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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112611, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385057

RESUMO

Understanding the transport behaviour of arsenic (As) from soils to humans is critical when undertaking human health risk assessment and contamination control. This research examined As bioaccessibility in different As fractions and particle size fractions of As-enriched mine soils using different extractions. Bioaccessibility of As ranged from 0.24% to 32% for Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium (SBRC) and Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET) methods, with extractable As (using 0.43 M HNO3) being 1.3-24.9%. The highest As bioaccessibility (19-32%) was consistently observed in the fine particle size fraction (< 53 µm) of all three extractions. Sequential extractions revealed that As fractions were mostly associated with crystalline (30-73%) and amorphous (9-59%) Fe/Al oxyhydroxides. The bioaccessibility of As in the gastric phase of SBRC and PBET methods highlighted a positive correlation (R2 = 0.83-0.88, p < 0.01) with exchangeable, surface and amorphous- bound As fractions, while the intestinal phase showed a strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.85-0.89, p < 0.01) with exchangeable and surface bound fractions. The study revealed that As bioaccessibility in soils can potentially be determined using the 0.43 M HNO3 extraction procedure. Health risk assessment confirmed that there was a strong increase in chronic daily intake, hazard quotient and cancer risk, with a reduction in particle size.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Austrália , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , New South Wales , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112572, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352571

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have associated chronic exposure to arsenic (As) from drinking water with increased risk of hypertension. However, evidence of an association between As exposure from food and hypertension risks is sparse. To quantify the association between daily As intake from both food (rice, wheat and potatoes) and drinking water (Aswater) along with total exposure (Astotal) and hypertension risks in a study population in Bihar, India, we conducted an individual level cross-sectional analysis between 2017 and 2019 involving 150 participants. Arsenic intake variables and three indicators of hypertension risks (general hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) were derived, and any relationship was quantified using a series of crude and multivariable log-linear or logistic regression models. The prevalence of general hypertension was 40% for the studied population. The median level of HDL was 45 mg/dL while median value of LDL was 114 mg/dL. Apart from a marginally significant positive relationship between As intake from rice and the changes of LDL (p-value = 0.032), no significant positive association between As intake and hypertension risks could be ascertained. In fact, Astotal was found to be associated with lower risks of general hypertension and higher levels of HDL (p-value = 0.020 and 0.010 respectively) whilst general hypertension was marginally associated with lower Aswater (p-value = 0.043). Due to limitations regarding study design and residual confounding, all observed marginal associations should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Hipertensão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382093

RESUMO

To date, the effects of lead on the growth and haematological parameters of milkfish are still not well understood. For this reason the present study seeks to explain this conundrum. Sub-adult female milkfish were exposed to four concentrations of lead nitrate (0 mg/l, 42.64 mg/l, 63.97 mg/l and 85.29 mg/l) for 40 days. Results revealed that exposure to lead nitrate caused significant changes in growth and haematological parameters of milkfish. Weight gain, length gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, and feed conversion ratio of milkfish declined significantly at the highest concentration treatment. Moreover, lead nitrate exposure significantly decreased the value of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, along with a marked increase in mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Several erythrocyte malformations to cells including swelling, deformation, doubling, binucleus, laceration of the membrane, hemolyzation and vacuolation were all observed.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126757, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352522

RESUMO

Inhalation exposure and beryllium (Be) toxicity are well-known, but research on bioaccessibility from soils via different exposure pathways is limited. This study examined soils from a legacy radioactive waste disposal site using in vitro ingestion (Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium [SBRC], physiologically based extraction test [PBET], in vitro gastrointestinal [IVG]), inhalation (simulated epithelial lung fluid [SELF]) and dynamic two-stage bioaccessibility (TBAc) methods, as well as 0.43 M HNO3 extraction. The results showed, 70 ±â€¯4.8%, 56 ±â€¯16.8% and 58 ±â€¯5.7% of total Be were extracted (gastric phase [GP] + intestinal phase [IP]) in the SBRC, PBET, and IVG methods, respectively. Similar bioaccessibility of Be (~18%) in PBET-IP and SELF was due to chelating agents in the extractant. Moreover, TBAc-IP showed higher extraction (20.8 ±â€¯2.0%) in comparison with the single-phase (SBRC-IP) result (4.8 ±â€¯0.23%), suggesting increased Be bioaccessibility and toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract when the contamination derives from the inhalation route. The results suggested Be bioaccessibility depends on solution pH; time of extraction; soil reactive fractions (organic-inorganic); particle size, and the presence of chelating agents in the fluid. This study has significance for understanding Be bioaccessibility via different exposure routes and the application of risk-based management of Be-contaminated sites.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126812, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396956

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) pollution is a significant environmental concern with remediation challenge. Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is more toxic than trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) due to its mutagenicity and oncogenicity. In this investigation, a multi-functional material, copper nanoclusters (CuNCs)-halloysite nanotubes (HNT) composite (CuNCs@HNT), has been synthesised in an eco-friendly manner and utilised for Cr(VI) remediation. Advanced analytical tools confirmed the seeding of ultra-fine CuNCs onto HNT surfaces. The maximum adsorption capacity of CuNCs@HNT is 79.14 ± 6.99 mg/g at pH 5 ± 0.1 with an increment at lower pHs. This performance was comparable for real surface stream water as well as other reported materials. The pseudo-second-order kinetic-, intra-particle diffusion- and Freundlich isotherm models well fit the experimental data implying that the chemisorption, multiphase diffusion and multi-molecular layer distribution occurred during adsorption. The Fourier-transform infrared and the x-ray photoelectron spectra also ensured the transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) indicating the material's suitability for concurrent adsorption and reduction of Cr(VI). While coexisting cations and anions did not overwhelm this adsorption, CuNCs@HNT was regenerated and reused five successive times in adsorption-desorption cycles without significant loss of adsorption capacity and material's integrity. Therefore, this multi-functional, biocompatible, low-cost and stable CuNCs@HNT composite may have practical application for similar toxic metals remediation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368909

RESUMO

Soil pollution by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) as one of the major environmental hazards is associated with metal exploration and refining acting. In this study, forty-five topsoil samples surrounding a copper smelter factory were taken and analysed using standard routine methods. The total concentration, chemical fractionation and the mobility potential of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were analysed. Additionally, the spatial distribution of PTEs, the potential ecotoxicological, and human health risks was assessed. The range of total Cu was 1478-4718 mg kg-1, reaching up to 501.5, 21.6, 118.4, 573.5 and 943.3 mg kg-1 for total contents of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn, respectively. The potentially available fractions after sequential extraction reveal all studied PTE were dramatically mobile and available in the studied area (86%, 69.3%, 59.5%, 87.2%, 84% and 68% for As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively), reflecting that the concentration and accumulation of these elements are profoundly affected or originated by smelting activities and deposition of atmospheric emissions of the Cu smelting factory. The spatial distribution of all PTEs indicated that concentrations of these element near the smelter Cu-factory were elevated. Accordingly, the ecotoxicology status of the studied area suggests that significantly high risks are posed by the measured PTEs. Non-carcinogenic effects of As, Pb and Cu were significantly much higher than the recommended value (HI = 1), suggesting that these three PTEs could adversely impact children's health. For adults, only the HI value of As was greater than one.

7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 452, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181101

RESUMO

This study investigates the occurrence, distribution, and potential ecological risk of trace elements (TEs) along with the hydrogeochemical characteristics of coastal surface water collected from the southern Caspian coasts in the Mazandaran province of Iran. Eighteen coastal water sites were sampled and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and ion chromatography to determine concentrations of TEs and major ions, respectively. Mean concentrations (µg/l) of TEs in the water followed the order: Al (154.3) > Fe (73.6) > Zn (67.8) > Mn (29.9) > Cu (5.7) > Mo (3.7) > Cd (2.8) > Se (2.3) > V (1.9) > Co = As (1.8) > Sb (1.2) > Pb (0.6). TEs displayed high variations within samples, reflecting many sources that control their concentrations in the coastal water. Most TEs displayed elevated concentrations in the east and west of the study area. The Na-Cl water type in the majority of investigated sites indicates excess alkaline elements and strong acid anions relative to alkaline earth cations and weak acid anions. Considering the saturation states of minerals, carbonate and evaporite minerals are oversaturated and unsaturated in surface water, respectively. Compositional interrelations between aqueous species showed that reverse cation exchange may have occurred. The excess SO42- content, derived from irrigation return flow and domestic greywater, probably plays a crucial role in the mobilization and transport of Zn and Pb by binding to sulfate ligands and forming aqueous complexes. Ecological risk assessment of TEs revealed that water in the majority of sites is safe in terms of As, Se, Pb, and Cd content, and unsuitable with respect to Zn and Cu. Acute and chronic toxicities of Cu and Zn are reported in several sites, thus coastal water cannot be used for fishery and protecting "nature reserve" purposes. However, industrial activity and tourism are safe to be conducted in most coastal water sites.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Mar Cáspio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Water Res ; 200: 117257, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077838

RESUMO

Estrogenic compounds enter waterways via effluents from wastewater treatment works (WWTW), thereby indicating a potential risk to organisms inhabiting adjacent receiving waters. However, little is known about the loads or concentrations of estrogenic compounds that enter Australian WWTWs, the efficiency of removing estrogenic compounds throughout the various stages of tertiary WWTW processes (which are common in Australia), nor the concentrations released into estuarine or marine receiving waters, and the associated risk for aquatic taxa residing in these environments. Therefore, seven estrogenic compounds, comprising the natural estrogens estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3), the synthetic estrogen (EE2), and the industrial chemicals bisphenol A (BPA), 4-t-octyl phenol (4-t-OP) and 4-nonyl phenol (4-NP), in wastewater samples were quantified via liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after solid-phase extraction at different stages of wastewater treatment and associated receiving waters. The concentrations of the target compounds in wastewater ranged from < LOQ (limit of quantification) to 158 ng/L for Tanilba Bay WWTW and < LOQ to 162 ng/L for Belmont WWTW. Most target compounds significantly declined after the secondary treatment phase. Appreciable removal efficiency throughout the treatment process was observed with removal from 39.21 to 99.98% of influent values at both WWTWs. The reduction of the natural estrogens (E1, E2 and E3) and 4-t-OP were significantly greater than EE2, BPA, and 4-NP in both WWTWs. Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated to assess potential ecological risks from individual estrogenic compounds. In predicted diluted effluents, no targeted compounds showed any ecological risk (RQ ≤1.65 × 10-2) at both WWTWs. Similarly, all RQs for shore samples at both WWTWs were below 1. Finally, the hazard index (HI), which represents combined estrogenic contaminants' ecological risk, indicated no mentionable risk for predicted diluted effluents (HI = 0.0097 to 0.0218) as well as shoreline samples (HI = 0.393 to 0.522) in the receiving estuarine or marine waters.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Estrona/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 169: 112475, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022559

RESUMO

We examined the patterns of uptake and partitioning of metal(loid)s in Suaeda australis from three highly urbanised estuaries (Sydney Olympic Park, Hunter Wetlands and Lake Macquarie) in NSW, Australia. Of these, Sydney Olympic Park was found to be the most contaminated estuary in terms of combined sediment metal(loid) load, followed by Hunter Wetlands and lowest in Lake Macquarie (via PERMANOVA). Uptake in roots was greater for the essential metals Cu and Zn along with the non-essential metal Cd and the metalloid Se (root BCFs >1) and lower for Pb and As (root BCFs <1). Substantial barriers for translocation from roots to stems were identified for all metal(loid)s (stem TFs; 0.07-0.68). Conversely, unrestricted flow from stems to leaves was observed for all metal(loid)s at unity or higher (leaf TFs ≥ 1). Strong linear relationships between sediment and root for Zn and Pb were observed, indicating roots as a useful bioindicator.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , New South Wales , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8113, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854093

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) is increasingly being recognized as an important contaminant due to its various industrial applications and mining operations. Environmental remediation approaches for Sb are still lacking, as is the understanding of Sb environmental chemistry. In this study, biosolid biochar (BSBC) was produced and utilized to remove antimonate (Sb(V)) from aqueous solution. Zirconium (Zr), Zirconium-iron (Zr-Fe) and Fe-O coated BSBC were synthesized for enhancing Sb(V) sorption capacities of BSBC. The combined results of specific surface area, FTIR, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS, and XPS confirmed that Zr and/or Zr-Fe were successfully coated onto BSBC. The effects of reaction time, pH, initial Sb(V) concentration, adsorbate doses, ionic strength, temperature, and the influence of major competitive co-existing anions and cations on the adsorption of Sb(V) were investigated. The maximum sorption capacity of Zr-O, Zr-Fe, Zr-FeCl3, Fe-O, and FeCl3 coated BSBC were 66.67, 98.04, 85.47, 39.68, and 31.54 mg/g respectively under acidic conditions. The XPS results revealed redox transformation of Sb(V) species to Sb(III) occurred under oxic conditions, demonstrating the biochar's ability to behave as an electron shuttle during sorption. The sorption study suggests that Zr-O and Zr-O-Fe coated BSBC could perform as favourable adsorbents for mitigating Sb(V) contaminated waters.

11.
Geohealth ; : e2020GH000368, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786406

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected daily lives of people around the world. People have already started to live wearing masks, keeping a safe distance from others and maintaining a high level of hygiene. This paper deals with an in-depth analysis of riskness associated with COVID-19 infections in Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) at the sub-city (ward) level. Attempts have been made to identify the areas with high or low risk of infections using GIS-based geostatistical approach. Cosine Similarity Index has been used to rank different wards of KMC according to the degree of riskness. Four indices were computed to address intervention objectives and to determine 'Optimized Prevention Rank' of wards for future policy decisions. The highest risk areas were located in the eastern and western part of the city, to a great extent overlapped with wards containing larger share of population living in slums and/or below poverty level. While, highly infected areas lie in central Kolkata and in several wards at the eastern and northeastern periphery of the KMC. The 'Optimized Prevention Rank' have indicated that the lack of social awareness along with lack of social distancing and high susceptibility have contributed to the increasing number of containments of COVID-19 cases. The rankings of the wards would no doubt provide the policy makers a basis to control further spread of the disease or delay a second wave. Since effective antiviral drugs are far away, the application of our approach would save the lives of many people, especially the poor and underprivileged.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125515, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662792

RESUMO

The current study represents the first attempt to analyse quantitatively, within a phylogenetic framework, uptake and partitioning patterns of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in extant saltmarsh taxa globally, and to assess associations of these patterns with various plant traits indicative of their halophytic adaptations. Despite saltmarsh being diverse taxonomically, most saltmarsh taxa accumulate metals to roots at, or above, unity (> 1). Further, there is significant translocation from roots to shoot for Cu, Zn and Cd (≤ 1), however, Pb is less mobile (TF = 0.65). Patterns of accumulation were similar among families, except greater Cd accumulation to roots in members of Juncaceae. Patterns of uptake to roots and translocation to leaves were broadly similar among plant type, plant form, habitat and photosynthetic mode. Zinc is lower in the leaves of salt-secreting species for some closely related taxa, suggesting some species co-excrete sodium (Na+) and Zn2+ through glands in leaf tissue. Salinity tolerance has no relationship to metal uptake and translocation. Translocation of Zn is greater at lower Zn sediment exposures, reflecting its active uptake and essentiality, but such bias does not affect outcomes of analyses when included as a covariate.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio , Cobre , Humanos , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Zinco
13.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(2): 1982-2014, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599116

RESUMO

Wild mushrooms are a vital source of income and nutrition for many poor communities and of value to recreational foragers. Literature relating to the edibility of mushroom species continues to expand, driven by an increasing demand for wild mushrooms, a wider interest in foraging, and the study of traditional foods. Although numerous case reports have been published on edible mushrooms, doubt and confusion persist regarding which species are safe and suitable to consume. Case reports often differ, and the evidence supporting the stated properties of mushrooms can be incomplete or ambiguous. The need for greater clarity on edible species is further underlined by increases in mushroom-related poisonings. We propose a system for categorizing mushroom species and assigning a final edibility status. Using this system, we reviewed 2,786 mushroom species from 99 countries, accessing 9,783 case reports, from over 1,100 sources. We identified 2,189 edible species, of which 2,006 can be consumed safely, and a further 183 species which required some form of pretreatment prior to safe consumption or were associated with allergic reactions by some. We identified 471 species of uncertain edibility because of missing or incomplete evidence of consumption, and 76 unconfirmed species because of unresolved, differing opinions on edibility and toxicity. This is the most comprehensive list of edible mushrooms available to date, demonstrating the huge number of mushrooms species consumed. Our review highlights the need for further information on uncertain and clash species, and the need to present evidence in a clear, unambiguous, and consistent manner.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625699

RESUMO

Open field burning of crop residue causes severe air pollution and greenhouse gas emission contributing to global warming. In order to seek an alternative, the current study was initiated to explore the prospective of lignocellulolytic microbes to expedite in situ decomposition of crop residues. Field trials on farmers' field were conducted in the state of Haryana and Maharashtra, to target the burning of rice and wheat residue and sugarcane trash, respectively. A comparative study among crop residue removal (CRR), crop residue burning (CRB) and in situ decomposition of crop residues (IND) revealed that IND of rice and wheat residues took 30 days whereas IND of sugarcane trash took 45 days. The decomposition status was assessed by determining the initial and final lignin to cellulose ratio which increased significantly from 0.23 to 0.25, 0.21 to 0.23 and 0.24 to 0.27 for rice, wheat residues and sugarcane trash, respectively. No yield loss was noticed in IND for both rice-wheat system and sugarcane-based system; rather IND showed relatively better crop yield as well as soil health parameters than CRB and CRR. Furthermore, the environmental impact assessment of residue burning indicated a substantial loss of nutrients (28-31, 23-25 and 51-77 kg ha-1 of N+P2O5+K2O for rice, wheat and sugarcane residue) as well as the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. However, more field trials, as well as refinement of the technology, are warranted to validate and establish the positive potential of in situ decomposition of crop residue to make it a successful solution against the crop residue burning.

15.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-12, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426683

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Other important proteins involved in this process include disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) also known as tumour necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme and transmembrane serine protease 2. ACE2 converts angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin (1-7), to balance the renin angiotensin system. Membrane-bound ACE2 ectodomain shedding is mediated by ADAM17 upon viral spike binding, Ang II overproduction and in several diseases. The shed soluble ACE2 (sACE2) retains its catalytic activity, but its precise role in viral entry is still unclear. Therapeutic sACE2 is claimed to exert dual effects; reduction of excess Ang II and blocking viral entry by masking the spike protein. Nevertheless, the paradox is why SARS-CoV-2 comorbid patients struggle to attain such benefit in viral infection despite having a high amount of sACE2. In this review, we discuss the possible detrimental role of sACE2 and speculate on a series of events where protease primed or non-primed virus-sACE2 complex might enter the host cell. As extracellular virus can bind many sACE2 molecules, sACE2 level could be reduced drastically upon endocytosis by the host cell. A consequential rapid rise in Ang II level could potentially aggravate disease severity through Ang II-angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) axis in comorbid patients. Hence, monitoring sACE2 and Ang II level in coronavirus disease 2019 comorbid patients are crucial to ensure safe and efficient intervention using therapeutic sACE2 and vaccines.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/enzimologia , Proteína ADAM17/genética , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124488, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246815

RESUMO

A novel biochar metal oxide composite was synthesized for effective removal of arsenate (As(V)) from aqueous solution. The materials synthesized for As(V) removal was based on a biosolid-derived biochar (BSBC) impregnated with zirconium (Zr) and zirconium-iron (Zr-Fe). The synthesized materials were comprehensively characterized with a range of techniques including Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET-N2) surface area, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirmed that loading of Zr and Zr-Fe onto the biochar surface was successful. The influence of pH, biochar density, ionic strength, As(V) dose rate, major anions and cations on As(V) removal was also investigated. Under all pH and reaction conditions the Zr-Fe composite biochar removed the greatest As(V) from solution of the materials tested. The maximum sorption capacity reached 15.2 mg/g for pristine BSBC (pH 4.0), while modified Zr-BSBC and Zr-FeBSBC composites achieved 33.1 and 62.5 mg/g (pH 6), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy) suggested that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The ZrBSBC and Zr-FeBSBC showed excellent reusability and stability over four cycles. Unmodified biochar resulted in partial reduction of As(V) under oxic conditions, whilst modified biochars did not influence the oxidation state of As. All results demonstrated that the Zr and Zr-Fe BSBC composites could perform as promising adsorbents for efficient arsenate removal from natural waters.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124396, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246822

RESUMO

Prolonged exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) via drinking water is a major concern as it poses significant human health risks. Removal of As is crucial but requires effective and environment-friendly clean-up technology to avoid any additional risk to the environment. In this study, we developed Australian smectite (smec)-supported nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite for arsenate i.e., As(V) sorption. We used a range of tools, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersion X-ray (EDS) spectroscopy to characterise the material. SEM and TEM images and elemental mapping of the composite reflect that the smectite layer was surrounded by a chain of iron nanobeads evenly distributed on clay particles, which is quite exceptional among currently available nZVIs. The maximum As(V) sorption capacity of this composite was 23.12 mg/g in the ambient conditions. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we unveiled chemical states of As and Fe before and after the sorption process. Additionally, the release of iron nanoparticles from the composite at various pHs (3-10) were found negligible, which demonstrates the effectiveness of smec-nZVI to remove As(V) from contaminated water without posing any secondary pollutant.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124185, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189473

RESUMO

This study investigates the mineralogy, micro-morphology, chemical characteristics and oxidation toxicity of respirable dusts generated in underground coal mines. The active sampling was applied to collect airborne particulates with aerodynamic diameter <4 µm (PM4) at depth greater than 500 m from earth surface. The average mass concentration of PM4 was extremely higher than recommended values. QXRD and FESEM-EDS analyses were applied to study the micro-mineralogy and micro-morphology of respirable dusts. The chemical analysis by ICP-MS revealed an enrichment of V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd and Sb in respirable dust compared with the background environment and world coals. The EPA's health risk model showed that the health risk posed by Cr and Co in all workplaces exceeded the acceptable risk value for human health. The synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF) model was utilized to achieve a novel insight into the toxicity of respirable coal dust. The result showed an overall depletion of lung surface antioxidants with the decreasing trend of ascorbic acid > reduced glutathione >> urate, implying low- to medium level of oxidative stress. The result of this study can be applied globally by decision-makers to decrease hazardous exposure of mine workers to respirable dust.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional , Carvão Mineral , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Medição de Risco
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 124064, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33265062

RESUMO

This study determines the bioaccessibility of toxic and carcinogenic arsenic (As) in composite food samples and evaluates potential exposure from food intake in Bangladesh children. Total As (tAs), inorganic As (iAs) and bioaccessible As (BAs) in food composite samples consumed by children were compared between an exposed and a control group (based on As in drinking water). Total As concentrations in composite food samples of children exposed to mean As level of 331 µg/l in drinking and cooking water ranged from 586 to 1975 µg/kg, dry weight over 76-90 µg/kg in the unexposed group. Average iAs in food composites was 73.9% (range: 49.3-90.8%). The fraction of BAs using gastric and gastrointestinal phases was 91 ± 13% and 98 ± 11%, respectively. Daily intake of iAs in the exposed group ranged from 0.41 to 6.38 µg per kg body weight (BW), which was much higher than the unexposed group (0.08-0.15 µg per kg BW). High iAs content and BAs in composite food samples indicated the elevated risk to exposed children. Further research should include both adults and children using larger sample size to determine overall As exposure from food intake in Bangladesh, attention must be given to lowering of As in food.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenicais , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco
20.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127882, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818846

RESUMO

This study reports the distribution, contamination level, and possible sources of 54 metal (oid)s in the soils found around brick kilns in south-western Bangladesh. In total, 40 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of five brick kilns in four directions at 250 m intervals. This study reveals that the mean respective concentrations of caesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), lead (Pb), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), terbium (Tb), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), thorium (Th), germanium (Ge), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), silver (Ag), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W), were 7.83, 3.19, 22.93, 85.93, 9.61, 36.86, 7.30, 1.23, 5.76, 1.13, 0.99, 3.14, 0.45, 2.91, 17.72, 3.04, 30.07, 185.13, 13.99, 0.30, 5.34, 1.26, and 2.61 µg g-1. Furthermore, those amounts exceeded their respective shale values. The pollution evaluation indices indicated a moderate level of contamination by Cs, Pb, Th, Ag, Hf, Ta, W, and lanthanides but excluding lanthanum (La) and lutetium (Lu). The pollution load index revealed pollution at two brickfields. Multivariate statistics reported that coal combustion in the brick kilns is the primary source of lanthanides, actinides, Y, Zr, and Hf in the soil, while other elements derived mostly from natural sources. A portion originated from coal combustion in brick kilns and agricultural activities. Changes in metal (oid)s concentrations were non-linear with the distance between the kilns and sampling points. Consequently, further studies are required and should consider meteorological factors and severity of human impact in the study area.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Bangladesh , Disprósio , Humanos , Praseodímio , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
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