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1.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 22(1): 100, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have assessed the relationship between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and tooth loss; however, results have been inconsistent. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was designed to examine the association between T2D and tooth loss. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guideline. We searched all the relevant studies in international databases of Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar search engine until February 2022. The heterogeneity of the studies was calculated using the I2 index. Measure of effect and 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted from each study. The results of the study were analyzed using the random effects model. RESULTS: In the present study, 22 eligible studies were included. Meta-analysis of unadjusted and adjusted results showed that T2D significantly increased the risk of tooth loss, and Odds Ratio (OR) unadjusted was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.62-2.13, p < 0.001), and OR adjusted was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10-1.30, p < 0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis based on study design for adjusted OR indicated that in the cohort study (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.07-1.51), in the cross-sectional study (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.23), and in the case-control study (OR: 5.10, 95% CI: 1.01-9.18) there was a significant association between T2D and tooth loss. Other subgroups analyses showed consistent results and no publication bias existed. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that T2D is associated with increased risk of tooth loss. This conclusion may provide useful evidence for correlated clinical researches.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Perda de Dente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/etiologia
2.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 85, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most significant cardiovascular diseases that requires accurate angiography to diagnose. Angiography is an invasive approach involving risks like death, heart attack, and stroke. An appropriate alternative for diagnosis of the disease is to use statistical or data mining methods. The purpose of the study was to predict CAD by using discriminant analysis and compared with the logistic regression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 758 cases admitted to Fatemeh Zahra Teaching Hospital (Sari, Iran) for examination and coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD in 2019. A logistics discriminant, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) were fitted for prognosis of CAD with the help of clinical and laboratory information of patients. RESULTS: Out of the 758 examined cases, 250 (32.98%) cases were non-CAD and 508 (67.22%) were diagnosed with CAD disease. The results indicated that the indices of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) in the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were 78.6, 81.3, 71.3, and 81.9%, respectively. The results obtained by the quadratic discriminant analysis were respectively 64.6, 88.2, 47.9, and 81%. The values of the metrics in K-nearest neighbor method were 74, 77.5, 63.7, and 82%, respectively. Finally, the logistic regression reached 77, 87.6, 55.6, and 82%, respectively for the evaluation metrics. CONCLUSIONS: The LDA method is superior to the Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Logistic Regression (LR) methods in differentiating CAD patients. Therefore, in addition to common non-invasive diagnostic methods, LDA technique is recommended as a predictive model with acceptable accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the diagnosis of CAD. However, given that the differences between the models are small, it is recommended to use each model to predict CAD disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
3.
Spec Care Dentist ; 42(2): 149-154, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561867

RESUMO

AIM: Parents are the principal decision-makers regarding their child's health. Awareness of mothers' view about their children's health, particularly with special health care needs (SHCN) (include hearing impaired children), is essential for health care providers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the mothers view about oral health status, oral hygiene practices, and dental services utilization of their children with hearing impairment attending special schools. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and September 2020 among mothers of students with hearing impairment attending special schools. Also, the telephone structured interview was used to gathering mothers view. RESULTS: 57.4% of the mothers rated their children's oral health status as excellent or good, 27.9% as moderate, and 14.7% as poor. About half of the mothers (49.2%) stated that their children used toothbrushes once daily, and 15% use dental floss. Also, 54% of the children visited the dentist before this survey's conduct. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggest that children with hearing impairment can also have good oral health status and behaviors. These results may be attributed to the fact that the study sample was taken from two special schools. Also, only the mothers' perception assessment of students' oral health status was done. Further studies are required to increase the strength of evidence.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Perda Auditiva , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; 30(1): 245-247, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355606
5.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E298-E304, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia and risk factors associated for mortality. METHODS: In this study, we included inpatient with acute respiratory distress syndrome at Golestan Hospitals who had been discharged or had died in 2020. Epidemiological, and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between recovered and died cases. We used multiple logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. RESULTS: Overall 2,835 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were included in this study, and 874 (30.83%) were positive for 2019-nCoV. Five hundred and sixty-three patients (19.86%) died, 1,687 patients (59.51%) were recovered. Of the total deaths, only 288 (10.15%) were attributed to COVID-19. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were respiratory distress [1,795 (63.32%)], fever [1,601 (56.47%)], dry cough [1,595 (56.26%)], sore throat [445 (15.70%)], and myalgia [342 (12.06%)]. One thousand and twelve (35.7%) had 1 or more coexisting medical conditions. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with the death included older age [OR (Odds Ratio) = 1.03; 95% CI; 1.02-1.04], blood oxygen level (SPO2 < 93%) (OR = 2.44; 95% CI; 1.79-3.31), comorbidities (OR = 2.15; 95% CI; 1.62-2.84), respiratory distress (OR = 1.74; 95% CI; 1.28-2.37), and headache (OR = 0.44 95% CI; 0.21-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: The 2019-nCoV infection caused collections of severe respiratory illness and was associated to a high ratio of hospitalization in ICU and high mortality. Older age and comorbidities were associated with more risk of death among patients with 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Future Virol ; 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589135

RESUMO

Aim: Many factors have been speculated to explain the COVID-19 complex clinical phenotype. Due to the inconsistent data published on blood groups and COVID-19, we conducted a study on Iranian patients to further assess this association. Materials & methods: This retrospective study was conducted on data collected from confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients during March and December 2020 in a referral hospital for COVID-19, 5 Azar Hospital, Gorgan, north of Iran. A total of 1554 confirmed COVID-19 cases were enrolled in the study with blood group (ABO and Rh), demographic, and clinical data available. Results: Of 1554 patients, 1267 and 287 cases had recovered and deceased (due to COVID-19) outcomes, respectively. Most of the cases had O+ (29.6%), the least number had AB- (0.5%), and most of the deceased cases had O+ blood types (31.4%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that groups A- and B- had higher and groups B+, AB+, O+ and O- had lower odds of death than the A+ group. Conclusion: This study indicates that blood types may be related to the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Further studies with a large cohort for multiple people are required to validate this association.

7.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1331-1338, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between viral load and the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD and GD), the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and the recovery of OD and GD in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted on 599 outpatients' cases in Golestan province between February and June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence, severity (complete or partial) and recovery time of OD and GD and their associations with cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction were assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 38.27 ± 13.62 years. The incidence of general symptoms included myalgia 70.1%, headache 51.8%, fever 47.7% and dyspnoea 21.4%. 41.9% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain 26.5%, diarrhoea 25.2%, nausea 20.5% and vomiting 12.9%. 12.2% of patients had comorbidity. The trimester recovery rates of OD and GD were 93.94% and 94.74% respectively. The mean recovery time of OD and GD was 14.56 ± 13.37 and 13.8 ± 3.77 days respectively. The mean CT value in all patients was 27.45 ± 4.55. There were significant associations between the mean of CT value with headache (p = 0.04), GD (p = 0.002) and OD (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this study indicates a possible association between viral load with incidence of OD and GD in COVID-19 patient's cases and assures the recovery of OD/GD in these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
8.
Clin Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(1): 15, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between H. pylori infection and obesity development has remained controversial among various studies. The aim of this study was to clarify the pooled effect of H. pylori infection on the development of obesity and vice versa. METHODS: We searched international databases including Medline (PubMed), Web of sciences, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Ovid, and CINHAL to retrieve all case-control studies reporting the effect of H. pylori on obesity and vice versa, which had been published in English between January 1990 and June 2019. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for Case-Control studies. The logarithm of the odds ratio (OR) and its standard error was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eight case-control studies with 25,519 participants were included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. The pooled analysis showed that obese participants had a higher risk of H. pylori infection than lean participants with an odds ratio of 1.46 (95%CI: 1.26, 1.68). Also, the pooled analysis revealed that participants infected by H. pylori had a higher risk of obesity than non-infected participants with an odds ratio of 1.01 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.02). CONCLUSION: The results of this meta-analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between the risk of H. pylori infection and the prevalence of obesity development. Thus, H. pylori positive patients were more likely to be obese, and obese individuals had higher risks of H. pylori infection.

9.
Rev Environ Health ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a possible association of mobile phone use with hearing impairment was conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. CONTENT: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out based on the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) methodology using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, OVID, and Cochrane. The Robins-I tool was used for quality assessment and risk of bias. Two investigators independently reviewed all articles. Pooled effect size was calculated and meta-analysis was performed to compute an overall effect size. SUMMARY: Overall, five relevant studies (two cross-sectional and three cohort studies) with 92,978 participants were included in the analysis. The studies were stratified by design, there was no significant association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment in cross-sectional studies (OR=0.94, 95% CI=0.57-1.31) and cohort studies (OR=1.09, 95% CI=0.93-1.25). In addition, the effect estimates did not differ significantly between cross-sectional and cohort studies (Q=0.50, p=0.48). Overall, the pooled odds ratio (OR) of hearing impairment was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94-1.20), which indicates no significant association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment. OUTLOOK: Our findings indicate no association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution.

10.
Dent Res J (Isfahan) ; 18: 26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dental care attendance during pregnancy has been recommended by guidelines and institutions, the demand for dental services is still low among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of not receipt dental care and also determinants of that during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on 4071 mothers in 10 provinces of Iran, during 2014-2015. We calculated the prevalence of not receipt of dental care, and reasons for nonreceipt of care. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of nonreceipt of care by demographics variables. In the analyses, the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Overall, 54.70% of women had no dental visit during pregnancy. In mothers who had a history of stillbirth, neonatal death and live birth, the prevalence of not receipt dental care during pregnancy were 54.56%, 48.92%, and 58.76%, respectively. The logistic regression analyses showed that parity second-to-fourth birth than first birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.37 confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.17-1.59, residence in rural (OR 1.68 CI 95% 1.45-1.95), and not intended pregnancy (OR 1.32 CI 95% 1.03-1.68) associated with not received dental care during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Most pregnant women in this study received insufficient dental care. The need for dental care during pregnancy must be promoted widely among women of reproductive age, and family barriers to dental care should be addressed.

11.
Behav Genet ; 51(4): 385-393, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710466

RESUMO

Gateway hypothesis presumes that using a psychotropic drug can increase the probability of using another drug. The study was to assess whether cigarette smoking is a gateway drug for subsequent opium use. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was applied to test and estimate the size of causal effect of cigarette smoking on opium use. The CHRNA3 rs1051730 polymorphism was used as an instrumental variable. A population-based case control study in the setting of Fasa Cohort Study was carried out using 477 cases and 531 controls based on their opium use status at the baseline of cohort study. The logistic two stage estimator method was applied. The Number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with opium use (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.15-1.19). In the MR analysis, rs1051730 T alleles were associated with increased risk of opium use among ever smokers (OR 5.73, 95% CI 1.72-19.07) however there found no evidence of association among never smokers. In instrumental variable analysis, showed that on average smoking every 1 more cigarette per day increases the odds of opium use by 1.17 (OR 1.17, 95%CI:1.14-1.19). The MR analysis found a positive finding on the relationship between cigarette smoking and opium use which supports the gateway hypothesis. It adds new information to the gateway theory regarding the relation of cigarette smoking and drug use, and increases our understanding of the importance of tobacco control for prevention of opium addiction.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Dependência de Ópio , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-thalassemia minor and thalassemia major are an autosomal recessive disease with hypochromic, microcytic anemia, and morbidities, Today, therapeutic advances have significantly improved the life expectancy of thalassemia major patients, but at the cost of financial toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the possibility of increasing the funding for thalassemia screening programs and comparing the cost-effectiveness of screening for thalassemia in the treatment of the patients. METHODS: In this study, screening for thalassemia minor was compared with the treatment of thalassemia major patients. A decision tree model was used for analysis. A hospital database, supplemented with a review of published literature, was used to derive input parameters for the model. A lifetime study horizon was used and future costs and consequences were discounted at 3%. The approach of purchases of services was used to evaluate the screening test costs for patients with thalassemia major. Also, a bottom-up method was applied to estimate other screening and treatment costs. All the costs were calculated over one year. The number of gained quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) was calculated using the EQ-5D questionnaire in the evaluated patients. RESULTS: In this study, 26.97 births of patients with thalassemia major were prevented by screening techniques. On the other hand, total screening costs for patients with thalassemia major were estimated equal to US$ 879879, while the costs of preventing the birth of each thalassaemia major patient was US$ 32 624 by screening techniques. In comparison, the cost of managing a patient with thalassemia major is about US$ 136 532 per year. The life time QALYs for this is 11.8 QALYs. Results are presented using a societal perspective. Incremental cost per QALY gained with screening as compared with managing thalassaemia major was US$ 11 571. CONCLUSION: Screening is a long-term value for money intervention that is highly cost effective and its long-term clinical and economic benefits outweigh those of managing thalassaemia major patients.

13.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 12, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran is high. Since 2005, the Iranian government has implemented a harm reduction program to control HCV. We aimed to describe the prevalence of HCV antibody (Ab) in Iranian PWID before and after the implementation of harm reduction with cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published on the seroprevalence of HCV among PWID. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify eligible studies up to December 2018 in international and national databases. Pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Der Simonian and Laird method, taking into account conceptual heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were performed by harm reduction implementation and studies' characteristics to assess the sources of heterogeneity. We used Cochran-Armitage test for the linear trend of the prevalence of HCV Ab among PWID. RESULTS: We reviewed 5966 papers and reports and extracted data from 62 eligible records. The pooled HCV Ab prevalence among PWID in Iran was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 41.1-52.0%). Overall, the Cochran-Armitage test for trend indicated a significant decreasing trend of HCV Ab prevalence (P = 0.04). The cumulative meta-analysis showed a slight decline in the prevalence of HCV Ab between the years 2005 and 2018. CONCLUSIONS: The HCV Ab prevalence among PWID in Iran is high, with a considerable geographical variation. The prevalence of HCV Ab among PWID in Iran slightly decreased after 2005 which could be, at least to some extent, related to the implementation of extensive harm reduction programs in the country.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Redução do Dano , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 5, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic and meta-analysis review aimed to provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of ever and current cigarette smoking in women, in geographic areas worldwide, and demonstrate a trend of the prevalence of smoking over time by using a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published on the prevalence of ever and current cigarette smoking in women. We searched PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, and Ovid from January 2010 to April 2020. The reference lists of the studies included in this review were also screened. Data were reviewed and extracted independently by two authors. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of ever and current cigarette smoking in women. Sources of heterogeneity among the studies were determined using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of ever and current cigarette smoking in women was 28% and 17%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of ever cigarette smoking in adolescent girls/students of the school, adult women, pregnant women, and women with the disease was 23%, 27%, 32%, and 38%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of ever cigarette smoking in the continents of Oceania, Asia, Europe, America, and Africa was 36%, 14%, 38%, 31%, and 32%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among women is very high, which is significant in all subgroups of adolescents, adults, and pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to design and implement appropriate educational programs for them, especially in schools, to reduce the side effects and prevalence of smoking among women.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência
15.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 808187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35096716

RESUMO

The COVID-19 disease usually leads to mild infectious disease in children, but some develop serious complications. Here, we describe the characteristics of children with COVID-19 in northern Iran, the Golestan province. Ninety-one confirmed cases were enrolled in the study, aged 0-18 years. Demographic, clinical, comorbidity, laboratory, and radiological data were compared based on the disease severity (admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) or not) and disease outcome (recovered or deceased). Sixteen (17.5%) cases were hospitalized in ICU, and 8/91 (8.8%) deceased. Fever and cough were the most common clinical symptoms. Among all symptoms notified there were no significant differences between severe and milder cases, or between those who deceased and recovered. Failure to thrive (FTT), malignant disease and neurological disease were significantly more prevalent in severe cases as was frequently reported comorbidities. Laterality, ground-glass opacity, and lung consolidation were the most common findings in chest computed tomography. The data confirms that the COVID-19 disease has various presentations in children, and clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings may help predict the development of severe forms of COVID-19 among children.

16.
Heliyon ; 6(12): e05622, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319092

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity not only are major risk factors for number of chronic diseases, but also a risk factor for pregnancy complications in women. The present study aims to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the persistence and duration of BF. The electronic databases including Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched for papers with titles and/or abstracts including one of our keywords and published up to 15 April 2019. For dose-response relationship, the two-stage random-effects meta-analysis was performed using the "dosresmeta" function in R software. Thirty-two studies with the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on BF initiation, intention and duration were included in the present study. Based on crude and adjusted OR models, the risk of BF cessation increased by 4% (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.05) with an increase in a unit of BMI. In addition, based on crude and adjusted RR models, the risk of BF cessation increases by 2% and 1% (crude RR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03 and adjusted RR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.99-1.02) with an increase in one unit of BMI. Based on the result, the health care professionals and other key stakeholders should be aware of the impact excess weight, and that women who are overweight or obese should be encouraged with continued access to guidance, counseling and support, starting from conception, to maximize BF outcomes.

17.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 5(6): 1089-1095, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the association of migraine and risk of SSNHL in a meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. METHODS: A systematic literature search of studies published until December 2019 was carried out in Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords. References of the retrieved articles were also examined for inclusion. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed by calculating pooled hazard ratio (HR) and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) using the DerSimonian and Laird method while considering conceptual heterogeneity. RESULTS: Three eligible cohort studies, with 282 250 participants, were included. In total, 56 450 had migraine, and 225 800 had no migraine. Of those with migraine, 0.88% had SSNHL, and among those without migraine, 0.59% had SSNHL. Pooled HR for the risk of SSNHL was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.11-2.57; P < .001). In cohort studies on females, migraine was not significantly the risk of SSHL than no migraine. However, in male cohort studies, the migraine had a higher risk of SSHL than no migraine (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.17-1.83; P < .001). The pooled HR of migraine with the risk of SSNHL was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.16-1.58, P < .001) in people with <40 years old and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.17-1.60; P < .001) in people >40 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with migraine patients are at a higher risk of developing SSHL. Different age and sex migraine subgroups showed a higher proportion of SSNHL cases compared to nonmigraineurs.

18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 157, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral disease that has caused a pandemic in the world. Due to the lack of vaccines and definitive treatment, preventive behaviors are the only way to overcome the disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the preventive behaviors from the disease based on constructs of the health belief model. METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study during March 11-16, 2020, 750 individuals in Golestan Province of Iran were included in the study using the convenience sampling and they completed the questionnaires through cyberspace. Factor scores were calculated using the confirmatory factor analysis. The effects of different factors were separately investigated using the univariate analyses, including students sample t-test, ANOVA, and simple linear regression. Finally, the effective factors were examined by the multiple regression analysis at a significant level of 0.05 and through Mplus 7 and SPSS 16. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 33.9 ± 9.45 years; and 57.1% of them had associate and bachelor's degrees. Multiple regression indicated that the mean score of preventive behavior from COVID-19 was higher in females than males, and greater in urban dwellers than rural dwellers. Furthermore, one unit increase in the standard deviation of factor scores of self-efficacy and perceived benefits increased the scores of preventive behavior from COVID-19 by 0.22 and 0.17 units respectively. On the contrary, one unit increase in the standard deviation of factor score of perceived barriers and fatalistic beliefs decreased the scores of the preventive behavior from COVID-19 by 0.36 and 0.19 units respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study indicated that female gender, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, fatalistic beliefs, perceived interests, and living in city had the greatest preventive behaviors from COVID-19 respectively. Preventive interventions were necessary among males and villagers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , População Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Prev Med ; 10: 205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879554

RESUMO

Background: Child mortality surveillance system (CMSS) for children aged 1-59 months is a critical issue in the prevention of mortality. This surveillance system like other health programs needs to be evaluated. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate CMSS in Iran. Methods: This evaluation was performed from March 2015 to March 2016 based on selected criteria for assessing the public health surveillance system proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Selected criteria examined in this study included timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, and flexibility. These criteria were evaluated in two ways. First, it included the use of a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by 100 experts on CMSS. Second, to perform a more exact evaluation of these criteria, 24 of these experts were selected for the focus group. Results: In this study, the response rate was 91% (42% hospital-based and 49% primary care-based). In the timeliness section, 49% of the experts believed that approvals of the child mortality committees have not been sent within the designated time frame; hardware, software, and questionnaires were reported as effective factors in this respect. The structural and administrative problems were effective in simplicity domain and the experts of mortality registration and mood of relatives were effective in acceptability domain. The flexibility of the system was high and appropriate. Conclusions: The findings of the present study reveal that CMSS has some limitations and problems in the timeliness, simplicity, and acceptability criteria, which can be resolved. But this program has an appropriate situation in terms of flexibility.

20.
Int J Prev Med ; 10: 188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807258

RESUMO

Background: Associations between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the general population remain unclear. The aim of the study was to quantify the independent associations between smoking and HRQoL. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a total sample of 2197 participants obtained by multistage sampling to investigate the associations between smoking and HRQoL in the general population of southeast and southwest of Iran, aged 18-100 years in 2012-2013. Data were collected using a self-administrated of the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between HRQoL and smoking while adjusting for various socioeconomic variables. In this study, P < 0.05 was considered a significant difference. Results: Out of the total of 2197 participants, current smokers and never smokers accounted for 13% and 87%, respectively. The mean HRQoL indices were for the current smokers 66.66 ± 17.86, and never smokers 71.35 ± 18.47 (P < 0.001). Independent associations between smoking and HRQoL were found, including negative associations (P < 0.001). The multivariate associations between smoking status and HRQoL, male smokers had a lower physical functioning, mental health, and total SF-36 score. Conclusions: Smoking was independently related to HRQoL, with large differences according to the gender. This study showed that there is a significant difference in the quality of life related to health in male smokers compared to male nonsmokers.

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