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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(3): 315-327, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cancer diagnosis can impose substantial medical financial burden on individuals and may limit their ability to work. However, less is known about worry for nonmedical financial needs and food insecurity among cancer survivors. METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (2013-2017) was used to identify cancer survivors (age 18-39 years, n=771; age 40-64 years, n=4,269; age ≥65 years, n=7,101) and individuals without a cancer history (age 18-39 years, n=53,262; age 40-64 years, n=60,141; age ≥65 years, n=30,261). For both cancer survivors and the noncancer group, adjusted proportions were generated for (1) financial worry ("very/moderately/not worried") about retirement, standard of living, monthly bills, and housing costs; and (2) food insecurity ("often/sometimes/not true") regarding whether food would run out, the fact that food bought did not last, and the inability to afford balanced meals. Further adjusted analyses examined intensity measures ("severe/moderate/minor or none") of financial worry and food insecurity among cancer survivors only. RESULTS: Compared with individuals without a cancer history, cancer survivors aged 18 to 39 years reported consistently higher "very worried" levels regarding retirement (25.5% vs 16.9%; P<.001), standard of living (20.4% vs 12.9%; P<.001), monthly bills (14.9% vs 10.3%; P=.002), and housing costs (13.6% vs 8.9%; P=.001); and higher "often true" levels regarding worry about food running out (7.9% vs 4.6%; P=.004), food not lasting (7.6% vs 3.3%; P=.003), and being unable to afford balanced meals (6.3% vs 3.4%; P=.007). Findings were not as consistent for cancer survivors aged 40 to 64 years. In contrast, results were generally similar for adults aged ≥65 years with/without a cancer history. Among cancer survivors, 57.6% (age 18-39 years; P<.001), 51.9% (age 40-64 years; P<.001), and 23.8% (age ≥65 years; referent) reported severe/moderate financial worry intensity, and 27.0% (age 18-39 years; P<.001), 14.8% (age 40-64 years; P<.001), and 6.3% (age ≥65 years; referent) experienced severe/moderate food insecurity intensity. Lower income and higher comorbidities were generally associated with greater intensities of financial worry and food insecurity in all 3 age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Younger cancer survivors experience greater financial worry and food insecurity. In addition to coping with medical costs, cancer survivors with low income and multiple comorbidities struggle to pay for daily living needs, such as food, housing, and monthly bills.

2.
Chest ; 157(2): 258-267, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative enlargement of the pulmonary artery (PA) on chest CT imaging is associated with respiratory exacerbations in patients with COPD or cystic fibrosis. We sought to determine whether similar findings were present in patients with asthma and whether these findings were explained by differences in ventricular size. METHODS: We measured the PA and aorta diameters in 233 individuals from the Severe Asthma Research Program III cohort. We also estimated right, left, and total epicardial cardiac ventricular volume indices (eERVVI, eELVVI, and eETVVI, respectively). Associations between the cardiac and PA measures (PA-to-aorta [PA/A] ratio, eERVVI-to-eELVVI [eRV/eLV] ratio, eERVVI, eELVVI, eETVVI) and clinical measures of asthma severity were assessed by Pearson correlation, and associations with asthma severity and exacerbation rate were evaluated by multivariable linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Asthma severity was associated with smaller ventricular volumes. For example, those with severe asthma had 36.1 mL/m2 smaller eETVVI than healthy control subjects (P = .003) and 14.1 mL/m2 smaller eETVVI than those with mild/moderate disease (P = .011). Smaller ventricular volumes were also associated with a higher rate of asthma exacerbations, both retrospectively and prospectively. For example, those with an eETVVI less than the median had a 57% higher rate of exacerbations during follow-up than those with eETVVI greater than the median (P = .020). Neither PA/A nor eRV/eLV was associated with asthma severity or exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with asthma, smaller cardiac ventricular size may be associated with more severe disease and a higher rate of asthma exacerbations. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01761630; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of genomic testing is increasing in the United States. Testing can be expensive, and not all tests and related treatments are covered by health insurance. Little is known about how often oncologists discuss costs of testing and treatment, or about the factors associated with those discussions. METHODS: We identified 1220 oncologists who reported discussing genomic testing with their cancer patients from the 2017 National Survey of Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between oncologist and practice characteristics and the frequency of cost discussions. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among oncologists who discussed genomic testing with patients, 50.0% reported often discussing the likely costs of testing and related treatments; 26.3% reported sometimes discussing costs; and 23.7% reported never or rarely discussing costs. In adjusted analyses, oncologists with training in genomic testing or working in practices with electronic medical record (EMR) alerts for genomic tests were more likely to have cost discussions sometimes or often [(OR = 2.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.19, 3.69) and (OR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.79), respectively] compared to rarely/never. Other factors statistically significantly associated with more frequent cost discussions included treating solid tumors (rather than only hematological cancers), using next-generation sequencing gene panel tests, having higher patient volume, and working in practices with higher percentages of patients insured by Medicaid, or self-paid or uninsured. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions targeting modifiable oncologist and practice factors, such as training in genomic testing and use of EMR alerts, may help improve cost discussions about genomic testing and related treatments.

4.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066619871247, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: International clinical practice guidelines call for initial volume resuscitation of at least 30 mL/kg body weight for patients with sepsis-induced hypotension or shock. Although not considered in the guidelines, preexisting cardiac dysfunction may be an important factor clinicians weigh in deciding the quantity of volume resuscitation for patients with septic shock. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter survey of clinicians who routinely treat patients with sepsis to evaluate their beliefs, behaviors, knowledge, and perceived structural barriers regarding initial volume resuscitation for patients with sepsis and concomitant heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) <40%. Initial volume resuscitation preferences were captured as ordinal values, and additional testing for volume resuscitation preferences was performed using McNemar and Wilcoxon signed rank tests as indicated. Univariable logistic regression models were used to identify significant predictors of ≥30 mL/kg fluid administration. RESULTS: A total of 317 clinicians at 9 US hospitals completed the survey (response rate 47.3%). Most respondents were specialists in either internal medicine or emergency medicine. Substantial heterogeneity was found regarding sepsis resuscitation preferences for patients with concomitant HFrEF. The belief that patients with septic shock and HFrEF should be exempt from current sepsis bundle initiatives was shared by 39.4% of respondents. A minimum fluid challenge of ∼30 mL/kg or more was deemed appropriate in septic shock by only 56.4% of respondents for patients with concomitant HFrEF, compared to 89.1% of respondents for patients without HFrEF (P < .01). Emergency medicine physicians were most likely to feel that <30 mL/kg was most appropriate in patients with septic shock and HFrEF. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical equipoise exists regarding initial volume resuscitation for patients with sepsis-induced hypotension or shock and concomitant HFrEF. Future studies and clinical practice guidelines should explicitly address resuscitation in this subpopulation.

5.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(11): e916-e924, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to assess whether the quality of patient-provider communication on key elements of cancer survivorship care changed between 2011 and 2016. METHODS: Participating survivors completed the 2011 or 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Experiences with Cancer Surveys (N = 2,266). Participants reported whether any clinician ever discussed different aspects of survivorship care. Responses ranged from "Did not discuss at all" to "Discussed it with me in detail". Distributions of responses were compared among all respondents and only among those who had received cancer-directed treatment within 3 years of the survey. RESULTS: In 2011, the percentage of survivors who did not receive detailed instructions on follow-up care, late or long-term adverse effects, lifestyle recommendations, and emotional or social needs were 35.1% (95% CI, 31.9% to 38.4%), 54.2% (95% CI, 50.7% to 57.6%), 58.9% (95% CI, 55.3% to 62.5%), and 69.2% (95% CI, 65.9% to 72.3%), respectively, and the corresponding proportions for 2016 were 35.4% (95% CI, 31.9% to 37.8%), 55.5% (95% CI, 51.7% to 59.3%), 57.8% (95% CI, 54.2% to 61.2%), and 68.2% (95% CI, 64.3% to 71.8%), respectively. Findings were similar among recently treated respondents. Only 24% in 2011 and 22% in 2016 reported having detailed discussions about all four topics. In 2016, 47.6% of patients (95% CI, 43.8% to 51.4%) reported not having detailed discussions with their providers about a summary of their cancer treatments. CONCLUSION: Clear gaps in the quality of communication between survivors of cancer and providers persist. Our results highlight the need for continued efforts to improve communication between survivors of cancer and providers, including targeted interventions in key survivorship care areas.

6.
Value Health ; 22(7): 762-767, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between cancer history and cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) as well as cost-coping strategies, by health insurance coverage. METHODS: We used the 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey to identify adults aged 18 to 64 years with (n = 3599) and without (n = 56 909) a cancer history. Cost-related changes in medication use included (1) CRN, measured as skipping, taking less, or delaying medication because of cost, and (2) cost-coping strategies, measured as requesting lower cost medication or using alternative therapies to save money. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of CRN and cost-coping strategies associated with cancer history, stratified by insurance. RESULTS: Cancer survivors were more likely than adults without a cancer history to report CRN (AOR 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.43) and cost-coping strategies (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.19). Among the privately insured, the difference in CRN by cancer history was the greatest among those enrolled in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) without health savings accounts (HSAs) (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.30-2.44). Among adults with HDHP and HSA, cancer survivors were less likely to report cost-coping strategies (AOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.90). Regardless of cancer history, CRN and cost-coping strategies were the highest for those uninsured, enrolled in HDHP without HSA, and without prescription drug coverage under their health plan (all P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors are prone to CRN and more likely to use cost-coping strategies. Expanding options for health insurance coverage, use of HSAs for those with HDHP, and enhanced prescription drug coverage may effectively address CRN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancer ; 125(11): 1837-1847, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite effective therapies, outcomes for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCBL) remain heterogeneous in older individuals due to comorbid diseases and variations in disease biology. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, the authors conducted a multistate survival analysis of 11,780 patients with DLBCL who were aged ≥65 years at the time of diagnosis (2002-2009). Cox proportional hazards models were used to specify the impact of prognostic factors on overall survival and cause-specific deaths, and the Aalen-Johansen estimator was used to project the course of DLBCL over time with or without standard therapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). RESULTS: Advanced age (hazard ratio [HR] for ages 71-75 years: 1.25; HR for ages 76-80 years: 1.46; HR for ages 81-85 years: 1.88; and HR for age ≥86 years: 2.26), DLBCL stage (HR for Ann Arbor stage II: 1.28; HR for stage III: 1.54; and HR for stage IV: 1.95), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥1 (HR for CCI of 1, 1.15; and HR for CCI >1, 1.37), and not being married (HR, 1.12) were associated with an increased risk of DLBCL-specific death. Being female (HR, 0.91) and of higher socioeconomic status (HR, 0.91) were associated with a lower risk of DLBCL-related mortality after therapy. For patients treated with R-CHOP (3610 patients), the risk of death due to DLBCL was 14.0% and 18.6%, respectively, at 2 and 5 years of treatment and plateaued afterward, confirming a 5-year "cure" point while receiving R-CHOP among older patients. CONCLUSIONS: Conducting a survival analysis over a large data set, the current study evaluated competing risks for death within a multistate modeling framework, and identified age, sex, and CCI as risk factors for DLBCL-specific and other causes of death.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Programa de SEER , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
8.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(5): 300-309.e5, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease progression within < 2 years of initial chemoimmunotherapy and patient age > 60 years have been associated with poor overall survival (OS) in follicular lymphoma (FL). No standard treatment exists for these high-risk patients, and the effectiveness of sequential therapies remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied the course of FL with first-, second-, and third-line treatment. Using large population-based data, we identified 5234 patients with FL diagnosed in 2000 to 2009. Of these patients, 71% had received second-line therapy < 2 years, and 29% had received no therapy after first-line therapy, with a median OS of < 3 years. Treatment included rituximab, R-CVP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine), R-Other (other rituximab-containing), and other regimens. The Aalen-Johansen estimator and Cox proportional hazards models were used to quantify the outcomes and assess the effects of the clinical and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: R-CHOP demonstrated the most favorable 5-year OS among first- (71%), second- (55%), and third-line (61%) therapies. First-line R-CHOP improved OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.64) and reduced the mortality risks after first-line (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.77), second-line (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.29-0.53), and third-line (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) treatments. B-symptoms, being married, and histologic grade 1/2 were associated with the use of earlier second-line therapy. Early progression from second- to third-line therapy was associated with poor OS. The repeated use of R-CHOP or R-CVP as first- and second-line treatment yielded high 2-year mortality rates (R-CHOP + R-CHOP, 17.3%; R-CVP + R-CVP, 21.1%). CONCLUSION: Our multistate approach assessed the effect of sequential therapy on the immediate and subsequent treatment-line outcomes. We found that R-CHOP in any line improved OS for patients with high-risk FL.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(4): 342-349, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698792

RESUMO

The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) reported substantial reduction in lung cancer mortality among high-risk individuals screened annually with low-dose helical computed tomography (LDCT). As a result, the US Preventive Services Task Force issued a B recommendation for annual LDCT in high-risk individuals, which requires private insurers to cover it without cost-sharing. The Medicare program also covers LDCT for high-risk beneficiaries without cost-sharing. However, the NLST findings may not be generalizable to the community setting because of differences in patients, providers, and practices participating in the NLST. Thus, examining uptake of LDCT screening in community practice is critical, as is evaluating the immediate and downstream outcomes of screening, including false-positive scans, follow-up examinations and adverse events, costs, stage of disease at diagnosis, and survival. This commentary presents an overview of the landscape of the data resources currently available to evaluate the uptake, outcomes, and costs of LDCT screening in the United States. We describe the strengths and limitations of existing data sources, including administrative databases, surveys, and registries. Thereafter, we provide recommendations for improving the data infrastructure pertaining to three overarching research areas: receipt of guideline-consistent screening and follow-up, weighing benefits and harms of screening, and costs of screening.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(12): 1389-1397, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429132

RESUMO

Rising costs of cancer care have led to increased concerns about medical financial hardship for cancer survivors and their families in the United States. In this commentary, we provide an overview of research describing medical financial hardship and introduce a conceptual framework for identifying risk factors and research gaps at the patient and family, provider and care team, health care system, employer, and state and national policy levels. We then use this framework to highlight measurement and data infrastructure gaps related to hardship, summarize existing interventions to minimize hardship, and identify opportunities for future intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(8): 975-984, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099374

RESUMO

Background: Despite the surge of interest in improving provider communication, empirical research is sparse on the determinants and outcomes of cancer survivors' satisfaction with healthcare provider communication. Methods: Longitudinal Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data spanning 2008 through 2014 was used to identify 4,588 respondents who were ever diagnosed with cancer. A composite score was generated by combining 5 measures of satisfaction. We used multivariate logistic regressions and 2-part models to examine the associations between satisfaction ratings and outcomes, including general, mental, and physical health; office visits; and total healthcare, drug, and out-of-pocket expenditures. Results: The study sample comprised 2,257 nonelderly (age 18-64 years) and 2,331 elderly (age ≥65 years) respondents. Among both age groups, higher satisfaction was associated with fewer comorbidities, fewer year 1 office visits, and absence of year 1 emergency department visits. Membership of higher satisfaction tertile in year 1 was associated with better year 2 mental health (tertile 1 [T1]: predictive margin [PM], 27.1%; tertile 2 [T2]: PM, 35.5%; P=.013; tertile 3 [T3]: PM, 37.0%; P=.005) and general health (T1 [ref]: PM, 30.3%; T3: PM, 38.9%; P=.007) among the elderly. Greater satisfaction was associated with fewer year 2 office visits (T1 [ref]: PM, 7.42 visits; T3: PM, 6.26 visits; P=.038) among the nonelderly; and lower year 2 healthcare expenditures (T1 [ref]: PM, $34,071; T3: PM, $26,995; P=.049) among the elderly. Conclusions: We identified potential differences in cancer survivors' needs and expectations of provider communication based on comorbidities and baseline service use. These results emphasize the need for individualized communication strategies for patients with cancer and survivors shaped by their distinct requirements. Our findings of better health, lower service use, and lower expenditures among more satisfied cancer survivors suggest that interventions to improve provider communication could lead to a more efficient use of healthcare resources.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Comunicação , Neoplasias/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mol Ther ; 26(9): 2119-2130, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005869

RESUMO

Exosomes (EXOs) are a type of extracellular nanovesicles released from living cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that EXOs are involved in the pathogenesis of human diseases, including lung conditions. In recent years, the potential of EXO-mediated drug delivery has gained increasing interest. In this report, we investigated whether inhaled EXOs serve as an efficient and practical delivery vehicle to activate or inhibit alveolar macrophages (AMs), subsequently modulating pulmonary immune responses. We first identified the recipient cells of the inhaled EXOs, which were labeled with PKH26. We found that only lung macrophages efficiently take up intratracheally instilled EXOs in vivo. Using modified calcium chloride-mediated transformation, we manipulated small RNA molecules in serum-derived EXOs, including siRNAs, microRNA (miRNA) mimics, and miRNA inhibitors. Via intratracheal instillation, we successfully delivered siRNA and miRNA mimics or inhibitors into lung macrophages using the serum-derived EXOs as vehicles. Furthermore, EXO siRNA or miRNA molecules are functional in modulating LPS-induced lung inflammation in vivo. Beneficially, serum-derived EXOs themselves do not trigger lung immune responses, adding more favorable features to serve as drug delivery agents. Collectively, we developed a novel protocol using serum-derived EXOs to deliver designated small RNA molecules into lung macrophages in vivo, potentially shedding light on future gene therapy of human lung diseases.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Células THP-1
13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 924, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780385

RESUMO

Inflammatory lung responses are one of the characterized features in the pathogenesis of many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and alveolar epithelial cells are the first line of host defense and innate immunity. Due to their central roles in both the initiation and resolution of inflammatory lung responses, AMs constantly communicate with other lung cells, including the alveolar epithelial cells. In the past, emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles play an essential role in cell-cell crosstalk. In this review, we will discuss the recent findings on the intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, via EV-mediated signal transfer.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 53: 35-41, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary factors, tobacco, and alcohol use have been identified as important factors of rising various cancer incidence in several northeastern states of India. However, little is known about the factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in this region. The aim of the paper was to identify the factors associated with HCC in the northeast region. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, two northeastern states of India, including 104 histologically-confirmed cases of HCC and same number (104) of age and sex matched control enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with HCC. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was demonstrated between HCC and alcohol consumption, consumption of 'Sai-mod' (OR 2.77, CI 1.57-4.87) a homemade alcohol beverage, and with HBV (OR 7.97, CI 3.36-18.94). Positive synergism index (S = 3.04) was observed between HBV and alcohol consumption to risk of HCC. Higher intake of processed meat (OR 2.56, CI 1.09-6.03) and processed fish (OR 2.24, CI 1.02-4.95) were found associated with increased risk of HCC; and decreased risk of HCC with fresh fish, fruits, and milk. CONCLUSIONS: Strong relationship between different dietary factors, alcohol beverage with HCC suggests that control on dietary and drinking habit will be an important strategy to combat HCC in this region. Risk factors identified in this study will help to plan more effectively targeted risk reduction strategies and programs in this region.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Dieta , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 2: 1-11, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microsimulation is a modeling technique that uses a sample size of individual units (microunits), each with a unique set of attributes, and allows for the simulation of downstream events on the basis of predefined states and transition probabilities between those states over time. In this article, we describe the history of the role of microsimulation in medicine and its potential applications in oncology as useful tools for population risk stratification and treatment strategy design for precision medicine. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive and methodical search of the literature using electronic databases-Medline, Embase, and Cochrane-for works published between 1985 and 2016. A medical subject heading search strategy was constructed for Medline searches by using a combination of relevant search terms, such as "microsimulation model medicine," "multistate modeling cancer," and "oncology." RESULTS: Microsimulation modeling is particularly useful for the study of optimal intervention strategies when randomized control trials may not be feasible, ethical, or practical. Microsimulation models can retain memory of prior behaviors and states. As such, it allows an explicit representation and understanding of how various processes propagate over time and affect the final outcomes for an individual or in a population. CONCLUSION: A well-calibrated microsimulation model can be used to predict the outcome of the event of interest for a new individual or subpopulations, assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of alternative interventions, and project the future disease burden of oncologic diseases. In the growing field of oncology research, a microsimulation model can serve as a valuable tool among the various facets of methodology available.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Modelos Teóricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Neoplasias
16.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 18(2): e115-e121, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe immune dysregulation such as seen in autoimmune (AI) disease is known to act as a significant risk factor for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, little is known about the demographics or clinical outcomes of DLBCL that arises in the setting of AI disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for patients with a diagnosis from 1999 to 2009 linked to their Medicare claims data through 2011 to characterize the presentation, treatment, and survival patterns in DLBCL patients, including those with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren syndrome, and other B-cell-mediated AI diseases. We examined the baseline clinical characteristics for patients with B-cell-mediated AI disease, plotted the overall survival and lymphoma-related survival (LRS) for these groups, and compared the median survival times. RESULTS: Patients with DLBCL and AI disease were more commonly female. However, patients with DLBCL and rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, Sjögren syndrome, or other B-cell AI diseases did not differ from other DLBCL patients in any other baseline presenting features and received similar first-line treatment. A trend toward decreased LRS was seen in patients with SLE and DLBCL compared with all other groups, but this difference was not statistically significant in this cohort. CONCLUSION: In the present retrospective claims-based cohort of older patients with DLBCL, concomitant AI disease was uncommon and was more likely to occur in female DLBCL patients, which likely reflects the greater incidence of AI disease in women. The possibility of lower LRS for SLE patients should be explored in future studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 58(7): 1570-1580, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27830968

RESUMO

The role of positron emission tomography (PET) in the initial assessment of follicular lymphoma (FL) has been a topic of debate. We examined the patterns of utilization of PET staging in FL and assessed the association of PET with survival. Using the SEER-Medicare database, we identified 5712 patients diagnosed with first primary FL between 2000 and 2009. Older age, African-American race, poor performance status, B-symptoms and history of anemia were negatively associated with PET staging. Receipt of PET staging was positively associated with treatment at institutions affiliated with research networks and with residence in areas with higher concentrations of nuclear medicine specialists. PET was associated with improved lymphoma-related (HR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.58-0.82) and overall (HR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.68-0.83) survival. Our findings substantiate the use of PET as the standard of care for imaging in FL patients. Further investigation is warranted to identify mechanisms underlying the apparent survival advantage associated with PET staging in FL.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Programa de SEER
19.
J Pharm Pharm ; 4(2): 156-158, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355245

RESUMO

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are nanometer-sized cell-derived membrane vesicles that are released by donor cells and play an important role in intercellular communication. In this short communication, we discuss the obstacles currently faced in EV-mediated drug delivery research. The commonly used vehicle for drug delivery in prevalent practice are liposome's which are synthetic vesicles, these vesicles commonly interact with serum proteins, macrophages and other innate immune response molecules and may be destroyed before they can deliver the drug. EVs however have the same membrane compositions and similar cell surface markers as the cells from which they are derived which thus prevents interactions or provocations of an immune response. In addition, EVs have been used to deliver molecules across tight cellular junctions such as the blood brain barrier. This has led to an interest in using EVs as a novel method for drug delivery. We hereby discuss the potential pitfalls and difficulties that need to be addressed before EVs can be used as drug delivery vehicles in pharmacological research.

20.
Opt Express ; 24(18): 20672-84, 2016 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607671

RESUMO

We present phase sensitive cavity field measurements on photonic crystal microcavities. The experiments have been performed as autocorrelation measurements with ps double pulse laser excitation for resonant and detuned conditions. Measured E-field autocorrelation functions reveal a very strong detuning dependence of the phase shift between laser and cavity field and of the autocorrelation amplitude of the cavity field. The fully resolved phase information allows for a precise frequency discrimination and hence for a precise measurement of the detuning between laser and cavity. The behavior of the autocorrelation amplitude and phase and their detuning dependence can be fully described by an analytic model. Furthermore, coherent control of the cavity field is demonstrated by tailored laser excitation with phase and amplitude controlled pulses. The experimental proof and verification of the above described phenomena became possible by an electric detection scheme, which employs planar photonic crystal microcavity photo diodes with metallic Schottky contacts in the defect region of the resonator. The applied photo current detection was shown to work also efficiently at room temperature, which make electrically contacted microcavities attractive for real world applications.

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