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Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 242, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582733


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetics is crucial to lasting changes in gene expression in the brain. Recent studies suggest a role for DNA methylation in ADHD. We explored the contribution to ADHD of allele-specific methylation (ASM), an epigenetic mechanism that involves SNPs correlating with differential levels of DNA methylation at CpG sites. We selected 3896 tagSNPs reported to influence methylation in human brain regions and performed a case-control association study using the summary statistics from the largest GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD, comprising 20,183 cases and 35,191 controls. We observed that genetic risk variants for ADHD are enriched in ASM SNPs and identified associations with eight tagSNPs that were significant at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). These SNPs correlated with methylation of CpG sites lying in the promoter regions of six genes. Since methylation may affect gene expression, we inspected these ASM SNPs together with 52 ASM SNPs in high LD with them for eQTLs in brain tissues and observed that the expression of three of those genes was affected by them. ADHD risk alleles correlated with increased expression (and decreased methylation) of ARTN and PIDD1 and with a decreased expression (and increased methylation) of C2orf82. Furthermore, these three genes were predicted to have altered expression in ADHD, and genetic variants in C2orf82 correlated with brain volumes. In summary, we followed a systematic approach to identify risk variants for ADHD that correlated with differential cis-methylation, identifying three novel genes contributing to the disorder.

Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3834, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444360


Transcriptome-wide association studies integrate gene expression data with common risk variation to identify gene-trait associations. By incorporating epigenome data to estimate the functional importance of genetic variation on gene expression, we generate a small but significant improvement in the accuracy of transcriptome prediction and increase the power to detect significant expression-trait associations. Joint analysis of 14 large-scale transcriptome datasets and 58 traits identify 13,724 significant expression-trait associations that converge on biological processes and relevant phenotypes in human and mouse phenotype databases. We perform drug repurposing analysis and identify compounds that mimic, or reverse, trait-specific changes. We identify genes that exhibit agonistic pleiotropy for genetically correlated traits that converge on shared biological pathways and elucidate distinct processes in disease etiopathogenesis. Overall, this comprehensive analysis provides insight into the specificity and convergence of gene expression on susceptibility to complex traits.

Nat Genet ; 51(4): 659-674, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911161


Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.

Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Risco , Transcriptoma/genética
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 28(1): 31-35, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29087970


Clozapine is the drug of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, its use is associated with variable clinical responses and serious adverse effects. Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in synaptic neurotransmission may account for such variability. Here, we studied independent and epistatic genetic associations of polymorphisms in DRD4 (120-bp duplication) and COMT (Val158Met) with clinical response to clozapine in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. We studied 93 participants who were on stable doses of clozapine for at least 12 weeks. A total score of less than or equal to 35 on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was defined as a clinical response. The genetic associations were tested using logistic regression analyses. Neither polymorphism studied was found to be independently associated with response to clozapine. However, a statistically significant gene-gene interaction was observed between the polymorphisms. Participants with the COMT Val/Met or Met/Met genotype, who also had one or two DRD4 120-bp alleles (120/240 and 120/120), showed significantly better clinical response to clozapine. Our results highlight the importance of investigating gene-gene interactions, while studying the pharmacogenetics of clozapine.

Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Clozapina/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Duplicação Cromossômica , Clozapina/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Resultado do Tratamento