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1.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(4): e294-e302, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleural infection is a common and severe disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The knowledge of pleural infection bacteriology remains incomplete, as pathogen detection methods based on culture have insufficient sensitivity and are biased to selected microbes. We designed a study with the aim to discover and investigate the total microbiome of pleural infection and assess the correlation between bacterial patterns and 1-year survival of patients. METHODS: We assessed 243 pleural fluid samples from the PILOT study, a prospective observational study on pleural infection, with 16S rRNA next generation sequencing. 20 pleural fluid samples from patients with pleural effusion due to a non-infectious cause and ten PCR-grade water samples were used as controls. Downstream analysis was done with the DADA2 pipeline. We applied multivariate Cox regression analyses to investigate the association between bacterial patterns and 1-year survival of patients with pleural infection. FINDINGS: Pleural infection was predominately polymicrobial (192 [79%] of 243 samples), with diverse bacterial frequencies observed in monomicrobial and polymicrobial disease and in both community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection. Mixed anaerobes and other Gram-negative bacteria predominated in community-acquired polymicrobial infection whereas Streptococcus pneumoniae prevailed in monomicrobial cases. The presence of anaerobes (hazard ratio 0·46, 95% CI 0·24-0·86, p=0·015) or bacteria of the Streptococcus anginosus group (0·43, 0·19-0·97, p=0·043) was associated with better patient survival, whereas the presence (5·80, 2·37-14·21, p<0·0001) or dominance (3·97, 1·20-13·08, p=0·024) of Staphylococcus aureus was linked with lower survival. Moreover, dominance of Enterobacteriaceae was associated with higher risk of death (2·26, 1·03-4·93, p=0·041). INTERPRETATION: Pleural infection is a predominantly polymicrobial infection, explaining the requirement for broad spectrum antibiotic cover in most individuals. High mortality infection associated with S aureus and Enterobacteriaceae favours more aggressive, with a narrower spectrum, antibiotic strategies. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust, Oxfordshire Health Services Research Committee, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and John Fell Fund.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353640

RESUMO

You are managing a patient with a spontaneous pneumothorax and a chest drain in situ, with evidence of ongoing air leak on the fifth day post insertion. You pause to consider this case of persistent air leak: is this chest drain effectively managing the air escaping through the defect in the patients visceral pleural or is it in fact exacerbating an air leak that would have settled more quickly without intervention?

4.
Thorax ; 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambulatory management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax has been shown to reduce initial hospitalisation, but at the expense of increase adverse events. As a result, questions remain about the cost-effectiveness of this option. OBJECTIVES: A within-trial economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial was performed to assess the cost-effectiveness of ambulatory care when compared with standard guideline-based management. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either an ambulatory device or standard guideline-based management (aspiration, standard chest tube insertion or both). Follow-up was 12 months. Outcomes included healthcare resource use and costs, quality of life, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: 236 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to ambulatory care (n=117) and standard care (n=119). After multiple imputation for missing data, patients in the ambulatory care group had significantly lower National Health Service healthcare costs (-£788, 95% CI difference: -1527 to -50; p=0.037) than those in the standard care group. There were no differences in the number of QALYs gained (mean difference: -0.001, 95% CI difference: -0.032 to 0.030; p=0.95). When standard care was compared with ambulatory care, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £799 066 per QALY gained, well above current thresholds of cost-effectiveness. As a result, the probability of ambulatory care being cost-effective was 0.93. CONCLUSION: Outpatient ambulatory management is highly likely to be a cost-effective option in the management of primary pneumothorax. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN79151659.

5.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 23, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a common pathology but optimal initial treatment regime is not well defined. Treatment options including conservative management, needle aspiration (NA) or insertion of a small-bore chest drain. Recent large randomised controlled trials may change the treatment paradigm: comparing conservative and ambulatory management to standard care, but current guidelines need to be updated. The aim of this study was to assess the current "state of play" in the management of pneumothorax in the UK. METHODS: Physicians and respiratory healthcare staff were invited to complete an online survey on the initial and subsequent management of pneumothorax. RESULTS: This study is the first survey of pneumothorax practice across the UK, which highlights variation in practice: 50% would manage a large primary pneumothorax with minimal symptoms conservatively, compared to only 3% if there were significant symptoms; 64% use suction if the pneumothorax had not resolved after > 2 days, 15% always clamp the chest drain prior to removal; whereas 30% never do. NICE guidance recommends the use of digital suction but this has not translated into widespread usage: only 23% use digital suction to check for resolution of air leak). CONCLUSION: Whilst there has always been allowance for individual clinician preference in guidelines, there needs to be consensus on the optimum management strategy. The challenge the new guidelines face is to design a simple and pragmatic approach, using this new evidence base.


Assuntos
Tubos Torácicos , Drenagem/métodos , Pneumotórax/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(9): 1093-1101, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081010

RESUMO

Rationale: Pleural effusion commonly complicates community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with intense pleural inflammation. Whether antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids improves outcomes is unknown. Objectives: To assess the effects of corticosteroids in an adult population with pneumonia-related pleural effusion. Methods: The STOPPE (Steroid Therapy and Outcome of Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions) trial was a pilot, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial involving six Australian centers. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia and pleural effusion were randomized (2:1) to intravenous dexamethasone (4 mg twice daily for 48 h) or placebo and followed for 30 days. Given the diverse effects of corticosteroids, a comprehensive range of clinical, serological, and imaging outcomes were assessed in this pilot trial (ACTRN12618000947202). Measurements and Main Results: Eighty patients were randomized (one withdrawn before treatment) and received dexamethasone (n = 51) or placebo (n = 28). This pilot trial found no preliminary evidence of benefits of dexamethasone in improving time to sustained (>12 h) normalization of vital signs (temperature, oxygen saturations, blood pressure, heart, and respiratory rates): median, 41.0 (95% confidence interval, 32.3-54.5) versus 27.8 (15.4-49.5) hours in the placebo arm (hazard ratio, 0.729 [95% confidence interval, 0.453-1.173]; P = 0.193). Similarly, no differences in C-reactive protein or leukocyte counts were observed, except for a higher leukocyte count in the dexamethasone group at Day 3. Pleural drainage procedures were performed in 49.0% of dexamethasone-treated and 42.9% of placebo-treated patients (P = 0.60). Radiographic pleural opacification decreased over time with no consistent intergroup differences. Mean duration of antibiotic therapy (22.4 [SD, 15.4] vs. 20.4 [SD, 13.8] d) and median hospitalization (6.0 [interquartile range, 5.0-10.0] vs. 5.5 [interquartile range, 5.0-8.0] d) were similar between the dexamethasone and placebo groups. Serious adverse events occurred in 25.5% of dexamethasone-treated and 21.4% of placebo-treated patients. Transient hyperglycemia more commonly affected the dexamethasone group (15.6% vs. 7.1%). Conclusions: Systemic corticosteroids showed no preliminary benefits in adults with parapneumonic effusions. Clinical trial registered with www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN12618000947202).


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Derrame Pleural , Pneumonia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Austrália , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/complicações , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Derrame Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/complicações , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
7.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Focused thoracic ultrasound (TUS) provides an increased safety profile when undertaking invasive pleural procedures. This has led to the requirement for defined curricula, high quality teaching and robust, validated assessment tools among physicians to ensure patient safety and clinical excellence. Current UK practice is based almost exclusively on expert consensus, but assessment methods employed have been shown to have low reliability and validity and are potentially open to bias. As a result, several assessment tools have been developed, although each has its own limitations. METHODS: This study aimed to develop and validate an assessment tool corresponding to those skills associated with the most basic level of practice, defined recently as an emergency level operator in the British Thoracic Society Training Standards for Thoracic Ultrasound. RESULTS: A total of 27 candidates were enrolled by two examiners based in Belfast and Oxford over a 10-month period between February and November 2019. Mean score of the inexperienced group was 44.3 (95% CI 39.2-49.4, range 28-54) compared with 74.9 (95% CI 72.8-77, range 64-80) in the experienced group providing an estimated mean difference of 30.7 between the two groups (95% CI 24.7-36.7; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This tool appears to discriminate between trainees with limited experience of TUS performance and those with no experience. It has the potential to form part of the assessment strategy for trainees in the United Kingdom and beyond, alongside well established assessment tools in postgraduate training.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 139-148, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleurodesis is done as an in-patient procedure to control symptomatic recurrent malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and has a success rate of 75-80%. Thoracic ultrasonography has been shown in a small study to predict pleurodesis success early by demonstrating cessation of lung sliding (a normal sign seen in healthy patients, lung sliding indicates normal movement of the lung inside the thorax). We aimed to investigate whether the use of thoracic ultrasonography in pleurodesis pathways could shorten hospital stay in patients with MPE undergoing pleurodesis. METHODS: The Efficacy of Sonographic and Biological Pleurodesis Indicators of Malignant Pleural Effusion (SIMPLE) trial was an open-label, randomised controlled trial done in ten respiratory centres in the UK and one respiratory centre in the Netherlands. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with confirmed MPE who required talc pleurodesis via either a chest tube or as poudrage during medical thorascopy were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to thoracic ultrasonography-guided care or standard care via an online platform using a minimisation algorithm. In the intervention group, daily thoracic ultrasonography examination for lung sliding in nine regions was done to derive an adherence score: present (1 point), questionable (2 points), or absent (3 points), with a lowest possible score of 9 (preserved sliding) and a highest possible score of 27 (complete absence of sliding); the chest tube was removed if the score was more than 20. In the standard care group, tube removal was based on daily output volume (per British Thoracic Society Guidelines). The primary outcome was length of hospital stay, and secondary outcomes were pleurodesis failure at 3 months, time to tube removal, all-cause mortality, symptoms and quality-of-life scores, and cost-effectiveness of thoracic ultrasonography-guided care. All outcomes were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (patients with missing data excluded), and a non-inferiority analysis of pleurodesis failure was done in the per-protocol population. This trial was registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN16441661. FINDINGS: Between Dec 31, 2015, and Dec 17, 2019, 778 patients were assessed for eligibility and 313 participants (165 [53%] male) were recruited and randomly assigned to thoracic ultrasonography-guided care (n=159) or standard care (n=154). In the modified intention-to-treat population, the median length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the intervention group (2 days [IQR 2-4]) than in the standard care group (3 days [2-5]; difference 1 day [95% CI 1-1]; p<0·0001). In the per-protocol analysis, thoracic ultrasonography-guided care was non-inferior to standard care in terms of pleurodesis failure at 3 months, which occurred in 27 (29·7%) of 91 patients in the intervention group versus 34 (31·2%) of 109 patients in the standard care group (risk difference -1·5% [95% CI -10·2% to 7·2%]; non-inferiority margin 15%). Mean time to chest tube removal in the intervention group was 2·4 days (SD 2·5) versus 3·1 days (2·0) in the standard care group (mean difference -0·72 days [95% CI -1·22 to -0·21]; p=0·0057). There were no significant between-group differences in all-cause mortality, symptom scores, or quality-of-life scores, except on the EQ-5D visual analogue scale, which was significantly lower in the standard care group at 3 months. Although costs were similar between the groups, thoracic ultrasonography-guided care was cost-effective compared with standard care. INTERPRETATION: Thoracic ultrasonography-guided care for pleurodesis in patients with MPE results in shorter hospital stay (compared with the British Thoracic Society recommendation for pleurodesis) without reducing the success rate of the procedure at 3 months. The data support consideration of standard use of thoracic ultrasonography in patients undergoing MPE-related pleurodesis. FUNDING: Marie Curie Cancer Care Committee.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno , Pleurodese , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Pleurodese/métodos , Talco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia/efeitos adversos
9.
Chest ; 161(1): 276-283, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390708

RESUMO

Hepatic hydrothorax can be present in 5% to 15% of patients with underlying cirrhosis and portal hypertension, often reflecting advanced liver disease. Its impact can be variable, because patients may have small pleural effusions and minimal pulmonary symptoms or massive pleural effusions and respiratory failure. Management of hepatic hydrothorax can be difficult because these patients often have a number of comorbidities and potential for complications. Minimal high-quality data are available for guidance specifically related to hepatic hydrothorax, potentially resulting in pulmonary or critical care physician struggling for best management options. We therefore provide a Case-based presentation with management options based on currently available data and opinion. We discuss the role of pleural interventions, including thoracentesis, tube thoracostomy, indwelling tunneled pleural catheter, pleurodesis, and surgical interventions. In general, we recommend that management be conducted within a multidisciplinary team including pulmonology, hepatology, and transplant surgery. Patients with refractory hepatic hydrothorax that are not transplant candidates should be managed with palliative intent; we suggest indwelling tunneled pleural catheter placement unless otherwise contraindicated. For patients with unclear or incomplete hepatology treatment plans or those unable to undergo more definitive procedures, we recommend serial thoracentesis. In patients who are transplant candidates, we often consider serial thoracentesis as a standard treatment, while also evaluating the role indwelling tunneled pleural catheter placement may play within the course of disease and transplant evaluation.


Assuntos
Hidrotórax/terapia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Pleurodese , Toracentese , Toracostomia , Cateteres de Demora , Tubos Torácicos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrotórax/etiologia , Hepatopatias/complicações , Cavidade Pleural , Derrame Pleural/etiologia
10.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Refractory symptomatic transudative pleural effusions are an indication for pleural drainage. There has been supportive observational evidence for the use of indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) for transudative effusions, but no randomised trials. We aimed to investigate the effect of IPCs on breathlessness in patients with transudative pleural effusions when compared with standard care. METHODS: A multicentre randomised controlled trial, in which patients with transudative pleural effusions were randomly assigned to either an IPC (intervention) or therapeutic thoracentesis (TT; standard care). The primary outcome was mean daily breathlessness score over 12 weeks from randomisation. RESULTS: 220 patients were screened from April 2015 to August 2019 across 13 centres, with 33 randomised to intervention (IPC) and 35 to standard care (TT). Underlying aetiology was heart failure in 46 patients, liver failure in 16 and renal failure in six. In primary outcome analysis, the mean±sd breathlessness score over the 12-week study period was 39.7±29.4 mm in the IPC group and 45.0±26.1 mm in the TT group (p=0.67). Secondary outcomes analysis demonstrated that mean±sd drainage was 17 412±17 936 mL and 2901±2416 mL in the IPC and TT groups, respectively. A greater proportion of patients had at least one adverse event in the IPC group (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: We found no significant difference in breathlessness over 12 weeks between IPCs or TT. TT is associated with fewer complications and IPCs reduced the number of invasive pleural procedures required. Patient preference and circumstances should be considered in selecting the intervention in this cohort.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Humanos , Pleura , Derrame Pleural Maligno/etiologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia
11.
Chest ; 161(5): 1407-1425, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896096

RESUMO

Pleural disease is a common presentation and spans a heterogeneous population across broad disease entities; a common feature is the requirement for interventional procedures. Despite the frequency of such procedures, there is little consensus on rates of complications and risk factors associated with such complications. This narrative review was based on a structured search of the literature. Searches were limited to 2010 onward, in recognition of the transformation in procedural complications following the mainstream use of thoracic ultrasound. Procedures of interest were limited to thoracocentesis, intercostal drains, indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs), and local anesthetic thoracoscopy. A total of 4,308 studies were screened, and 48 studies were identified for inclusion. Iatrogenic pneumothorax remains the most common complication following thoracocentesis (3.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-3.4), although pneumothorax requiring intervention was rare (0.3%; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4) when the procedure was ultrasound guided. Drain blockage and displacement were the most common complications following intercostal drain insertion (6.3% and 6.8%, respectively). IPC-related infections can be a significant problem (5.8%; 95% CI, 5.1-6.7). However, most cases can be managed without removal of the IPC. Local anesthetic thoracoscopy has an overall mortality of 0.1% (95% CI, 0.03-0.3). Data on safety and complication rates in procedural interventions are limited by methodologic problems, and novel methods to study this topic should be considered. Although complications remain rare events, once encountered, they have the potential to rapidly escalate. It is of paramount importance for operators to prepare and have in place plans for such events to ensure high quality and, above all, safe care.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno , Pneumotórax , Anestésicos Locais , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Tubos Torácicos , Humanos , Derrame Pleural Maligno/etiologia , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory high-dependency units (rHDUs) are used to manage respiratory failure in COVID-19 outside of the intensive care unit (ICU). The alpha variant of COVID-19 has been linked to increased rates of mortality and admission to ICU; however, its impact on a rHDU population is not known. We aimed to compare rHDU outcomes between the two main UK waves of COVID-19 infection and evaluate the impact of the alpha variant on second wave outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre, retrospective analysis of all patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to the rHDU of our teaching hospital for respiratory support during the first and second main UK waves. RESULTS: In total, 348 patients were admitted to rHDU. In the second wave, mortality (26.7% s vs 50.7% first wave, χ2=14.7, df=1, p=0.0001) and intubation rates in those eligible (24.3% s vs 58.8% first wave, χ2=17.3, df=2, p=0.0002) were improved compared with the first wave. In the second wave, the alpha variant had no effect on mortality (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.32, p=0.64). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (89.5%) and awake proning (85.6%) were used in most patients in the second wave. DISCUSSION: Our single-centre experience shows that rHDU mortality and intubation rates have improved over time in spite of the emergence of the alpha variant. Our data support the use of CPAP and awake proning, although improvements in outcome are likely to be multifactorial.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest drain displacement is a common clinical problem, occurring in 9-42% of cases and results in treatment failure or additional pleural procedures conferring unnecessary risk. A novel chest drain with an integrated intrapleural balloon may reduce the risk of displacement. METHODS: Prospective randomised controlled trial comparing the balloon drain to standard care (12 F chest drain with no balloon) with the primary outcome of objectively-defined unintentional or accidental chest drain displacement. RESULTS: 267 patients were randomised (primary outcome data available in 257, 96.2%). Displacement occurred less frequently using the balloon drain (displacement 5/128, 3.9%; standard care displacement 13/129, 10.1%) but this was not statistically significant (Odds Ratio (OR) for drain displacement 0.36, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.0, χ2 1df=2.87, p=0.09). Adjusted analysis to account for minimisation factors and use of drain sutures demonstrated balloon drains were independently associated with reduced drain fall out rate (adjusted OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.87, p=0.028). Adverse events were higher in the balloon arm than the standard care arm (balloon drain 59/131, 45.0%; standard care 18/132, 13.6%; χ2 1df=31.3, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Balloon drains reduce displacement compared with standard drains independent of the use of sutures but are associated with increased adverse events specifically during drain removal. The potential benefits of the novel drain should be weighed against the risks, but may be considered in practices where sutures are not routinely used.

14.
Clin Chest Med ; 42(4): 637-647, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774171

RESUMO

The rising incidence and high morbidity of pleural infection remain a significant challenge to health care systems worldwide. With distinct microbiology and treatment paradigms from pneumonia, pleural infection is an area in which the evidence base has been rapidly evolving. Progress in recent years has revolved around characterizing the microbiome of pleural infection and the addition of new strategies such as intrapleural enzyme therapy to the established treatment pathway of drainage and antibiotics. The future of improving outcomes lies with personalizing treatment, establishing optimal timing of intrapleural agents and surgery, alongside wider use of risk stratification to guide treatment.


Assuntos
Empiema Pleural , Derrame Pleural , Pneumonia , Empiema Pleural/diagnóstico , Empiema Pleural/epidemiologia , Empiema Pleural/etiologia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1275-1287, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. METHODS: The Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a multicentre, long-term follow-up study of adults (aged ≥18 years) discharged from hospital in the UK with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, involving an assessment between 2 and 7 months after discharge, including detailed recording of symptoms, and physiological and biochemical testing. Multivariable logistic regression was done for the primary outcome of patient-perceived recovery, with age, sex, ethnicity, body-mass index, comorbidities, and severity of acute illness as covariates. A post-hoc cluster analysis of outcomes for breathlessness, fatigue, mental health, cognitive impairment, and physical performance was done using the clustering large applications k-medoids approach. The study is registered on the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN10980107). FINDINGS: We report findings for 1077 patients discharged from hospital between March 5 and Nov 30, 2020, who underwent assessment at a median of 5·9 months (IQR 4·9-6·5) after discharge. Participants had a mean age of 58 years (SD 13); 384 (36%) were female, 710 (69%) were of white ethnicity, 288 (27%) had received mechanical ventilation, and 540 (50%) had at least two comorbidities. At follow-up, only 239 (29%) of 830 participants felt fully recovered, 158 (20%) of 806 had a new disability (assessed by the Washington Group Short Set on Functioning), and 124 (19%) of 641 experienced a health-related change in occupation. Factors associated with not recovering were female sex, middle age (40-59 years), two or more comorbidities, and more severe acute illness. The magnitude of the persistent health burden was substantial but only weakly associated with the severity of acute illness. Four clusters were identified with different severities of mental and physical health impairment (n=767): very severe (131 patients, 17%), severe (159, 21%), moderate along with cognitive impairment (127, 17%), and mild (350, 46%). Of the outcomes used in the cluster analysis, all were closely related except for cognitive impairment. Three (3%) of 113 patients in the very severe cluster, nine (7%) of 129 in the severe cluster, 36 (36%) of 99 in the moderate cluster, and 114 (43%) of 267 in the mild cluster reported feeling fully recovered. Persistently elevated serum C-reactive protein was positively associated with cluster severity. INTERPRETATION: We identified factors related to not recovering after hospital admission with COVID-19 at 6 months after discharge (eg, female sex, middle age, two or more comorbidities, and more acute severe illness), and four different recovery phenotypes. The severity of physical and mental health impairments were closely related, whereas cognitive health impairments were independent. In clinical care, a proactive approach is needed across the acute severity spectrum, with interdisciplinary working, wide access to COVID-19 holistic clinical services, and the potential to stratify care. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation and National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , Cognição , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Pleura Peritoneum ; 6(1): 1-5, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222645

RESUMO

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common condition that presents with progressive breathlessness. Long term solutions are often required due to recurrence of effusion after simple drainage. Pleurodesis is one of the main options resorted to for long term control of MPE. There is data to suggest there may be a survival benefit for patients with MPE who achieve successful pleurodesis. A systematic review was carried out to explore this correlation and results suggest that there could be a survival difference according to pleurodesis outcome in patients with MPE. Fifteen studies (reported in 13 papers) were included; 13 (86.6%) of the studies showed survival difference in favour of pleurodesis success. The median [interquartile range] difference in survival between the two groups among the different studies was five [3.5-5.8] months. Most of the included studies suffered moderate to severe risk of bias and, thus, large prospective studies of patients undergoing pleurodesis are required to ascertain this effect.

19.
Chest ; 160(5): 1925-1933, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) seek treatment with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). In vitro evidence suggests that MPE may not be a simple bystander of malignancy, but rather potentially has biological properties that improve cancer cell survival and promote cancer progression. If this is the case, MPE management may need to shift from current symptomatic strategies to aggressive fluid removal to impact survival. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between pleural fluid exposure and survival in MPM? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from 761 patients who received a diagnosis of MPM between 2008 and 2018 were collected from patient medical records in three UK pleural units. Data included factors previously identified as influencing prognosis in MPM. Medical imaging was reviewed for presence, size, and duration of pleural effusion. Time-dependent covariate analysis of pleural fluid exposure and survival (model included weight loss, serum albumin, hemoglobin, MPM subtype, performance status, chemotherapy, and age) and multivariate Cox regression analysis of pleurodesis and survival were conducted. RESULTS: Median overall survival was 278 days (interquartile range, 127-505 days; 95% CI, 253-301 days). Pleural fluid exposure duration showed no association with survival (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.0-1.0). Median survival was 473, 378, and 258 days with complete, partial, and no pleurodesis (P = .008). INTERPRETATION: Pleurodesis success seems to be associated with improved survival; however, it is unclear whether duration of MPM exposure to pleural fluid is associated with survival within the limitations of this retrospective study. Future prospective studies are required to assess this potentially important mechanism.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma Maligno , Derrame Pleural Maligno , Neoplasias Pleurais , Pleurodese , Idoso , Antineoplásicos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma Maligno/complicações , Mesotelioma Maligno/mortalidade , Mesotelioma Maligno/patologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural Maligno/etiologia , Derrame Pleural Maligno/terapia , Neoplasias Pleurais/complicações , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Pleurodese/métodos , Pleurodese/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Front Oncol ; 11: 658395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) or pleural metastases often present with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). This study aimed to analyze the effect of pleural fluid on cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Established patient-derived cancer cell cultures derived from MPE (MPM, breast carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma) were seeded in 100% pleural fluid (exudate MPM MPE, transudate MPE, non-MPE transudate fluid) and proliferation was monitored. In addition, the establishment of new MPM cell cultures, derived from MPE specimens, was attempted by seeding the cells in 100% MPE fluid. RESULTS: All established cancer cell cultures proliferated with similar growth rates in the different types of pleural fluid. Primary MPM cell culture success was similar with MPE fluid as with full culture medium. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural fluid alone is adequate for cancer cell proliferation in vitro, regardless of the source of pleural fluid. These results support the hypothesis that pleural fluid has important pro-growth biological properties, but the mechanisms for this effect are unclear and likely not malignant effusion specific.

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