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1.
Blood Press ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are limited data available concerning the effects of lifetime risk factors and lifestyle on systemic hemodynamics, especially on systemic vascular resistance. The purpose of the study was to evaluate how lifetime cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose) and lifestyle factors (vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, smoking and physical activity) predict systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and cardiac index (CI) assessed in adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study cohort comprised 1635 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study followed up for 27 years since baseline (1980; aged 3-18 years, females 54.3%) who had risk factor and lifestyle data available since childhood. Systemic hemodynamics were measured in 2007 (aged 30-45 years) by whole-body impedance cardiography. RESULTS: In the multivariable regression analysis, independent predictors of the adulthood SVRI were childhood BMI, blood glucose, vegetable consumption, smoking, and physical activity (p ≤ .046 for all). Vegetable consumption, smoking, and physical activity remained significant when adjusted for corresponding adult data (p ≤ .036 for all). For the CI, independent predictors in childhood were BMI, systolic blood pressure, vegetable consumption, and physical activity (p ≤ .044 for all), and the findings remained significant after adjusting for corresponding adult data (p ≤ .046 for all). The number of childhood and adulthood risk factors and unfavourable lifestyle factors was directly associated with the SVRI (p < .001) in adulthood. A reduction in the number of risk factors and unfavourable lifestyle factors or a favourable change in BMI status from childhood to adulthood was associated with a lower SVRI in adulthood (p < .001). CONCLUSION: Childhood BMI, blood glucose, vegetable consumption, smoking and physical activity independently predict systemic vascular resistance in adulthood. A favourable change in the number of risk factors or BMI from childhood to adulthood was associated with lower vascular resistance in adulthood.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617340

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The longitudinal influence of parental leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on their offspring's LTPA is poorly understood. This study examined the longitudinal associations between parental LTPA and offspring's LTPA at two-time intervals. METHOD: Child (offspring) participants (N=3596) were enrolled from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 1980. Their LTPA was self-rated through nine phases from baseline to 2018 and categorized by year into youth (1980-1986) and adult (1992-2018) LTPA. Parental LTPA was assessed with a single self-reported question at three phases from 1980 to 1986. Latent growth curve modeling stratified by gender was fitted to estimate the potential pathways between parental LTPA and offspring's youth and adult LTPA. RESULTS: Higher initial levels of paternal and maternal LTPA were independently associated with greater initial levels of youth and adult LTPA of offspring in both genders respectively, except maternal LTPA that did not associate with male offspring's adult LTPA. The initial levels of paternal LTPA were directly related to changes in male offspring's youth LTPA after adjusting for age, residential place, paternal education and occupation, having siblings, and offspring's body mass index. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that the initial levels of parental LTPA are directly linked to the initial levels of offspring's LTPA during youth and adulthood, while changes in parental LTPA are unrelated to changes in offspring's youth and adult LTPA for either gender over time. These results imply that higher initial levels of LTPA in parents may serve as a predictor of offspring's LTPA across life stages.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; 336: 32-38, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an intracellular enzyme associated with artery wall inflammation. Previous studies have verified correlation between IDO activity and early signs of atherosclerosis especially in females. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between an estimate of IDO activity and atherosclerotic risk factors related to non-alchohol-fatty liver (NAFLD) in a 6- and 10-year follow-up. METHODS: Estimates of IDO activity along with complete risk factor data were measured from females (n = 506; age 24-39) and males (n = 421; age 24-39) in 2001. Risk factor measurements were conducted again in 2007 and 2011. Statistical examinations were carried out by Pearson correlation and risk ratio analysis. RESULTS: In females, age-adjusted IDO correlated with body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.0008), waist (p = 0.0009), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.0014) and logarithmically modified triglycerides (p = 0.0488) in 2007. Correlation remained significant with BMI (p = 0.0007) and waist (p = 0.0063) in 2011. In males, age-adjusted IDO correlated with waist (p = 0.0367) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.0489) in 2007. Correlation remained significant with HDL-C (p = 0.0348) in 2011. In risk ratio analysis, relationship between IDO and obesity was confirmed in females after 10 years (RR = 1.026, p = 0.0147, 95% CI) and in males after 6 and 10 years (RR = 1.019, p = 0.0091, 95% CI and RR = 1.015, p = 0.0404, 95% CI, respectively) when the data was adjusted for age and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: IDO activity correlated with obesity and factors related to NAFLD, namely obesity of visceral type, hypertriglyceridemia and CRP (in females), well-characterized risk factors for diabetes and atherosclerosis in 6- and 10-year follow-up in males and premenopausal females.

4.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics hypertension Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG), compared with the previous guideline ("Fourth Report"), on the frequency of hypertensive blood pressure (BP) measurements in childhood and associations with hypertension in adulthood using data from the International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium. STUDY DESIGN: Childhood BPs were categorized in normal, prehypertensive/elevated, and hypertensive (stage 1 and 2) ranges using the Fourth Report and the CPG. Participants were contacted in adulthood to assess self-reported hypertension. The associations between childhood hypertensive range BPs and self-reported adult hypertension were evaluated. RESULTS: Data were available for 34 014 youth (10.4 ± 3.1 years, 50.6% female) with 92 751 BP assessments. Compared with the Fourth Report, the CPG increased hypertensive readings from 7.6% to 13.5% and from 1.3% to 2.5% for stage 1 and 2 hypertensive range, respectively (P < .0001). Of 12 761 adults (48.8 ± 7.9 years, 43% male), 3839 (30.1%) had self-reported hypertension. The sensitivity for predicting adult hypertension among those with hypertensive range BPs at any point in childhood, as defined by the Fourth Report and the CPG, respectively, was 13.4% and 22.4% (specificity 92.3% and 85.9%, P < .001), with no significant impact on positive and negative predictive values. Associations with self-reported adult hypertension were similar and weak (c-statistic range 0.61-0.68) for hypertensive range BPs as defined by the Fourth Report and CPG. CONCLUSIONS: The CPG significantly increased the prevalence of childhood BPs in hypertensive ranges and improved the sensitivity, without an overall strengthened association, of predicting self-reported adult hypertension.

5.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63(6): e22184, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423428

RESUMO

The development of compassion for others might be influenced by the social experiences made during childhood and has a genetic component. No research has yet investigated whether the parent-child relationship quality interacts with genetic variation in the oxytocin and dopamine systems in predicting compassion over the life span. In the prospective Young Finns Study (N = 2099, 43.9% men), we examined the interaction between mother-reported emotional warmth and intolerance toward their child assessed in 1980 (age of participants, 3-18 years) and two established genetic risk scores for oxytocin levels and dopamine signaling activity. Dispositional compassion for others was measured with the Temperament and Character Inventory 1997, 2001, and 2012 (age of participants, 20-50 years). We found a gene-environment interaction (p = .031) that remained marginally significant after adjustment for multiple testing. In line with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, only participants who carry alleles associated with low dopamine signaling activity had higher levels of compassion when growing up with emotionally warm parents, whereas they had lower levels of compassion when their parents were emotionally cold. Children's genetic variability in the dopamine system might result in plasticity to early environmental influences that have a long-lasting effect on the development of compassion. However, our findings need replication.

6.
J Hypertens ; 39(9): 1865-1875, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within-visit SBP variability is associated with age and SBP, but its long-term clinical significance is unknown. We examined the association between child, adult, and life-time within-visit SBP variability with markers of end-organ damage using data from a 31-year longitudinal study. METHODS: Within-visit SBP variability was calculated as the standard deviation of three sitting SBP readings among up to 3010 participants aged 6-18 years (childhood) who were re-measured up to seven times to mid-adulthood. Markers of cardiovascular end-organ damage in adulthood were carotid intima--media thickness, brachial flow-mediated dilatation, carotid distensibility, pulse wave velocity, left ventricular mass index, carotid plaque, and coronary artery calcification. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) cumulative within-visit SBP variability was 2.7 (1.5) mmHg in childhood, 3.9 (1.9) mmHg in adulthood and 3.7 (1.5) mmHg across the observed life-time. Childhood within-visit SBP variability was not correlated with its subsequent values measured from 3 to 31 years later. With adjustment for age, sex, cumulative SBP, BMI and serum lipids, neither child, adult, or life-time cumulative within-visit SBP variability associated with markers of cardiovascular end-organ damage. However, higher child, adult, and life-time cumulative SBP significantly associated with higher carotid intima--media thickness, higher pulse wave velocity, lower brachial flow-mediated dilatation, lower carotid distensibility in adulthood. CONCLUSION: Within-visit SBP variability from childhood to adulthood does not provide additional predictive utility over SBP over the same period of the life course.

7.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1256-1264, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309471

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the association between overweight/obesity and fatty liver index (FLI) on the odds of incident prediabetes/type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020 participants after 10 years follow up. METHODS: At baseline (in 2001) 2020 participants, males and females, aged 24-39 years, were stratified according to body mass index (BMI), normal weight (<25 kg/m2), overweight (≥25-<30 kg/m2), or obese (≥30 kg/m2) and FLI (as high FLI ≥60 or low FLI <60). We examined the incidence of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes and NAFLD (ultrasound assessed) over 10 years to 2011 to determine the relative impact of FLI and BMI. RESULTS: 514 and 52 individuals developed prediabetes and type 2 diabetes during follow-up. Such individuals were older, with higher BMI, serum glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations than those who did not develop prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (n = 1454). The additional presence of high FLI significantly increased the risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes above the risk of being overweight/obese. Compared with normal weight, low FLI participants, the odds of prediabetes were ∼2-fold higher and the odds of type 2 diabetes were 9-10-fold higher respectively in the overweight/obese, high FLI group. No difference was observed between normal weight, low FLI and overweight/obese and low FLI groups. CONCLUSIONS: An increased FLI significantly increases the odds of incident prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and NAFLD in individuals with overweight/obese highlighting the contributory role of liver fat accumulation in the pathophysiology of prediabetes/type 2 diabetes.Key messagesObesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.Additionally, NAFLD is more prevalent in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes when compared to age- and BMI-matched individuals.The presence of a raised fatty liver index (FLI) confers a significantly increased risk of developing prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and NAFLD above that conferred by being overweight/obese.The degree of elevation of FLI can risk stratify for incident prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in people with obesity.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003288, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element binding protein) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the CHREBP locus have separately been linked to HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that SSB consumption would modify the association between genetic variants in the CHREBP locus and dyslipidemia. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (N=63 599) and the UK Biobank (N=59 220) were used to quantify associations of SSB consumption, genetic variants, and their interaction on HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations using linear regression models. A total of 1606 single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near CHREBP were considered. SSB consumption was estimated from validated questionnaires, and participants were grouped by their estimated intake. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis, rs71556729 was significantly associated with higher HDL-C concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.16-3.07] mg/dL per allele; P<0.0001), but not significantly among the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.81; PDiff <0.0001). Similar results were observed for 2 additional variants (rs35709627 and rs71556736). For triglyceride, rs55673514 was positively associated with triglyceride concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 0.06 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09] ln-mg/dL per allele, P=0.001) but not the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.84; PDiff=0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified genetic variants in the CHREBP locus that may protect against SSB-associated reductions in HDL-C and other variants that may exacerbate SSB-associated increases in triglyceride concentrations. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005133, NCT00005121, NCT00005487, and NCT00000479.

9.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(8): 1615-1623, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the tracking and changes of steps per day in adults and their determinants over 13 yr. METHODS: A total of 2195 subjects (1236 women) 30-45 yr of age were randomly recruited from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 2007 and were followed up in 2020. Steps per day, including both total and aerobic steps per day, were monitored for seven consecutive days with a pedometer in 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 and with an accelerometer in 2018-2020. Tracking was analyzed using Spearman's correlation. Stability and changes of steps per day over time in both low-active and high-active groups (based on median values) were described by percentage agreements, kappa statistics, and logistic regression. Associations of sex, age, and body mass index with the initial number and changes in steps per day were analyzed using linear growth curve modeling. RESULTS: Tracking correlations of total steps per day at 4-, 9-, and 13-yr intervals were 0.45-0.66, 0.33-0.70, and 0.29-0.60, while corresponding correlations for aerobic steps per day were 0.28-0.55, 0.23-0.52, and 0.08-0.55, respectively. Percentage agreements were higher than 54%, and kappa statistics ranged from slight to fair over time. Compared with the low-active group, the high-active group at baseline had a higher probability of being active later in adulthood. Female sex and higher age were associated directly with the initial number of steps per day and inversely with changes in the number of steps per day. Body mass index was inversely associated with the initial number of steps per day and changes in the number of total steps per day. CONCLUSION: The 13-yr tracking of steps per day in adulthood was found to be low to moderately high. Daily ambulatory activity is essential to maintaining an active lifestyle throughout adulthood. Changes in the amount of adult steps per day vary by sex, age, and BMI.


Assuntos
Caminhada , Actigrafia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Finlândia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Sci Adv ; 7(29)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261659

RESUMO

Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway reprograms energy metabolism. Hemoglobin (Hb) is the main carrier of oxygen. Using its normal variation as a surrogate measure for hypoxia, we explored whether lower Hb levels could lead to healthier metabolic profiles in mice and humans (n = 7175) and used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate potential causality (n = 173,480). The results showed evidence for lower Hb levels being associated with lower body mass index, better glucose tolerance and other metabolic profiles, lower inflammatory load, and blood pressure. Expression of the key HIF target genes SLC2A4 and Slc2a1 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, respectively, associated with systolic blood pressure in MR analyses and body weight, liver weight, and adiposity in mice. Last, manipulation of murine Hb levels mediated changes to key metabolic parameters. In conclusion, low-end normal Hb levels may be favorable for metabolic health involving mild chronic activation of the HIF response.

11.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(4): 545-553, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238623

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood declines in cardiovascular health have been linked to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis; however, less is known about the timing and sequence of the decline of the specific cardiovascular health components. The study objective is to identify the patterns of decline and associations with adulthood subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Data were pooled from 5 cardiovascular cohorts. Clinical components of cardiovascular health (BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose) were categorized as ideal or nonideal using American Heart Association definitions. Multitrajectory models simultaneously fitted the probability ideal for each factor. Adjusted associations between trajectory groups and carotid intima-media thickness were modeled. Data were pooled from December 1, 2015 to June 1, 2019; statistical analysis occurred between June 1, 2019 and June 1, 2020. RESULTS: This study included 9,388 individuals (55% female, 66% White). A total of 5 distinct trajectory groups were created: 1 maintained the ideal levels of all the 4 health factors, 2 had risk onset of a single factor in childhood, 1 had risk onset of multiple factors in childhood, and 1 had risk onset in adulthood. Those with childhood multiple risk onset had 8.1% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.067, 0.095) than those in the ideal group, childhood cholesterol risk onset had 5.9% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.045, 0.072), childhood BMI risk onset had 5.5% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.041, 0.069), and early adulthood multiple risk onset had 2.7% higher carotid intima-media thickness (95% CI=0.013, 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Those who lost the ideal status of cardiovascular health in childhood and early adulthood had more subclinical atherosclerosis than those who retained the ideal cardiovascular health across the life course, underscoring the importance of preserving the ideal cardiovascular health beginning in childhood and continued into adulthood.


Assuntos
Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091768

RESUMO

Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an index of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). We undertook a cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of measures of cIMT in 6400 individuals. Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the potential causal role of DNA methylation in the link between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT or clinical cardiovascular disease. The CpG site cg05575921 was associated with cIMT (beta = -0.0264, p value = 3.5 × 10-8) in the discovery panel and was replicated in replication panel (beta = -0.07, p value = 0.005). This CpG is located at chr5:81649347 in the intron 3 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR). Our results indicate that DNA methylation at cg05575921 might be in the pathway between smoking, cIMT and stroke. Moreover, in a region-based analysis, 34 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified of which a DMR upstream of ALOX12 showed the strongest association with cIMT (p value = 1.4 × 10-13). In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease.

13.
Bone ; 151: 116030, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are complex multifactorial diseases sharing common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms suggesting that these are comorbidities. Omics studies identifying joint molecular markers associated with these diseases are sparse. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 437 molecular lipid species from the Young Finns Study cohort (aged 30-45 years and 57% women) and performed lipidome-wide multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with early markers for both diseases. Carotid intima-media thickness for atherosclerosis measured with ultrasound and bone mineral density from distal radius and tibia for osteoporosis measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography were used as early markers of the diseases. RESULTS: MANOVA adjusted with age, sex and body mass index, identified eight statistically significant (adjusted p-value (padj) < 0.05) and 15 suggestively significant (padj < 0.25) molecular lipid species associated with the studied markers. Similar analysis adjusted additionally for smoking habit, physical activity and alcohol consumption identified four significant and six suggestively significant molecular lipid species. These most significant lipid classes/species jointly associated with the studied markers were glycerolipid/TAG(18:0/18:0/18:1), glycerophospholipid/PC(40:3), sphingolipid/Gb3(d18:1/22:0), and sphingolipid/Gb3(d18:1/24:0). CONCLUSION: Our results support the osteoporosis-atherosclerosis comorbidity hypothesis and present potential new joint lipid biomarkers for these diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Osteoporose , Biomarcadores , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Comorbidade , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lipidômica , Masculino , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Pediatr ; 237: 87-95.e1, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of number of siblings on cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and in adulthood. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 3554 participants (51% female) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with cardiovascular disease risk factor data at baseline 1980 (age 3-18 years) and 2491 participants with longitudinal risk factor data at the 2011 follow-up. Participants were categorized by number of siblings at baseline (0, 1, or more than 1). Risk factors (body mass index, physical activity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight, and metabolic syndrome) in childhood and in adulthood were used as outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: In childhood, participants without siblings had higher body mass index (18.2 kg/m2, 95% CI 18.0-18.3) than those with 1 sibling (17.9 kg/m2, 95% CI 17.8-18.0) or more than 1 sibling (17.8 kg/m2, 95% CI 17.7-17.9). Childhood physical activity index was lower among participants without siblings (SD -0.08, 95% CI -0.16-0.00) compared with participants with 1 sibling (SD 0.06, 95%CI 0.01-0.11) or more than 1 sibling (SD -0.02, 95% CI -0.07-0.03). OR for adulthood hypertension was lower among participants with 1 sibling (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.98) and more than 1 sibling (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.97) compared with participants with no siblings. OR for obesity was lower among participants with 1 sibling (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.95) and more than 1 sibling (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.56-1.01) compared with those with no siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Children without siblings had poorer cardiovascular risk factor levels in childhood and in adulthood. The number of siblings could help identify individuals at increased risk that might benefit from early intervention.

15.
Circulation ; 143(20): 1949-1961, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, adverse serum lipids, and elevated body mass index in midlife, may harm cognitive performance. It is important to note that longitudinal accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors since childhood may be associated with cognitive performance already since childhood, but the previous evidence is scarce. We studied the associations of cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to midlife, their accumulation, and midlife cognitive performance. METHODS: From 1980, a population-based cohort of 3596 children (3-18 years of age) have been repeatedly followed up for 31 years. Blood pressure, serum lipids, and body mass index were assessed in all follow-ups. Cardiovascular risk factor trajectories from childhood to midlife were identified using latent class growth mixture modeling. Cognitive testing was performed in 2026 participants 34 to 49 years of age using a computerized test. The associations of the cardiovascular risk factor trajectories and cognitive performance were studied for individual cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular risk factor accumulation. RESULTS: Consistently high systolic blood pressure (ß=-0.262 SD [95% CI, -0.520 to -0.005]) and serum total cholesterol (ß=-0.214 SD [95% CI, -0.365 to -0.064]) were associated with worse midlife episodic memory and associative learning compared with consistently low values. Obesity since childhood was associated with worse visual processing and sustained attention (ß=-0.407 SD [95% CI, -0.708 to -0.105]) compared with normal weight. An inverse association was observed for the cardiovascular risk factor accumulation with episodic memory and associative learning (P for trend=0.008; 3 cardiovascular risk factors: ß=-0.390 SD [95% CI, -0.691 to -0.088]), with visual processing and sustained attention (P for trend<0.0001; 3 cardiovascular risk factors: ß=-0.443 SD [95% CI, -0.730 to -0.157]), and with reaction and movement time (P for trend=0.048; 2 cardiovascular risk factors: ß=-0.164 SD [95% CI, -0.318 to -0.010]). CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal elevated systolic blood pressure, high serum total cholesterol, and obesity from childhood to midlife were inversely associated with midlife cognitive performance. It is important to note that the higher the number of cardiovascular risk factors, the worse was the observed cognitive performance. Therefore, launching preventive strategies against cardiovascular risk factors beginning from childhood might benefit primordial promotion of cognitive health in adulthood.

16.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(6): 601-609, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830181

RESUMO

Importance: Uncertainty currently exists about whether the same genetic variants are associated with susceptibility to low myopia (LM) and high myopia (HM) and to myopia and hyperopia. Addressing this question is fundamental to understanding the genetics of refractive error and has clinical relevance for genotype-based prediction of children at risk for HM and for identification of new therapeutic targets. Objective: To assess whether a common set of genetic variants are associated with susceptibility to HM, LM, and hyperopia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genetic association study assessed unrelated UK Biobank participants 40 to 69 years of age of European and Asian ancestry. Participants 40 to 69 years of age living in the United Kingdom were recruited from January 1, 2006, to October 31, 2010. Of the total sample of 502 682 participants, 117 279 (23.3%) underwent an ophthalmic assessment. Data analysis was performed from December 12, 2019, to June 23, 2020. Exposures: Four refractive error groups were defined: HM, -6.00 diopters (D) or less; LM, -3.00 to -1.00 D; hyperopia, +2.00 D or greater; and emmetropia, 0.00 to +1.00 D. Four genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses were performed in participants of European ancestry: (1) HM vs emmetropia, (2) LM vs emmetropia, (3) hyperopia vs emmetropia, and (4) LM vs hyperopia. Polygenic risk scores were generated from GWAS summary statistics, yielding 4 sets of polygenic risk scores. Performance was assessed in independent replication samples of European and Asian ancestry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs) of polygenic risk scores in replication samples. Results: A total of 51 841 unrelated individuals of European ancestry and 2165 unrelated individuals of Asian ancestry were assigned to a specific refractive error group and included in our analyses. Polygenic risk scores derived from all 4 GWAS analyses were predictive of all categories of refractive error in both European and Asian replication samples. For example, the polygenic risk score derived from the HM vs emmetropia GWAS was predictive in the European sample of HM vs emmetropia (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.41-1.77; P = 1.54 × 10-15) as well as LM vs emmetropia (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23; P = 8.14 × 10-5), hyperopia vs emmetropia (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.89; P = 4.18 × 10-7), and LM vs hyperopia (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.33-1.59; P = 1.43 × 10-16). Conclusions and Relevance: Genetic risk variants were shared across HM, LM, and hyperopia and across European and Asian samples. Individuals with HM inherited a higher number of variants from among the same set of myopia-predisposing alleles and not different risk alleles compared with individuals with LM. These findings suggest that treatment interventions targeting common genetic risk variants associated with refractive error could be effective against both LM and HM.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7111, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782480

RESUMO

We analysed whole blood genome-wide expression data to identify gene co-expression modules shared by early traits of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Gene expression was profiled for the Young Finns Study participants. Bone mineral density and content were measured as early traits of osteoporosis. Carotid and bulbus intima media thickness were measured as early traits of atherosclerosis. Joint association of the modules, identified with weighted co-expression analysis, with early traits of the diseases was tested with multivariate analysis. Among the six modules significantly correlated with early traits of both the diseases, two had significant (adjusted p-values (p.adj) < 0.05) and another two had suggestively significant (p.adj < 0.25) joint association with the two diseases after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The three most significant member genes from the significant modules were NOSIP, GXYLT2, and TRIM63 (p.adj ≤ 0.18). Genes in the modules were enriched with biological processes that have separately been found to be involved in either bone metabolism or atherosclerosis. The gene modules and their most significant member genes identified in this study support the osteoporosis-atherosclerosis comorbidity hypothesis and can provide new joint biomarkers for both diseases and their dual prevention.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 533, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) facilitates individuals' adoption of multiple healthy behaviors remains scarce. This study investigated the associations of diverse longitudinal LTPA trajectories from childhood to adulthood with diet, screen time, smoking, binge drinking, sleep difficulties, and sleep duration in adulthood. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants were aged 9-18 years (N = 3553; 51% females) in 1980 and 33-49 years at the latest follow-up in 2011. The LTPA trajectories were identified using a latent profile analysis. Differences in self-reported health-related behaviors across the LTPA trajectories were studied separately for women and men by using the Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars approach. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, education level, marital status, total energy intake and previous corresponding behaviors. RESULTS: Persistently active, persistently low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified in both genders and an additional inactive trajectory for women. After adjusting the models with the above-mentioned covariates, the inactive women had an unhealthier diet than the women in the other trajectories (p <  0.01; effect size (ES) > 0.50). The low-active men followed an unhealthier diet than the persistently and increasingly active men (p <  0.01; ES > 0.50). Compared to their inactive and low-active peers, smoking frequency was lower in the increasingly active women and men (p <  0.01; ES > 0.20) and persistently active men (p <  0.05; ES > 0.20). The increasingly active men reported lower screen time than the low-active (p <  0.001; ES > 0.50) and persistently active (p <  0.05; ES > 0.20) men. The increasingly and persistently active women reported fewer sleep difficulties than the inactive (p <  0.001; ES > 0.80) and low-active (p <  0.05; ES > 0.50 and > 0.80, respectively) women. Sleep duration and binge drinking were not associated with the LTPA trajectories in either gender, nor were sleep difficulties in men and screen time in women. CONCLUSIONS: Not only persistently higher LTPA but also an increasing tendency to engage in LTPA after childhood/adolescence were associated with healthier diet and lower smoking frequency in both genders, having less sleep difficulties in women and lower screen time in increasingly active men. Inactivity and low activity were associated with the accumulation of several unhealthy behaviors in adulthood. Associations were stronger in women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Finlândia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Hypertens ; 39(5): 961-969, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Heart disease is the most common cause of death in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Emerging data have shown that NAFLD may affect subclinical myocardial remodeling, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy; however, evidence from the prospective studies is still lacking. METHODS: Prospective analyses were performed to investigate the association of fatty liver index (FLI) with left ventricular mass (LVM) among 1962 participants from the Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS, 1995-2010) and 1547 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS, 2001-2011) free of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) at baseline. LVM was assessed by two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiography and indexed (LVMI) to body height (m2.7). Multivariable regression models were applied after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. RESULTS: In both cohorts, we observed significant and positive associations between FLI and LVM (BHS: ß=0.59, P < 0.001; YFS: ß=0.41, P < 0.001) and LVMI (BHS: ß=0.14, P < 0.001; YFS: ß=0.09, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that the relationship between FLI and LVMI was stronger in women than men (BHS: P-interaction = 0.01; YFS: P-interaction < 0.01); and the relationship between FLI and LVM/LVMI was stronger in black than white individuals (LVM: P-interaction = 0.02; LVMI: P-interaction = 0.04). Moreover, we found that the associations of FLI with LVM and LVMI were attenuated by high physical activity, especially in BHS (P-interaction = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings from two independent prospective cohorts indicate that FLI is positively associated with LVM/LVMI, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Such relationships are more pronounced among women and black individuals and are attenuated by high physical activity.

20.
J Nutr ; 151(4): 970-978, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The links between fatty acids (FAs) and cardiometabolic outcomes are topics of debate. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the associations between serum standardized FA percentages and cardiometabolic outcomes. METHODS: We used cross-sectional (n = 2187-2200 subjects, age 24-39 y, women 54%) and 10-year prospective data (n = 975-1414 subjects) from the Young Finns Study. Outcomes included prevalent and incident obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index in the upper quintile), elevated blood pressure (BP; taking medication, or diastolic or systolic BP in the upper quintile), and incident nonalcoholic fatty liver. Logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs per SD increase in fatty acids (FAs). The models were adjusted for age and sex, and additionally for other potential confounders. RESULTS: Several cross-sectional findings were also statistically significant in prospective models (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.003). In fully-adjusted models for obesity, these consisted of SFAs (OR: 1.28) and MUFAs (OR: 1.38), including palmitoleic (OR: 1.39) and oleic acids (OR: 1.37). Furthermore, PUFAs (OR: 0.70), including linoleic (OR: 0.67) and docosahexaenoic acids (OR: 0.75), were inversely related with obesity, whereas γ-linolenic acid (OR: 1.32) was positively associated with obesity. In age- and sex-adjusted models for insulin resistance, MUFAs (OR: 1.26) and oleic acid (OR: 1.25) were positively, and PUFAs (OR: 0.81), particularly linoleic acid (OR: 0.78), were inversely associated with HOMA-IR. Similarly with elevated BP, palmitic acid (OR: 1.22), MUFAs (OR: 1.28), and oleic acid (OR: 1.28) were positively associated with elevated BP, whereas PUFAs (OR: 0.77), n-6 (omega-6) PUFAs (OR: 0.79), and linoleic acid (OR: 0.77) were inversely associated. In fully-adjusted models for incident fatty liver, the most consistent predictors were high palmitic (OR: 1.61) and low linoleic acid (OR: 0.63) percentages. The n-6/n-3 (omega-3) PUFA ratio was not linked with any adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: High serum percentages of total SFAs and MUFAs and low PUFAs, but also several specific FAs, predict future unfavorable cardiometabolic outcomes in Finnish adults.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Finlândia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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