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2.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 73-83, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic circumstances can influence access to healthcare, the standard of care provided, and a variety of outcomes. This study aimed to determine the association between crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality and socioeconomic group after emergency laparotomy, measure differences in meeting relevant perioperative standards of care, and investigate whether variation in hospital structure or process could explain any difference in mortality between socioeconomic groups. METHODS: This was an observational study of 58 790 patients, with data prospectively collected for the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit in 178 National Health Service hospitals in England between December 1, 2013 and November 31, 2016, linked with national administrative databases. The socioeconomic group was determined according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile of each patient's usual place of residence. RESULTS: Overall, the crude 30-day mortality was 10.3%, with differences between the most-deprived (11.2%) and least-deprived (9.8%) quintiles (P<0.001). The more-deprived patients were more likely to have multiple comorbidities, were more acutely unwell at the time of surgery, and required a more-urgent surgery. After risk adjustment, the patients in the most-deprived quintile were at significantly higher risk of death compared with all other quintiles (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: Q1 [most deprived]: reference; Q2: 0.83 [0.76-0.92]; Q3: 0.84 [0.76-0.92]; Q4: 0.87 [0.79-0.96]; Q5 [least deprived]: 0.77 [0.70-0.86]). We found no evidence that differences in hospital-level structure or patient-level performance in standards of care explained this association. CONCLUSIONS: More-deprived patients have higher crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality after emergency laparotomy, but this is not explained by differences in the standards of care recorded within the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/economia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Pobreza , Risco Ajustado , Medicina Estatal , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 43: 101674, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689677

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are well-documented barriers to nurse participation in cancer multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings. This paper aims to identify the approaches used by Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNSs) in this setting to contribute during discussion, and to consider the impact of these approaches on the decision making process. In doing so it aims to highlight ways that CNSs can increase their influence, and enhance multidisciplinary engagement. METHODS: This study is based on analysis of observation data from 122 MDT meetings in gynaecology, haematology and skin cancer MDTs. Field notes were reviewed, identifying 58 cases where CNSs contributed to MDT discussion. Audio recordings of the relevant sections were then transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Five approaches were used by CNSs to contribute in MDT meetings: sharing information, asking questions, providing practical suggestions, framing and using humour. These approaches influenced three key intermediary processes identified during the analysis ('successful contributions'): prompting discussion, influencing a treatment plan and facilitating teamwork. CNSs contributed successfully in cases where medical factors (such as relapsed disease or complex comorbidities) or non-medical factors (such as strong patient preference), had the potential to impact on the ability of teams to deliver treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CNSs have an important role in cancer MDT meetings. By focusing on a subset of cases where CNSs contributed during MDT discussion, this study has provided an insight into approaches that can be adopted by CNSs to increase their influence on the decision making process, enabling teams to capitalise on their knowledge and expertise in MDT meetings.

4.
NPJ Digit Med ; 2: 67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396561

RESUMO

We developed a digitally enabled care pathway for acute kidney injury (AKI) management incorporating a mobile detection application, specialist clinical response team and care protocol. Clinical outcome data were collected from adults with AKI on emergency admission before (May 2016 to January 2017) and after (May to September 2017) deployment at the intervention site and another not receiving the intervention. Changes in primary outcome (serum creatinine recovery to ≤120% baseline at hospital discharge) and secondary outcomes (30-day survival, renal replacement therapy, renal or intensive care unit (ICU) admission, worsening AKI stage and length of stay) were measured using interrupted time-series regression. Processes of care data (time to AKI recognition, time to treatment) were extracted from casenotes, and compared over two 9-month periods before and after implementation (January to September 2016 and 2017, respectively) using pre-post analysis. There was no step change in renal recovery or any of the secondary outcomes. Trends for creatinine recovery rates (estimated odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00-1.08, p = 0.038) and renal or ICU admission (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-1.00, p = 0.044) improved significantly at the intervention site. However, difference-in-difference analyses between sites for creatinine recovery (estimated OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-1.00, p = 0.053) and renal or ICU admission (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98-1.16, p = 0.140) were not significant. Among process measures, time to AKI recognition and treatment of nephrotoxicity improved significantly (p < 0.001 and 0.047 respectively).

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(7): e13143, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One reason for the introduction of digital technologies into health care has been to try to improve safety and patient outcomes by providing real-time access to patient data and enhancing communication among health care professionals. However, the adoption of such technologies into clinical pathways has been less examined, and the impacts on users and the broader health system are poorly understood. We sought to address this by studying the impacts of introducing a digitally enabled care pathway for patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) at a tertiary referral hospital in the United Kingdom. A dedicated clinical response team-comprising existing nephrology and patient-at-risk and resuscitation teams-received AKI alerts in real time via Streams, a mobile app. Here, we present a qualitative evaluation of the experiences of users and other health care professionals whose work was affected by the implementation of the care pathway. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the impact of mobile results viewing and automated alerting as part of a digitally enabled care pathway on the working practices of users and their interprofessional relationships. METHODS: A total of 19 semistructured interviews were conducted with members of the AKI response team and clinicians with whom they interacted across the hospital. Interviews were analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The digitally enabled care pathway improved access to patient information and expedited early specialist care. Opportunities were identified for more constructive planning of end-of-life care due to the earlier detection and alerting of deterioration. However, the shift toward early detection also highlighted resource constraints and some clinical uncertainty about the value of intervening at this stage. The real-time availability of information altered communication flows within and between clinical teams and across professional groups. CONCLUSIONS: Digital technologies allow early detection of adverse events and of patients at risk of deterioration, with the potential to improve outcomes. They may also increase the efficiency of health care professionals' working practices. However, when planning and implementing digital information innovations in health care, the following factors should also be considered: the provision of clinical training to effectively manage early detection, resources to cope with additional workload, support to manage perceived information overload, and the optimization of algorithms to minimize unnecessary alerts.

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(7): e13147, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients is associated with adverse outcomes and increased health care costs. Simple automated e-alerts indicating its presence do not appear to improve outcomes, perhaps because of a lack of explicitly defined integration with a clinical response. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test this hypothesis by evaluating the impact of a digitally enabled intervention on clinical outcomes and health care costs associated with AKI in hospitalized patients. METHODS: We developed a care pathway comprising automated AKI detection, mobile clinician notification, in-app triage, and a protocolized specialist clinical response. We evaluated its impact by comparing data from pre- and postimplementation phases (May 2016 to January 2017 and May to September 2017, respectively) at the intervention site and another site not receiving the intervention. Clinical outcomes were analyzed using segmented regression analysis. The primary outcome was recovery of renal function to ≤120% of baseline by hospital discharge. Secondary clinical outcomes were mortality within 30 days of alert, progression of AKI stage, transfer to renal/intensive care units, hospital re-admission within 30 days of discharge, dependence on renal replacement therapy 30 days after discharge, and hospital-wide cardiac arrest rate. Time taken for specialist review of AKI alerts was measured. Impact on health care costs as defined by Patient-Level Information and Costing System data was evaluated using difference-in-differences (DID) analysis. RESULTS: The median time to AKI alert review by a specialist was 14.0 min (interquartile range 1.0-60.0 min). There was no impact on the primary outcome (estimated odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.58-1.71; P=.99). Although the hospital-wide cardiac arrest rate fell significantly at the intervention site (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.76; P<.001), DID analysis with the comparator site was not significant (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.63-1.99; P=.69). There was no impact on other secondary clinical outcomes. Mean health care costs per patient were reduced by £2123 (95% CI -£4024 to -£222; P=.03), not including costs of providing the technology. CONCLUSIONS: The digitally enabled clinical intervention to detect and treat AKI in hospitalized patients reduced health care costs and possibly reduced cardiac arrest rates. Its impact on other clinical outcomes and identification of the active components of the pathway requires clarification through evaluation across multiple sites.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e027797, 2019 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: International recognition of the unique needs of young people with cancer is growing. Many countries have developed specialist age-appropriate cancer services believing them to be of value. In England, 13 specialist principal treatment centres (PTCs) deliver cancer care to young people. Despite this expansion of specialist care, systematic investigation of associated outcomes and costs has, to date, been lacking. The aim of this paper is to describe recruitment and baseline characteristics of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort and the development of the bespoke measures of levels of care and disease severity, which will inform the evaluation of cancer services in England. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, observational study. SETTING: Ninety-seven National Health Service hospitals in England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1114 participants were recruited and diagnosed between July 2012 and December 2014: 55% (n=618) were men, mean age was 20.1 years (SD=3.3), most (86%) were white and most common diagnoses were lymphoma (31%), germ cell tumour (19%) and leukaemia (13%). RESULTS: At diagnosis, median quality of life score was significantly lower than a published control threshold (69.7 points); 40% had borderline to severe anxiety, and 21% had borderline to severe depression. There was minimal variation in other patient-reported outcomes according to age, diagnosis or severity of illness. Survival was lower in the cohort than for young people diagnosed during the same period who were not recruited (cumulative survival probability 4 years after diagnosis: 88% vs 92%). CONCLUSIONS: Data collection was completed in March 2018. Longitudinal comparisons will determine outcomes and costs associated with access/exposure to PTCs. Findings will inform international intervention and policy initiatives to improve outcomes for young people with cancer.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(4): 1340-1351, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age of onset of multimorbidity and its prevalence are well documented. However, its contribution to inequalities in life expectancy has yet to be quantified. METHODS: A cohort of 1.1 million English people aged 45 and older were followed up from 2001 to 2010. Multimorbidity was defined as having 2 or more of 30 major chronic diseases. Multi-state models were used to estimate years spent healthy and with multimorbidity, stratified by sex, smoking status and quintiles of small-area deprivation. RESULTS: Unequal rates of multimorbidity onset and subsequent survival contributed to higher life expectancy at age 65 for the least (Q1) compared with most (Q5) deprived: there was a 2-year gap in healthy life expectancy for men [Q1: 7.7 years (95% confidence interval: 6.4-8.5) vs Q5: 5.4 (4.4-6.0)] and a 3-year gap for women [Q1: 8.6 (7.5-9.4) vs Q5: 5.9 (4.8-6.4)]; a 1-year gap in life expectancy with multimorbidity for men [Q1: 10.4 (9.9-11.2) vs Q5: 9.1 (8.7-9.6)] but none for women [Q1: 11.6 (11.1-12.4) vs Q5: 11.5 (11.1-12.2)]. Inequalities were attenuated but not fully attributable to socio-economic differences in smoking prevalence: multimorbidity onset was latest for never smokers and subsequent survival was longer for never and ex smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The association between social disadvantage and multimorbidity is complex. By quantifying socio-demographic and smoking-related contributions to multimorbidity onset and subsequent survival, we provide evidence for more equitable allocation of prevention and health-care resources to meet local needs.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e021854, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between financial performance as measured by operating margin (surplus/deficit as a proportion of turnover) and clinical outcomes in English National Health Service (NHS) trusts. SETTING: Longitudinal, observational study in 149 acute NHS trusts in England between the financial years 2011 and 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Our analysis focused on outcomes at individual NHS Trust-level (composed of one or more acute hospitals). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Outcome measures included readmissions, inpatient satisfaction score and the following process measures: emergency department (Accident and Emergency (A&E)) waiting time targets, cancer referral and treatment targets and delayed transfers of care (DTOCs). RESULTS: There was a progressive increase in the proportion of trusts in financial deficit: 22% in 2011, 27% in 2012, 28% in 2013, 51% in 2014, 68% in 2015 and 91% in 2016. In linear regression analyses, there was no significant association between operating margin and clinical outcomes (readmission rate or inpatient satisfaction score). There was, however, a significant association between operating margin and process measures (DTOCs, A&E breaches and cancer waiting time targets). Between the best and worst financially performing Trusts, there was an approximately 2-fold increase in A&E breaches and DTOCs overall although this variation decreased over the 6 years. Between the best and worst performing trusts on cancer targets, the magnitude of difference was smaller (1.16 and 1.15-fold), although the variation slowly rose during the 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Operating margins in English NHS trusts progressively worsened during 2011-2016, and this change was associated with poorer performance on several process measures but not with hospital readmissions or inpatient satisfaction. Significant variation exists between the best and worst financially performing Trusts. Further research is needed to examine the causal nature of relationships between financial performance, process measures and outcomes.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira de Hospitais/organização & administração , Hospitais , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Eficiência Organizacional , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Inglaterra , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Neoplasias/terapia , Transferência de Pacientes
10.
Nat Med ; 24(9): 1342-1350, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104768

RESUMO

The volume and complexity of diagnostic imaging is increasing at a pace faster than the availability of human expertise to interpret it. Artificial intelligence has shown great promise in classifying two-dimensional photographs of some common diseases and typically relies on databases of millions of annotated images. Until now, the challenge of reaching the performance of expert clinicians in a real-world clinical pathway with three-dimensional diagnostic scans has remained unsolved. Here, we apply a novel deep learning architecture to a clinically heterogeneous set of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography scans from patients referred to a major eye hospital. We demonstrate performance in making a referral recommendation that reaches or exceeds that of experts on a range of sight-threatening retinal diseases after training on only 14,884 scans. Moreover, we demonstrate that the tissue segmentations produced by our architecture act as a device-independent representation; referral accuracy is maintained when using tissue segmentations from a different type of device. Our work removes previous barriers to wider clinical use without prohibitive training data requirements across multiple pathologies in a real-world setting.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
11.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 949-960, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123007

RESUMO

Objectives: We compared incidence of dementia diagnosis by white, black, and Asian ethnic groups and estimated the proportion of UK white and black people developing dementia in 2015 who had a diagnosis for the first time in a UK-wide study. Methods: We analyzed primary care electronic health records from The Health Improvement Network database between 2007 and 2015 and compared incidence of dementia diagnosis to dementia incidence from community cohort studies. The study sample comprised of 2,511,681 individuals aged 50-105 years who did not have a dementia diagnosis prior to the start of follow-up. Results: A total of 66,083 individuals had a dementia diagnosis (4.87/1,000 person-years at risk, 95% CI 4.83-4.90); this incidence increased from 3.75 to 5.65/1,000 person-years at risk between 2007 and 2015. Compared with white women, the incidence of dementia diagnosis was 18% lower among Asian women (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.95) and 25% higher among black women (IRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46). For men, incidence of dementia diagnosis was 28% higher in the black ethnic group (IRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.08-1.50) and 12% lower in the Asian ethnic group (IRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76-1.01) relative to the white ethnic group. Based on diagnosis incidence in The Health Improvement Network data and projections of incidence from community cohort studies, we estimated that 42% of black men developing dementia in 2015 were diagnosed compared with 53% of white men. Conclusion: People from the black ethnic group had a higher incidence of dementia diagnosis and those from the Asian ethnic group had lower incidence compared with the white ethnic group. We estimated that black men developing dementia were less likely than white men to have a diagnosis of dementia, indicating that the increased risk of dementia diagnosis reported in the black ethnic group might underestimate the higher risk of dementia in this group. It is unclear whether the lower incidence of dementia diagnosis in the Asian ethnic group reflects lower community incidence or underdiagnosis. A cohort study to determine this is needed.

12.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2018: 1275329, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977285

RESUMO

The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) is aimed at reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality through early detection within a healthy population. This study explores how 5 people (three females) experience and make sense of their screen-detected diagnosis and the psychological implications of this diagnostic pathway. A biographical narrative interview method was used, and transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis with a phenomenological lens. Themes specifically relating to posttreatment experience and reflections are reported here: Do it: being living proof, Resisting the threat of recurrence, Rationalising bodily change, and Continuing life-"carrying on normally." Participants described their gratefulness to the BCSP, motivating a strong desire to persuade others to be screened. Furthermore, participants professed a duality of experience categorised by the normalisation of life after diagnosis and treatment and an identification of strength post cancer, as well as a difficulty adjusting to the new changes in life and a contrasting identity of frailty. Understanding both the long- and short-term impacts of a CRC diagnosis through screening is instrumental to the optimisation of support for patients. The results perhaps highlight a particular target for psychological distress reduction, which could reduce the direct and indirect cost of cancer to the patient.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 615, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency presentations (EP) represent over a third of all lung cancer admissions in England. Such presentations usually reflect late stage disease and are associated with poor survival. General practitioners (GPs) act as gate-keepers to secondary care and so we sought to understand the association between GP practice characteristics and lung cancer EP. METHODS: Data on general practice characteristics were extracted for all practices in England from the Quality Outcomes Framework, the Health and Social Care Information Centre, the GP Patient Survey, the Cancer Commissioning Toolkit and the area deprivation score for each practice. After linking these data to lung cancer patient registrations in 2006-2013, we explored trends in three types of EP, patient-led, GP-led and 'other', by general practice characteristics and by socio-demographic characteristics of patients. RESULTS: Overall proportions of lung cancer EP decreased from 37.9% in 2006 to 34.3% in 2013. Proportions of GP-led EP nearly halved during this period, from 28.3 to 16.3%, whilst patient-led emergency presentations rose from 62.1 to 66.7%. When focusing on practice-specific levels of EP, 14% of general practices had higher than expected proportions of EP at least once in 2006-13, but there was no evidence of clustering of patients within practice, meaning that none of the practice characteristics examined explained differing proportions of EP by practice. CONCLUSION: We found that the high proportion of lung cancer EP is not the result of a few practices with very abnormal patterns of EP, but of a large number of practices susceptible to reaching high proportions of EP. This suggests a system-wide issue, rather than problems with specific practices. High proportions of lung cancer EP are mainly the result of patient-initiated attendances in A&E. Our results demonstrate that interventions to encourage patients not to bypass primary care must be system wide rather than targeted at specific practices.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Medicina Geral/tendências , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e018625, 2018 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To categorically describe cancer research funding in the UK by gender of primary investigator (PIs). DESIGN: Systematic analysis of all open-access data. METHODS: Data about public and philanthropic cancer research funding awarded to UK institutions between 2000 and 2013 were obtained from several sources. Fold differences were used to compare total investment, award number, mean and median award value between male and female PIs. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to determine statistically significant associations between PI gender and median grant value. RESULTS: Of the studies included in our analysis, 2890 (69%) grants with a total value of £1.82 billion (78%) were awarded to male PIs compared with 1296 (31%) grants with a total value of £512 million (22%) awarded to female PIs. Male PIs received 1.3 times the median award value of their female counterparts (P<0.001). These apparent absolute and relative differences largely persisted regardless of subanalyses. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate substantial differences in cancer research investment awarded by gender. Female PIs clearly and consistently receive less funding than their male counterparts in terms of total investment, the number of funded awards, mean funding awarded and median funding awarded.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Pesquisadores/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sistemas , Reino Unido
15.
Health Expect ; 21(1): 41-56, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of delayed discharge on patients, health-care staff and hospital costs has been incompletely characterized. AIM: To systematically review experiences of delay from the perspectives of patients, health professionals and hospitals, and its impact on patients' outcomes and costs. METHODS: Four of the main biomedical databases were searched for the period 2000-2016 (February). Quantitative, qualitative and health economic studies conducted in OECD countries were included. RESULTS: Thirty-seven papers reporting data on 35 studies were identified: 10 quantitative, 8 qualitative and 19 exploring costs. Seven of ten quantitative studies were at moderate/low methodological quality; 6 qualitative studies were deemed reliable; and the 19 studies on costs were of moderate quality. Delayed discharge was associated with mortality, infections, depression, reductions in patients' mobility and their daily activities. The qualitative studies highlighted the pressure to reduce discharge delays on staff stress and interprofessional relationships, with implications for patient care and well-being. Extra bed-days could account for up to 30.7% of total costs and cause cancellations of elective operations, treatment delay and repercussions for subsequent services, especially for elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: The poor quality of the majority of the research means that implications for practice should be cautiously made. However, the results suggest that the adverse effects of delayed discharge are both direct (through increased opportunities for patients to acquire avoidable ill health) and indirect, secondary to the pressures placed on staff. These findings provide impetus to take a more holistic perspective to addressing delayed discharge.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Alta do Paciente/economia , Infecção Hospitalar/economia , Depressão/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências
16.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e017722, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since 2010, England has experienced relative constraints in public expenditure on healthcare (PEH) and social care (PES). We sought to determine whether these constraints have affected mortality rates. METHODS: We collected data on health and social care resources and finances for England from 2001 to 2014. Time trend analyses were conducted to compare the actual mortality rates in 2011-2014 with the counterfactual rates expected based on trends before spending constraints. Fixed-effects regression analyses were conducted using annual data on PES and PEH with mortality as the outcome, with further adjustments for macroeconomic factors and resources. Analyses were stratified by age group, place of death and lower-tier local authority (n=325). Mortality rates to 2020 were projected based on recent trends. RESULTS: Spending constraints between 2010 and 2014 were associated with an estimated 45 368 (95% CI 34 530 to 56 206) higher than expected number of deaths compared with pre-2010 trends. Deaths in those aged ≥60 and in care homes accounted for the majority. PES was more strongly linked with care home and home mortality than PEH, with each £10 per capita decline in real PES associated with an increase of 5.10 (3.65-6.54) (p<0.001) care home deaths per 100 000. These associations persisted in lag analyses and after adjustment for macroeconomic factors. Furthermore, we found that changes in real PES per capita may be linked to mortality mostly via changes in nurse numbers. Projections to 2020 based on 2009-2014 trend was cumulatively linked to an estimated 152 141 (95% CI 134 597 and 169 685) additional deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Spending constraints, especially PES, are associated with a substantial mortality gap. We suggest that spending should be targeted on improving care delivered in care homes and at home; and maintaining or increasing nurse numbers.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Previsões , Gastos em Saúde , Mortalidade/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Orçamentos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Br J Psychiatry ; 211(6): 388-395, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051176

RESUMO

BackgroundEvaluations of primary healthcare co-located welfare advice services have been methodologically limited.AimsTo examine the impact and cost-consequences of co-located benefits and debt advice on mental health and service use.MethodProspective, controlled quasi-experimental study in eight intervention and nine comparator sites across North Thames. Changes in the proportion meeting criteria for common mental disorder (CMD, 12-item General Health Questionnaire); well-being scores (Shortened Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), 3-month GP consultation rate and financial strain were measured alongside funding costs and financial gains.ResultsRelative to controls, CMD reduced among women (ratio of odds ratios (rOR) = 0.37, 95% CI 0.20-0.70) and Black advice recipients (rOR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.03-0.28). Individuals whose advice resulted in positive outcomes demonstrated improved well-being scores (ß coefficient 1.29, 95% CI 0.25-2.32). Reductions in financial strain (rOR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.77) but no changes in 3-month consultation rate were found. Per capita, advice recipients received £15 per £1 of funder investment.ConclusionsCo-located welfare advice improves short-term mental health and well-being, reduces financial strain and generates considerable financial returns.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Seguridade Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
F1000Res ; 6: 1033, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751970

RESUMO

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), an abrupt deterioration in kidney function, is defined by changes in urine output or serum creatinine. AKI is common (affecting up to 20% of acute hospital admissions in the United Kingdom), associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and expensive (excess costs to the National Health Service in England alone may exceed £1 billion per year). NHS England has mandated the implementation of an automated algorithm to detect AKI based on changes in serum creatinine, and to alert clinicians. It is uncertain, however, whether 'alerting' alone improves care quality. We have thus developed a digitally-enabled care pathway as a clinical service to inpatients in the Royal Free Hospital (RFH), a large London hospital. This pathway incorporates a mobile software application - the "Streams-AKI" app, developed by DeepMind Health - that applies the NHS AKI algorithm to routinely collected serum creatinine data in hospital inpatients. Streams-AKI alerts clinicians to potential AKI cases, furnishing them with a trend view of kidney function alongside other relevant data, in real-time, on a mobile device. A clinical response team comprising nephrologists and critical care nurses responds to these AKI alerts by reviewing individual patients and administering interventions according to existing clinical practice guidelines. We propose a mixed methods service evaluation of the implementation of this care pathway. This evaluation will assess how the care pathway meets the health and care needs of service users (RFH inpatients), in terms of clinical outcome, processes of care, and NHS costs. It will also seek to assess acceptance of the pathway by members of the response team and wider hospital community. All analyses will be undertaken by the service evaluation team from UCL (Department of Applied Health Research) and St George's, University of London (Population Health Research Institute).

19.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 543, 2017 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uptake of colorectal cancer screening is low in the English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Participation in screening is strongly associated with socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to determine whether a supplementary leaflet providing the 'gist' of guaiac-based Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt) screening for colorectal cancer could reduce the socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in uptake in the English NHS BCSP. METHODS: The trial was integrated within routine BCSP operations in November 2012. Using a cluster randomised controlled design all adults aged 59-74 years who were being routinely invited to complete the gFOBt were randomised based on day of invitation. The Index of Multiple Deprivation was used to create SES quintiles. The control group received the standard information booklet ('SI'). The intervention group received the SI booklet and the Gist leaflet ('SI + Gist') which had been designed to help people with lower literacy engage with the invitation. Blinding of hubs was not possible and invited subjects were not made aware of a comparator condition. The primary outcome was the gradient in uptake across IMD quintiles. RESULTS: In November 2012, 163,525 individuals were allocated to either the 'SI' intervention (n = 79,104) or the 'SI + Gist' group (n = 84,421). Overall uptake was similar between the intervention and control groups (SI: 57.3% and SI + Gist: 57.6%; OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.92-1.13, p = 0.77). Uptake was 42.0% (SI) vs. 43.0% (SI + Gist) in the most deprived quintile and 65.6% vs. 65.8% in the least deprived quintile (interaction p = 0.48). The SES gradient in uptake was similar between the study groups within age, gender, hub and screening round sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: Providing supplementary simplified information in addition to the standard information booklet did not reduce the SES gradient in uptake in the NHS BCSP. The effectiveness of the Gist leaflet when used alone should be explored in future research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN74121020 , registered: 17/20/2012.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Folhetos , Classe Social , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(2): e000157, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse how economic downturns affect child mortality both globally and among subgroups of countries of variable income levels. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study using economic data from the World Bank's Development Indicators and Global Development Finance (2013 edition). Child mortality data were sourced from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. SETTING: Global. PARTICIPANTS: 204 countries between 1981 and 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Child mortality, controlling for country-specific differences in political, healthcare, cultural, structural, educational and economic factors. RESULTS: 197 countries experienced at least 1 economic downturn between 1981 and 2010, with a mean of 7.97 downturns per country (range 0-21; SD 0.45). At the global level, downturns were associated with significant (p<0.0001) deteriorations in each child mortality measure, in comparison with non-downturn years: neonatal (coefficient: 1.11, 95% CI 0.855 to 1.37), postneonatal (2.00, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.38), child (2.93, 95% CI 2.26 to 3.60) and under 5 years of age (5.44, 95% CI 4.31 to 6.58) mortality rates. Stronger (larger falls in the growth rate of gross domestic product/capita) and longer (lasting 2 years rather than 1) downturns were associated with larger significant deteriorations (p<0.001). During economic downturns, countries in the poorest quartile experienced ∼1½ times greater deterioration in neonatal mortality, compared with their own baseline; a 3-fold deterioration in postneonatal mortality; a 9-fold deterioration in child mortality and a 3-fold deterioration in under-5 mortality, than countries in the wealthiest quartile (p<0.0005). For 1-5 years after downturns ended, each mortality measure continued to display significant deteriorations (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Economic downturns occur frequently and are associated with significant deteriorations in child mortality, with worse declines in lower income countries.

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