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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 506-507: 109-17, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25460945

RESUMO

The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams.


Assuntos
Bivalves/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Mar Environ Res ; 101: 215-224, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25088525

RESUMO

The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/metabolismo , Thoracica/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Irã (Geográfico) , Análise de Componente Principal
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 154: 121-30, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24880784

RESUMO

Biodynamic modelling was used to investigate the uptake and accumulation of three trace metals (Ag, As, Zn) by the deposit feeding estuarine bivalve mollusc Scrobicularia plana. Radioactive labelling techniques were used to quantify the rates of trace metal uptake (and subsequent elimination) from water and sediment diet. The uptake rate constant from solution (±SE) was greatest for Ag (3.954±0.375 l g(-1) d(-1)) followed by As (0.807±0.129 l g(-1) d(-1)) and Zn (0.103±0.016 l g(-1) d(-1)). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediment were 40.2±1.3% (Ag), 31.7±1.0% (Zn) and 25.3±0.9% (As). Efflux rate constants after exposure to metals in the solution or sediment fell in the range of 0.014-0.060 d(-1). By incorporating these physiological parameters into biodynamic models, our results showed that dissolved metal is the predominant source of accumulated Ag, As and Zn in S. plana, accounting for 66-99%, 50-97% and 52-98% of total accumulation of Ag, As and Zn, respectively, under different field exposure conditions. In general, model-predicted steady state concentrations of Ag, As and Zn matched well with those observed in clams collected in SW England estuaries. Our findings highlight the potential of biodynamic modelling to predict Ag, As and Zn accumulation in S. plana, taking into account specific dissolved and sediment concentrations of the metals at a particular field site, together with local water and sediment geochemistries.


Assuntos
Bivalves/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Inglaterra , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 21(2): 576-90, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22083342

RESUMO

The accumulation, subcellular distribution and speciation of arsenic in the polychaete Arenicola marina were investigated under different laboratory exposure conditions representing a range of metal bioavailabilities, to gain an insight into the physiological mechanisms of how A. marina handles bioaccumulated arsenic and to improve our understanding of the potential ecotoxicological significance of bioaccumulated arsenic in this deposit-feeder. The exposure conditions included exposure to sublethal concentrations of dissolved arsenate, exposure to sublethal concentrations of sediment-bound metal mining mixtures, and exposure to lethal concentrations of sediment-bound metal mining mixtures and arsenic- and multiple metal-spiked sediments. The sub-lethal exposures indicate that arsenic bioaccumulated by the deposit-feeding polychaete A. marina is stored in the cytosol as heat stable proteins (~50%) including metallothioneins, possibly as As (III)-thiol complexes. The remaining arsenic is mainly accumulated in the fraction containing cellular debris (~20%), with decreasing proportions accumulated in the metal-rich granules, organelles and heat-sensitive proteins fractions. A biological detoxified metal compartment including heat stable proteins and the fraction containing metal-rich granules is capable of binding arsenic coming into the cells at a constant rate under sublethal arsenic bioavailabilities. The remaining arsenic entering the cell is bound loosely into the cellular debris fraction, which can be subsequently released and diverted to an expanding detoxified pool. Our results suggest that a metal sensitive compartment comprising the cellular debris, enzymes and organelles fractions may be more representative of the toxic effects observed.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/efeitos adversos , Arsenicais/farmacocinética , Inativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Arsenicais/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fracionamento Celular , Citosol/efeitos dos fármacos , Citosol/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poliquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 105(3-4): 455-65, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21872557

RESUMO

We use published data on the different patterns of the bioaccumulation of zinc by three crustaceans, the caridean decapod Palaemon elegans, the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus and the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, to construct comparative biodynamic models of the bioaccumulation of zinc into metabolically available and detoxified components of accumulated zinc in each crustacean under both field and laboratory toxicity test conditions. We then link these bioaccumulation models to the onset of toxic effects on exposure of the crustaceans to high dissolved zinc bioavailabilities, using the tenets that toxicity effects are related to the total uptake rate of the toxic metal, and that toxicity is not usually dependent on the total accumulated metal concentration but always on the concentration of accumulated metal that is metabolically available. We dismiss the general concept that there is a critical accumulated body concentration of a metal in an invertebrate at which toxicity ensues, except under specific circumstances involving a rare lack of storage detoxification of accumulated metal. We thus propose a theoretical framework that can be extended to other metals and other aquatic invertebrates (indeed other animals) to explain the variation in the relationship between bioaccumulated body concentrations and toxicity, and subsequently to predict this relationship in many other species for which we have bioaccumulation modelling data.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Anfípodes/química , Anfípodes/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Crustáceos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inativação Metabólica , Palaemonidae/química , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Thoracica/química , Thoracica/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Zinco/farmacocinética
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 409(8): 1589-602, 2011 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21315427

RESUMO

Many estuaries of southwest England were heavily contaminated with toxic metals associated with the mining of copper and other metals, particularly between 1850 and 1900. The question remains whether the passage of time has brought remediation to these estuaries. In 2003 and 2006 we revisited sites in 5 metal-contaminated estuaries sampled in the 1970s and 1980s - Restronguet Creek, Gannel, West Looe, East Looe and Tavy. We evaluate changes in metal contamination in sediments and in metal bioavailabilities in sediments and water to local organisms employed as biomonitors. We find that the decline in contamination in these estuaries is complex. Differences in bioavailable contamination in the water column were detectable, as were significant detectable changes in at least some estuaries in bioavailable metal contamination originating from sediments. However, in the 100 years since mining activities declined, bioavailable contamination has not declined to the regional baseline in any estuary affected by the mine wastes. The greatest decline in contamination occurred in the one instance (East Looe) where a previous industrial source of (Ag) contamination was considered. We used the macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum as biomonitors of dissolved metal bioavailabilities and the deposit feeders Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana as biomonitors of bioavailable metal in sediments. We found no systematic decrease in the atypically high Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the estuarine sediments over a 26 year period. Accumulated metal (Ag, As, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the deposit feeders are similarly still atypically high in at least one estuary for each metal, and there is no consistent evidence for general decreases in sediment metal bioavailabilities over time. We conclude that the legacy of mining in sheltered estuaries of southwest England is the ongoing presence of sediments rich in metals bioavailable to deposit feeders, while dissolved metal bioavailabilities from this historical source alone are no longer atypically high.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Arsênico/química , Bivalves/metabolismo , Inglaterra , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais/metabolismo , Mineração , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Alga Marinha/química , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 98(1): 34-43, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20149466

RESUMO

Arsenic bioaccumulation in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina has been investigated using biodynamic modelling. Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of uptake of As as arsenate from water and sediment and its subsequent efflux in the laboratory. Lugworms accumulated As from solution linearly at concentrations of 2-20 microg l(-1), with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.1648+/-0.0135 l g(-1)d(-1). 7.8+/-0.8% (assimilation efficiency) of the As ingested bound to sediments was retained after egestion of unassimilated metal. Elimination of As followed a two-compartment model, with mean efflux rate constants (from the slow pool) very similar for As accumulated from solution and ingested sediments (0.0449+/-0.0034 and 0.0478+/-0.0225 d(-1), respectively) and a corresponding biological half-time of roughly 15 d. A biodynamic model was constructed and validated through the comparison of biodynamic model predictions against measured bioaccumulated concentrations in lugworms from five UK estuaries. The model accurately predicted bioaccumulated As concentrations in lugworms using mean values of relevant physiological parameters (uptake rate, efflux rate and growth rate constants), a site-specific ingestion rate (calculated according to mean worm size and sediment organic matter content and expressed as the rate of ingestion of the mass of fine sediment), a site-specific sediment concentration measured after HCl extraction, and a standard dissolved As concentration. This combination of parameters showed that sediment ingestion contributed 30-60% of the total As accumulated by lugworms at the studied sites, depending on the different geochemistry at each site. This study showed that it is difficult to predict accurately As bioaccumulation at sites with different chemistries, unless that chemistry is taken into account.


Assuntos
Arsênico/farmacocinética , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Modelos Biológicos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Bivalves/química , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido
8.
Mar Environ Res ; 69(5): 363-73, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20137808

RESUMO

Biodynamic parameters of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor from southern Spain and south England were experimentally derived to assess the inter-population variability of physiological parameters of the bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn from water and sediment. Although there were some limited variations, these were not consistent with the local metal bioavailability nor with temperature changes. Incorporating the biodynamic parameters into a defined biodynamic model, confirmed that sediment is the predominant source of Cd and Zn accumulated by the worms, accounting in each case for 99% of the overall accumulated metals, whereas the contribution of dissolved Ag to the total accumulated by the worm increased from about 27 to about 53% with increasing dissolved Ag concentration. Standardised values of metal-specific parameters were chosen to generate a generalised model to be extended to N. diversicolor populations across a wide geographical range from western Europe to North Africa. According to the assumptions of this model, predicted steady state concentrations of Cd and Zn in N. diversicolor were overestimated, those of Ag underestimated, but still comparable to independent field measurements. We conclude that species-specific physiological metal bioaccumulation parameters are relatively constant over large geographical distances, and a single generalised biodynamic model does have potential to predict accumulated Ag, Cd and Zn concentrations in this polychaete from a single sediment metal concentration.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Cádmio/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos , Modelos Biológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prata/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Zinco/química
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 92(1): 9-17, 2009 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19181398

RESUMO

Radiotracer techniques were used to determine the rates of trace metal (Ag, Cd and Zn) uptake and elimination (33 psu, 10 degrees C) from water and sediment by the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina, proposed as a test species for estuarine-marine sediments in whole-sediment toxicity tests. Metal uptake rates from solution increase with increasing dissolved metal concentrations, with uptake rate constants (+/-SE) (lg(-1) d(-1)) of 1.21+/-0.11 (Ag), 0.026+/-0.002 (Zn) and 0.012+/-0.001 (Cd). Assimilation efficiencies from ingested sediments were measured using a pulse-chase radiotracer feeding technique in two different lugworm populations, one from a commercial supplier (Blyth, Northumberland, UK) and the other a field-collected population from the outer Thames estuary (UK). Assimilation efficiencies ranged from 2 to 20% for Zn, 1 to 6% for Cd and 1 to 9% for Ag for the Northumberland worms, and from 3 to 22% for Zn, 6 to 70% for Cd and 2 to 15% for Ag in the case of the Thames population. Elimination of accumulated metals followed a two-compartment model, with similar efflux rate constants for Zn and Ag and lower rates of elimination of Cd from the slow pool. Efflux rate constants (+/-SE) of Zn and Ag accumulated from the dissolved phase were 0.037+/-0.002 and 0.033+/-0.006 d(-1) whereas Cd was eliminated with an efflux rate constant one order of magnitude lower (0.003+/-0.002 d(-1)). When metals were accumulated from ingested sediments, the efflux rate constants for the slow-exchanging compartment were of the same order of magnitude for the three metals, and of the same order of magnitude as those derived after the dissolved exposure for Zn and Ag (0.042+/-0.004 and 0.056+/-0.012 d(-1) for Zn and 0.044+/-0.012 and 0.069+/-0.016 d(-1) for Ag for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). Cd accumulated from ingested sediments was eliminated with a rate constant not different from the fast-exchanging compartment after the water-only exposure (0.025+/-0.012 and 0.020+/-0.004 d(-1) for the Northumberland and Thames populations, respectively). A biodynamic model was used to estimate the relative importance of the dissolved phase versus ingested sediment as source of metal for the worms, showing that more than 90% of the Zn and Cd and more than 70% of Ag in lugworms is accumulated from sediment ingestion at realistic environmental concentrations. The model also shows that metal accumulation is highly dependent on the ingestion rate and assimilation efficiency.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Modelos Biológicos
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 58(1): 39-44, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18954880

RESUMO

The amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator is an established, easily accessible, biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities in coastal waters. We have carried out a geographically widespread collection of T. saltator from European shores, stretching from the north-west Atlantic through the Baltic to the Mediterranean. A primary aim of the work was to establish a database of accumulated trace metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in this biomonitor. Statistical analysis has shown significant geographical differences in the bioavailabilities of all the metals, the most distinct being copper, iron and manganese. It has proved possible to identify unusually high accumulated concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in this biomonitor, indicative of high metal bioavailability at a particular site. These may serve as reference points for future biomonitoring programmes seeking to identify metal contamination in coastal waters.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 84(2): 153-61, 2007 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17640747

RESUMO

We examined the relationship between Cd kinetics (uptake from solution and diet, and efflux), metallothionein turnover, and changes in the cytosolic distribution of accumulated Cd between protein fractions in the green mussel Perna viridis. We pre-exposed the mussels to 5, 20, 50 and 200 microg l(-1) of Cd for 1 week and determined the biokinetics of Cd uptake and efflux in the mussels. The dietary assimilation efficiency of Cd increased by 2 times following exposure to 20-200 microg l(-1) Cd, but the dissolved uptake rate was unchanged by pre-exposure to any Cd concentrations. The efflux rate of Cd was also similar among control and Cd pre-exposed mussels. The cytosolic distribution of Cd in the mussels that had been exposed to dissolved Cd, showed that besides metallothionein (7000 - 20,000 Da), high molecular weight proteins (>20,000 Da) were important for Cd binding and depuration. In general, the Cd pre-exposed mussels had higher metallothionein turnover with a higher metallothionein synthesis rate, but similar metallothionein breakdown rates as the control mussels. Metallothionein synthesis rate was correlated to the dietary assimilation of Cd, whereas metallothionein breakdown and Cd efflux rate were independent of each other. This study provides important new information for the role of metallothionein turnover on Cd kinetics in an aquatic invertebrate.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Citosol/efeitos dos fármacos , Metalotioneína/farmacocinética , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Citosol/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental , Peso Molecular , Perna (Organismo)/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 76(2): 160-202, 2006 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16289342

RESUMO

The literature on metallothioneins (MT) and metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) in aquatic invertebrates is large and increasing, and yet inconsistencies and confusion remain, not least over the physiological role of MT and their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programmes. We have collated published information on MT in three important groups of aquatic invertebrates-the molluscs, crustaceans and annelid worms, and attempted to seek explanations for some of the apparent inconsistencies present in the dataset. MTs can be induced by the essential metals Cu and Zn and the non-essential metals Cd, Ag and Hg in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but their induction is variable. Such variation is intraspecific and interspecific, and is down to a variety of reasons environmental and physiological explored here. Against this background of variability MTs do appear to play roles both in the routine metabolic handling of essential Cu and Zn, but also in the detoxification of excess amounts intracellularly of these metals and of non-essential Cd, Ag and Hg. Different isoforms of MT probably play different physiological roles, and the dependence on MT in detoxification processes varies environmentally and between zoological groups. MTs can be used as biomarkers if used wisely in well-designed environmental monitoring programmes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Exposição Ambiental , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/fisiologia , Metais/toxicidade , Estruturas Animais/química , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Invertebrados/química , Metalotioneína/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Aquat Toxicol ; 72(1-2): 45-65, 2005 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15748747

RESUMO

The uptake of dissolved cadmium and zinc by crustaceans can usually be explained by the passive process of facilitated diffusion involving a transport protein in the membranes of permeable surfaces. Cadmium ions will also enter via uptake routes for calcium, given the similar size of the two free ions. This study has investigated the interaction of cadmium (and comparatively zinc) and calcium uptake in two crabs that show different permeability responses to changes in salinity, with consequently different effects on the uptake of cadmium and zinc with salinity change. Ca uptake rates in Carcinus maenas decreased in reduced salinity (33-15) with the decreased Ca concentration of the medium and increased if the Ca concentration was increased at salinity 20. It is concluded that Ca uptake over the salinity range 33-15 is via apical Ca channels in gill ionocytes, passively down an electrochemical gradient. The Ca uptake rate of Eriocheir sinensis showed no significant decrease over the salinity range 33-10 (probably because of the small differences in an already low Ca uptake rate in this crab against a background of inter-individual variability), but decreased significantly at salinity 5. Added calcium increased the Ca uptake rate of E. sinensis at salinities 15 and 5, supporting the interpretation that Ca uptake in gills is typically passive via apical Ca channels. Cadmium (but not zinc) inhibited calcium uptake in both crabs at 15 salinity, indicating sharing of Ca channels by Cd, but not at salinity 5 (E. sinensis only) when Ca may be taken up into gill ionocytes by another (active?) physiological process.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/farmacocinética , Zinco/farmacocinética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Escócia , Água do Mar/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Zinco/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 42(11): 1893-902, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15350688

RESUMO

Oysters, as very popular food items in France, are subject to rules concerning the maximum acceptable contents of trace metals in foods. The food standards for the quantities of metals permitted are always based on total metal concentrations, and not on the metal concentrations that are potentially bioavailable to the consumer (man). In order to estimate the percentages of accumulated trace metals (i.e. Ag, Cd, Cu and Zn) that are potentially bioavailable during consumption, we have used a simple chemical digestion simulation on the insoluble fraction of oysters. These quantities have been added to the soluble fraction, assuming that metals in this fraction are completely bioavailable. Our experiments were conducted on oysters Crassostrea gigas sampled from five sites on the French Atlantic coast and on oysters Ostrea edulis sampled from Restronguet Creek in the United Kingdom. These sites are characterised by various degrees of metal contamination. This study has allowed us to gain a better estimate of the real concentrations of metals bioavailable to the consumer. Only a part of the total metal present is bioavailable: 36-68% for silver, 44-75% for cadmium, 26-80% for copper and 50-80% for zinc. These new estimates have the potential to contribute to any re-evaluation of the food standards for metals.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ostreidae/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Cobre/análise , Cobre/farmacocinética , Digestão , França , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Prata/análise , Prata/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual , Zinco/análise , Zinco/farmacocinética
15.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 45(4): 468-78, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14708663

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, and zinc was examined in common ragworms Hediste diversicolor from control (Bay of Somme, Blackwater) and metal-rich (Seine estuary, Boulogne harbor, Restronguet Creek) sites in France and the United Kingdom. The degree of exposure in the field was assessed by considering both total concentrations in superficial sediment and the quantities of metals which may be released in vitro at different pH levels. Among the three contaminated sites, release of the three metals was not detectable in Boulogne harbor, in correlation with limited enhancement of the metal concentrations in the common ragworms from this site. Even at those sites where zinc could be released in vitro from the sediment, zinc concentrations were not enhanced in common ragworms, in agreement with previous findings indicating that the body content of this metal is regulated in H. diversicolor. At all the studied sites, bioaccumulated zinc was mainly in cytosolic form. The distribution of cadmium and copper varied according to the origin of the common rag-worms, the insoluble fraction increasing with the degree of contamination (cadmium in the Restronguet Creek, copper in the Seine estuary, and even more in Restronguet Creek). In the cytosolic fraction, metals were partly linked to cytosolic heat-stable thiolic compounds (CHSTC) with molecular masses (5-6 kDa and about 12 kDa) consistent with metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP). Metal-binding to MTLP varied with the degree of contamination and with the metal studied. In contrast to many invertebrates, the presence of metal-binding CHSTC (MM about 2 kDa) other than MTLP seems to be a peculiar feature of H. diversicolor.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cobre/farmacocinética , Poliquetos , Poluentes da Água/farmacocinética , Zinco/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/química , Cobre/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metalotioneína/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Água/química , Zinco/química
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 53(5): 453-64, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12054105

RESUMO

Changes in salinity affect the bioavailability and consequent uptake of trace metals by euryhaline invertebrates. In many cases, salinity-related effects on metal uptake can be explained by changes in chemical speciation but salinity may also influence uptake indirectly through its action on osmoregulatory mechanisms. Specifically, it can be hypothesised that trace metal uptake may be reduced at salinities approaching the isosmotic point of a species because, at this point, there is reduced activity of ionic exchange pumps. The present study tested this hypothesis using the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, a hyper-hypoosmoregulator with an isosmotic point around 33 per thousand. Crabs were exposed to radio-labelled cadmium and zinc at 23, 33 and 43 per thousand for 4 days. To eradicate speciation effects, crabs were exposed to the same concentration of the radio-labelled free metal ion (estimated using MineQL computer software) at each salinity. Haemolymph samples were taken daily and radio-labelled metal concentrations were estimated from radioactivity counts and used to provide relative measures of metal uptake. Neither cadmium nor zinc uptake was lowest at the isosmotic point. The uptake of cadmium increased significantly with increase in salinity, while the uptake of zinc showed no significant change with increased salinity. Thus changes in trace metal uptake rates in E. sinensis do not appear to be controlled only by changes in free metal ion concentrations. The different effects of salinity change on the uptake of cadmium and zinc (in the absence of free metal ion change) also indicate that physiological responses to osmotic change alone do not control metal uptake rates for this species.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Oligoelementos/farmacocinética , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Zinco/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Hemolinfa/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 57(4): 225-42, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11932003

RESUMO

The induction of metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) as biomarkers of trace metal pollution has been investigated in the talitrid amphipod Orchestia gammarellus, an established biomonitor of trace metal availabilities in coastal areas. Sensitivity to metal exposure, MTLP and copper and zinc concentrations have been examined in amphipods from a metal-contaminated site (Dulas Bay, Wales) and two clean sites (Millport, Scotland and Bradwell, England). Groups of 10 amphipods from Dulas Bay and Millport were exposed separately to one of a concentration series (1, 3.16, 10, 31.6, 100 microM) of Cu or Zn for 17 days at 10 degrees C. Specimens from Bradwell were exposed under similar conditions but the experiment was extended to 25 days with intermediate samplings at 5, 10 and 17 days and additional groups were exposed to a mixture of Cu+Zn (7:10 molar ratio). In addition, specimens from Millport were exposed to 1 or 31.6 microM Cd for 17 days. Amphipods from Dulas Bay, which had been chronically exposed to metals in their natural environment had not acquired any tolerance to Cu and Zn since the lowest LC 50s were registered in these samples. Whatever the origin of the amphipods experimentally exposed to metals and whatever the dose of exposure, both Cu and Zn remained approximately equally distributed between cytosolic and insoluble fractions in the amphipods, suggesting that mechanisms of metal storage were identical over the whole range of conditions. Concentrations of MTLP were higher in O. gammarellus from Dulas Bay than in those from Millport analysed directly after collection, although laboratory exposures to dissolved Cd, Cu or Zn have failed to demonstrate differences in the induction of MTLP between amphipods from the clean or contaminated sites. A potential role for metallothionein-like proteins as biomarkers is thus unlikely although it remains plausible that turnover of these proteins does increase in response to increased metal challenges, enabling MTLP to play a role in metal detoxification.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metalotioneína/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Dose Letal Mediana , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 51(5): 417-39, 2001 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11488510

RESUMO

This paper examines the potential availability to a demersal fish of cadmium and zinc associated with digested sewage sludge, via a food chain as well as directly from the sludge, and the tissue distribution and possible excretion of any accumulated cadmium and zinc. Radioactive tracer techniques were used in order to follow the food chain transfer of the metals. Flounder (Platichthys flesus) accumulated cadmium both directly from sludge (delivered in newly ingested unassimilated gutfuls in the amphipods) and in assimilated form from the tissues of the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator that had been feeding on a sludge-sediment mixture. Cadmium from both sources could be excreted by the fish. The concentration of cadmium within the whole fish increased as the input of cadmium in the diet increased. Zinc, similarly, is available to the flounder both directly from sludge and from zinc accumulated in C. volutator. Only a limited increase in net accumulation of zinc by the flounder was observed upon increased inputs of zinc through the diet, perhaps indicating some regulation of body zinc concentration by the flounder.


Assuntos
Cádmio/farmacocinética , Linguado/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Zinco/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 51(5): 441-63, 2001 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11488511

RESUMO

The use of selected organisms as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities allows comparisons to be made over space and time. The concentrations of 11 trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, zinc) were measured in the bodies of two barnacle species, Balanus amphitrite and Tetraclita squamosa, from up to 18 littoral sites from Hong Kong coastal waters in April 1998. These data provide evidence on the geographical variation in metal bioavailabilities at this time, and are compared selectively against historical data sets for 1986 and 1989. Geographical variation in bioavailabilities is clear for several metals, with hotspots for arsenic, copper, nickel and silver at Chai Wan Kok, and for lead in Junk Bay. Victoria Harbour sites head the rankings for silver and arsenic, and Tolo Harbour sites exhibit relatively elevated cobalt, manganese and zinc. Many bioavailabilities of trace metals to barnacles are lower in Hong Kong coastal waters in 1998 than in 1986. The two barnacle species are widespread and the extensive data set presented is a benchmark which can be compared to the results of similar biomonitoring programmes elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and beyond.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Thoracica/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição Tecidual
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