when compared with other two species. Our analyses suggest that stable oxygen isotope composition in tree rings of South Asian tropical moist forest trees are a suitable proxy of local and regional climate variability and are an important tool for understanding the physiological mechanisms associated with the global hydrological cycle.


Assuntos
Secas , Florestas , Oxigênio , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Temperatura , Clima Tropical
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20460, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235237

RESUMO

Limited toxicity data on electronic cigarette (ECIG) impede evidence-based policy recommendations. We compared two popular mixed fruit flavored ECIG-liquids with and without nicotine aerosolized at 40 W (E-smoke) with respect to particle number concentrations, chemical composition, and response on physiologically relevant human bronchial and alveolar lung mucosa models cultured at air-liquid interface. E-smoke was characterized by significantly increased particle number concentrations with increased wattage (25, 40, and 55 W) and nicotine presence. The chemical composition of E-smoke differed across the two tested flavors in terms of cytotoxic compounds including p-benzoquinone, nicotyrine, and flavoring agents (for example vanillin, ethyl vanillin). Significant differences in the expression of markers for pro-inflammation, oxidative stress, tissue injury/repair, alarm anti-protease, anti-microbial defense, epithelial barrier function, and epigenetic modification were observed between the flavors, nicotine content, and/ or lung models (bronchial or alveolar). Our findings indicate that ECIG toxicity is influenced by combination of multiple factors including flavor, nicotine content, vaping regime, and the region of respiratory tree (bronchial or alveolar). Toxic chemicals and flavoring agents detected in high concentrations in the E-smoke of each flavor warrant independent evaluation for their specific role in imparting toxicity. Therefore, multi-disciplinary approaches are warranted for comprehensive safety profiling of ECIG.


Assuntos
Brônquios/citologia , Marcadores Genéticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/citologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Brônquios/química , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aromatizantes/efeitos adversos , Aromatizantes/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Alvéolos Pulmonares/química , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213040

RESUMO

In recent decades, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has become geographically widespread. In 2004, the CHIKV East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype moved from Africa to Indian ocean islands and India followed by a large epidemic in Southeast Asia. In 2013, the CHIKV Asian genotype drove an outbreak in the Americas. Since 2016, CHIKV has re-emerged in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. In the present study, CHIKVs were obtained from Bangladesh in 2017 and Thailand in 2019, and their nearly full genomes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the recent CHIKVs were of Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) of genotype ECSA, similar to the previous outbreak. However, these CHIKVs were all clustered into a new distinct sub-lineage apart from the past IOL CHIKVs, and they lacked an alanine-to-valine substitution at position 226 of the E1 envelope glycoprotein, which enhances CHIKV replication in Aedes albopictus. Instead, all the re-emerged CHIKVs possessed mutations of lysine-to-glutamic acid at position 211 of E1 and valine-to-alanine at position 264 of E2. Molecular clock analysis suggested that the new sub-lineage CHIKV was introduced to Bangladesh around late 2015 and Thailand in early 2017. These results suggest that re-emerged CHIKVs have acquired different adaptations than the previous CHIKVs.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/classificação , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Filogenia , Aedes/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Replicação Viral
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16190, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004810

RESUMO

In this study, we report a microfluidic device for the whole-life culture of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that allows the scoring of animal survival and health measures. This device referred to as the NemaLife chip features: (1) an optimized micropillar arena in which animals can crawl, (2) sieve channels that separate progeny and prevent the loss of adults from the arena during culture maintenance, and (3) ports that allow rapid accessibility for feeding the adult-only population and introducing reagents as needed. The pillar arena geometry was optimized to accommodate the growing body size during culture and emulate the body gait and locomotion of animals reared on agar. Likewise, feeding protocols were optimized to recapitulate longevity outcomes typical of standard plate growth. Key benefits of the NemaLife Chip include eliminating the need to perform repeated manual transfers of adults during survival assays, negating the need for progeny-blocking chemical interventions, and avoiding the swim-induced stress across lifespan in animals reared in liquid. We also show that the culture of animals in pillar-less microfluidic chambers reduces lifespan and introduces physiological stress by increasing the occurrence of age-related vulval integrity disorder. We validated our pillar-based device with longevity analyses of classical aging mutants (daf-2, age-1, eat-2, and daf-16) and animals subjected to RNAi knockdown of age-related genes (age-1 and daf-16). We also showed that healthspan measures such as pharyngeal pumping and tap-induced stimulated reversals can be scored across the lifespan in the NemaLife chip. Overall, the capacity to generate reliable lifespan and physiological data underscores the potential of the NemaLife chip to accelerate healthspan and lifespan investigations in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip/normas , Longevidade , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Microfluídica/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Environ Dev Sustain ; : 1-15, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041644

RESUMO

We performed a global analysis with data from 149 countries to test whether temperature can explain the spatial variability of the spread rate and mortality of COVID-19 at the global scale. We performed partial correlation analysis and linear mixed effect modelling to evaluate the association of the spread rate and motility of COVID-19 with maximum, minimum, average temperatures and diurnal temperature variation (difference between daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperature) and other environmental and socio-economic parameters. After controlling the effect of the duration since the first positive case, partial correlation analysis revealed that temperature was not related with the spatial variability of the spread rate of COVID-19 at the global scale. Mortality was negatively related with temperature in the countries with high-income economies. In contrast, diurnal temperature variation was significantly and positively correlated with mortality in the low- and middle-income countries. Taking the country heterogeneity into account, mixed effect modelling revealed that inclusion of temperature as a fixed factor in the model significantly improved model skill predicting mortality in the low- and middle-income countries. Our analysis suggests that warm climate may reduce the mortality rate in high-income economies, but in low- and middle-income countries, high diurnal temperature variation may increase the mortality risk.

16.
Air Qual Atmos Health ; : 1-13, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922562

RESUMO

In Bangladesh, a nationwide lockdown was imposed on 26 March 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to restricted emissions, it was hypothesized that the air quality has been improved during lockdown throughout the country. The study is intended to assess the impact of nationwide lockdown measures on air quality in Bangladesh. We analyzed satellite data for four different air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, and O3) to assess the changes in the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in major cities as well as across the country. In this study, the concentrations of NO2, SO2, CO, and O3 from 1 February to 30 May of the year 2019 and 2020 were analyzed. The average SO2 and NO2 concentrations were decreased by 43 and 40%, respectively, while tropospheric O3 were found to be increased with a maximum of > 7%. Among the major cities, Dhaka, Gazipur, Chattogram, and Narayanganj were found to be more influenced by the restricted emissions. In Dhaka, NO2 and SO2 concentrations were decreased approximately by 69 and 67%, respectively. Our analysis reveals that NO2 concentrations are highly correlated with the regional COVID-19 cases (r = 0.74). The study concludes that the lockdown measures significantly reduced air pollution because of reduced vehicular and industrial emissions in Bangladesh.

19.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(8): 663, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814771

RESUMO

Overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been associated with chemotherapeutic resistance, leads to aggressive tumor behavior, and results in an adverse clinical outcome. The molecular mechanism by which EpCAM enrichment is linked to therapeutic resistance via Nrf2, a key regulator of antioxidant genes is unknown. We have investigated the link between EpCAM and the Nrf2 pathway in light of therapeutic resistance using head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patient tumor samples and cell lines. We report that EpCAM was highly expressed in Nrf2-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cells. In addition, cisplatin-resistant tumor cells consisted of a higher proportion of EpCAMhigh cells compared to the cisplatin sensitive counterpart. EpCAMhigh populations exhibited resistance to cisplatin, a higher efficiency in colony formation, sphere growth and invasion capacity, and demonstrated reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Furthermore, Nrf2 expression was significantly higher in EpCAMhigh populations. Mechanistically, expression of Nrf2 and its target genes were most prominently observed in EpCAMhigh populations. Silencing of EpCAM expression resulted in the attenuation of expressions of Nrf2 and SOD1 concomitant with a reduction of Sox2 expression. On the other hand, silencing of Nrf2 expression rendered EpCAMhigh populations sensitive to cisplatin treatment accompanied by the inhibition of colony formation, sphere formation, and invasion efficiency and increased ROS activity. The molecular mechanistic link between EpCAM expression and activation of Nrf2 was found to be a concerted interaction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and p62. Silencing of p62 expression in EpCAMhigh populations resulted in the attenuation of Nrf2 pathway activation suggesting that Nrf2 pathway activation promoted resistance to cisplatin in EpCAMhigh populations. We propose that therapeutic targeting the Nrf2-EpCAM axis might be an excellent approach to modulate stress resistance and thereby survival of HNSCC patients enriched in EpCAMhigh populations.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/fisiologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia
20.
Vet World ; 13(7): 1303-1310, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848304

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Staphylococcus aureus is argued as one of the principal organisms responsible for mammary gland infection in lactating goats, causing both clinical and subclinical mastitis. Being highly zoonotic potential, pathogen emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has a significant clinical impact on treatment and management of clinical mastitis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus (CoPS), antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp., prevalence of MRSA, and association between different clinical parameters with CoPS. Materials and Methods: A total of 67 clinical mastitic goats were sampled based on clinical examination and California mastitis test. Standard bacteriological methods were performed to isolate and identify Staphylococcus spp. CoPS were confirmed by nuc gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All staphylococcal isolates were further examined for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion method. MRSA was confirmed based on mecA gene-based PCR. Results: Here, 49 (73.13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 61.41-82.35) samples were positive for Staphylococcus spp., of which 17 (34.69%; 95% CI, 22.88-48.73) isolates were CoPS and rest of the isolates (32; 65.30%; 95% CI, 51.27-77.12) were identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (coagulase-negative staphylococci [CNS]). Both, CoPS and CNS isolates displayed the highest resistance against tetracycline (76.47% and 75%, respectively) and oxacillin (70.58% and 68.75%, respectively). Notably, all staphylococcal isolates were multidrug-resistant (showed resistance to ≥3 classes of antimicrobials). mecA gene was found in 6 (8.96%; 95% CI, 3.84-18.52) CoPS isolates indicating MRSA strains. Among different clinical parameters, presence of high body temperature (p<0.05), firm udder consistency (p<0.01), bloodstained milk (p<0.00), and pus in milk (p<0.00) were significantly associated with the presence of CoPS in mastitic caprine milk. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MRSA isolated from clinical caprine mastitis cases in Bangladesh. The findings of this study would help in cautious selection as well as administration of antimicrobials for therapeutic management of mastitic goats.

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