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1.
Cell Metab ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599884

RESUMO

Individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 who also display hyperglycemia suffer from longer hospital stays, higher risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and increased mortality. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanism of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that hyperglycemia is similarly prevalent among patients with ARDS independent of COVID-19 status. Yet among patients with ARDS and COVID-19, insulin resistance is the prevalent cause of hyperglycemia, independent of glucocorticoid treatment, which is unlike patients with ARDS but without COVID-19, where pancreatic beta cell failure predominates. A screen of glucoregulatory hormones revealed lower levels of adiponectin in patients with COVID-19. Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated a strong antiviral gene expression program in the adipose tissue and diminished expression of adiponectin. Moreover, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect adipocytes. Together these data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may trigger adipose tissue dysfunction to drive insulin resistance and adverse outcomes in acute COVID-19.

2.
J Rheumatol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Frailty is associated with mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but how best to measure frailty is unclear. We aimed to compare 2 frailty metrics, the self-reported Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, and Loss of weight (FRAIL) scale (FS) and the Fried phenotype (FP), in SLE to evaluate differences between frail and nonfrail women and whether frailty is associated with self-reported disability. METHODS: Adult women aged < 70 years with validated SLE and mild/moderate disease enrolled in this cross-sectional study between August 2018 and October 2019. Correlation and agreement between the FS and the FP were determined. Differences in sociodemographic and disease characteristics, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and biomarkers between frail and nonfrail participants were evaluated, as well as the association of frailty with Valued Life Activities disability. RESULTS: Of 67 participants, 27% and 18% were frail according to the FS and the FP, respectively. Correlation (r = 0.51; P < 0.0001) and agreement (κ = 0.46; P = 0.0004) between the FS and the FP were significant. Frail women had greater disease damage, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6, and worse PROMs according to both frailty definitions. Both frailty measures were associated with self-reported disability after adjustment for age, comorbidity, and disease activity and damage; this relationship was attenuated for the FP. CONCLUSION: Frailty prevalence was high in this cohort of women with SLE using both frailty definitions, suggesting that frailty may be accelerated in women with SLE, particularly when based exclusively on self-report. Frailty remained associated with self-reported disability in adjusted analyses. The FS may be an informative point-of-care tool to identify frail women with SLE.

3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 468, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Academic medical centers invest considerably in faculty development efforts to support the career success and promotion of their faculty, and to minimize faculty attrition. This study evaluated the impact of a faculty development program called the Leadership in Academic Medicine Program (LAMP) on participants' (1) self-ratings of efficacy, (2) promotion in academic rank, and (3) institutional retention. METHOD: Participants from the 2013-2020 LAMP cohorts were surveyed pre and post program to assess their level of agreement with statements that spanned domains of self-awareness, self-efficacy, satisfaction with work and work environment. Pre and post responses were compared using McNemar's tests. Changes in scores across gender were compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum/Mann-Whitney tests. LAMP participants were matched to nonparticipant controls by gender, rank, department, and time of hire to compare promotions in academic rank and departures from the organization. Kaplan Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in almost all self-ratings on program surveys (p < 0.05). Greatest improvements were seen in "understand the promotions process" (36% vs. 94%), "comfortable negotiating" (35% vs. 74%), and "time management" (55% vs. 92%). There were no statistically significant differences in improvements by gender, however women faculty rated themselves lower on all pre-program items compared to men. There was significant difference found in time-to-next promotion (p = 0.003) between LAMP participants and controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that LAMP faculty achieved next promotion more often and faster than controls. Cox-proportional-hazards analyses found that LAMP faculty were 61% more likely to be promoted than controls (hazard ratio [HR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.23, p-value = 0.004). There was significant difference found in time-to-departure (p < 0.0001) with LAMP faculty retained more often and for longer periods. LAMP faculty were 77% less likely to leave compared to controls (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.16-0.34, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: LAMP is an effective faculty development program as measured subjectively by participant self-ratings and objectively through comparative improvements in academic promotions and institutional retention.


Assuntos
Liderança , Autoeficácia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Lung India ; 38(4): 307-313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259167

RESUMO

Background: Environmental exposures have a significant effect on respiratory and sleep symptoms in young children. Although the effect of air pollution on the respiratory symptoms in young children is well-established, less is known about the effect of household environmental characteristics and practices on wheeze and sleep concerns. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to explore the association between household environmental characteristics and practices with the symptoms of wheezing and sleep concerns in the past year in a convenience sample of young Indian children. Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire about the child's home environment and respiratory and sleep symptoms was administered to the caregivers of 190 outpatients aged between 6 months and 5 years old at a teaching hospital. Results: Indoor environmental characteristics and cleaning techniques were analyzed for the association with wheeze and sleep disorders. Half (50%) of the cohort had the symptoms of wheezing and 21% had occasional or frequent sleep concerns. Sleeping with a stuffed toy was significantly associated with both wheezing and sleep concerns (P = 0.05). Conclusions: : Sleeping with a stuffed toy was a risk factor for wheeze and a risk factor for sleep disorders independent of wheeze.

5.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189536

RESUMO

Introduction: The role of overcrowded and multigenerational households as a risk factor for COVID-19 remains unmeasured. The objective of this study is to examine and quantify the association between overcrowded and multigenerational households, and COVID-19 in New York City (NYC). Methods: We conducted a Bayesian ecological time series analysis at the ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) level in NYC to assess whether ZCTAs with higher proportions of overcrowded (defined as proportion of estimated number of housing units with more than one occupant per room) and multigenerational households (defined as the estimated percentage of residences occupied by a grandparent and a grandchild less than 18 years of age) were independently associated with higher suspected COVID-19 case rates (from NYC Department of Health Syndromic Surveillance data for March 1 to 30, 2020). Our main measure was adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of suspected COVID-19 cases per 10,000 population. Our final model controlled for ZCTA-level sociodemographic factors (median income, poverty status, White race, essential workers), prevalence of clinical conditions related to COVID-19 severity (obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, asthma, smoking status, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and spatial clustering. Results: 39,923 suspected COVID-19 cases presented to emergency departments across 173 ZCTAs in NYC. Adjusted COVID-19 case rates increased by 67% (IRR 1.67, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.52) in ZCTAs in quartile four (versus one) for percent overcrowdedness and increased by 77% (IRR 1.77, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.79) in quartile four (versus one) for percent living in multigenerational housing. Interaction between both exposures was not significant (ß interaction = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.99-1.00). Conclusions: Over-crowdedness and multigenerational housing are independent risk factors for suspected COVID-19. In the early phase of surge in COVID cases, social distancing measures that increase house-bound populations may inadvertently but temporarily increase SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk and COVID-19 disease in these populations.

6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(8): 2378-2385, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of COVID-19 includes multiple disease phases. Data describing post-hospital discharge outcomes may provide insight into disease course. Studies describing post-hospitalization outcomes of adults following COVID-19 infection are limited to electronic medical record review, which may underestimate the incidence of outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine 30-day post-hospitalization outcomes following COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Quaternary referral hospital and community hospital in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 infected patients discharged alive from the emergency department (ED) or hospital between March 3 and May 15, 2020. MEASUREMENT: Outcomes included return to an ED, re-hospitalization, and mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-day follow-up data were successfully collected on 94.6% of eligible patients. Among 1344 patients, 16.5% returned to an ED, 9.8% were re-hospitalized, and 2.4% died. Among patients who returned to the ED, 50.0% (108/216) went to a different hospital from the hospital of the index presentation, and 61.1% (132/216) of those who returned were re-hospitalized. In Cox models adjusted for variables selected using the lasso method, age (HR 1.01 per year [95% CI 1.00-1.02]), diabetes (1.54 [1.06-2.23]), and the need for inpatient dialysis (3.78 [2.23-6.43]) during the index presentation were independently associated with a higher re-hospitalization rate. Older age (HR 1.08 [1.05-1.11]) and Asian race (2.89 [1.27-6.61]) were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients discharged alive following their index presentation for COVID-19, risk for returning to a hospital within 30 days of discharge was substantial. These patients merit close post-discharge follow-up to optimize outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Alta do Paciente , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Biomed Inform ; 118: 103794, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933654

RESUMO

From early March through mid-May 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed hospitals in New York City. In anticipation of ventilator shortages and limited ICU bed capacity, hospital operations prioritized the development of prognostic tools to predict clinical deterioration. However, early experience from frontline physicians observed that some patients developed unanticipated deterioration after having relatively stable periods, attesting to the uncertainty of clinical trajectories among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Prediction tools that incorporate clinical variables at one time-point, usually on hospital presentation, are suboptimal for patients with dynamic changes and evolving clinical trajectories. Therefore, our study team developed a machine-learning algorithm to predict clinical deterioration among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by extracting clinically meaningful features from complex longitudinal laboratory and vital sign values during the early period of hospitalization with an emphasis on informative missing-ness. To incorporate the evolution of the disease and clinical practice over the course of the pandemic, we utilized a time-dependent cross-validation strategy for model development. Finally, we validated our prediction model on an external validation cohort of COVID-19 patients served in a demographically distinct population from the training cohort. The main finding of our study is the identification of risk profiles of early, late and no clinical deterioration during the course of hospitalization. While risk prediction models that include simple predictors at ED presentation and clinical judgement are able to identify any deterioration vs. no deterioration, our methodology is able to isolate a particular risk group that remain stable initially but deteriorate at a later stage of the course of hospitalization. We demonstrate the superior predictive performance with the utilization of laboratory and vital sign data during the early period of hospitalization compared to the utilization of data at presentation alone. Our results will allow efficient hospital resource allocation and will motivate research in understanding the late deterioration risk group.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Deterioração Clínica , Simulação por Computador , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pandemias , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
8.
medRxiv ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791724

RESUMO

COVID-19 has proven to be a metabolic disease resulting in adverse outcomes in individuals with diabetes or obesity. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and hyperglycemia suffer from longer hospital stays, higher risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and increased mortality compared to those who do not develop hyperglycemia. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanism(s) of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Here we show that insulin resistance rather than pancreatic beta cell failure is the prevalent cause of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients with ARDS, independent of glucocorticoid treatment. A screen of protein hormones that regulate glucose homeostasis reveals that the insulin sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is reduced in hyperglycemic COVID-19 patients. Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 also have diminished expression of adiponectin. Together these data suggest that adipose tissue dysfunction may be a driver of insulin resistance and adverse outcomes in acute COVID-19.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e019036, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899495

RESUMO

Background More fragmented ambulatory care (ie, care spread across many providers without a dominant provider) has been associated with excess emergency department and inpatient care. We sought to determine whether more fragmented ambulatory care is associated with an increase in the hazard of incident stroke, overall and stratified by health status and by race. Methods and Results We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study (2003-2016), including participants aged ≥65 years who had linked Medicare fee-for-service claims and no history of stroke (N=12 510). We measured fragmentation of care with the reversed Bice-Boxerman index. We used Poisson models to determine the association between fragmentation and adjudicated incident stroke. The average age of participants was 70.5 years; 53% were women, 32% were Black participants, and 16% were participants with fair or poor health. Overall, the adjusted rate of incident stroke was similar for high versus low fragmentation (8.2 versus 8.1 per 1000 person-years, respectively; P=0.89). Among participants with fair or poor self-rated health, having high versus low fragmentation was associated with a trend toward a higher adjusted rate of incident strokes (14.8 versus 10.4 per 1000 person-years, respectively; P=0.067). Among Black participants with fair or poor self-rated health, having high versus low fragmentation was associated with a higher adjusted rate of strokes (19.3 versus 10.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively; P=0.02). Conclusions Highly fragmented ambulatory care is independently associated with incident stroke among Black individuals with fair or poor health.

10.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(4): 155-160, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether having a usual provider of care (UPC) outside the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and whether having highly fragmented care (regardless of the providers' health system affiliations) increased the risk of hospitalization among veterans with diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective dynamic cohort analysis of all veterans with diabetes 65 years and older enrolled nationally in both VHA and Medicare from 2005 to 2010, using VHA-Medicare linked data. We used 5 two-year study periods, assessing ambulatory care in the first year of each 2-year period and any hospitalization in the second year. METHODS: We used longitudinal generalized estimating equation models to test the associations of the affiliation (VHA vs non-VHA) of the UPC and the extent of fragmentation with hospitalization, adjusting for potential confounders. Highly fragmented care was defined as a reversed Bice-Boxerman Index of at least 0.85, which was equivalent to the 75th percentile. RESULTS: Having a UPC outside the VHA was associated with 11% increased odds of hospitalization (95% CI, 10%-12%). Having highly fragmented care was associated with 7% increased odds of hospitalization (95% CI, 6%-8%). Having both a UPC outside the VHA and highly fragmented care was associated with 19% increased odds of hospitalization (95% CI, 18%-20%). CONCLUSIONS: Among veterans with diabetes enrolled in both VHA and Medicare, having both a UPC outside the VHA and highly fragmented care was associated with higher odds of hospitalization than either of these ambulatory patterns alone.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Veteranos , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 154, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More fragmented ambulatory care (i.e., care spread across many providers without a dominant provider) has been associated with more subsequent healthcare utilization (such as more tests, procedures, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations) than less fragmented ambulatory care. It is not known if race and socioeconomic status are associated with fragmented ambulatory care. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of data from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, using the REGARDS baseline visit plus the first year of follow-up. We included participants ≥65 years old, who had linked fee-for-service Medicare claims, and ≥ 4 ambulatory visits in the first year of follow-up. We used Tobit regression to determine the associations between race, annual household income, and educational attainment at baseline and fragmentation score in the subsequent year (as measured with the reversed Bice-Boxerman Index). Covariates included other demographic characteristics, medical conditions, medication use, health behaviors, and psychosocial variables. Additional analyses categorized visits by the type of provider (primary care vs. specialist). RESULTS: The study participants (N = 6799) had an average age of 73.0 years, 53% were female, and 30% were black. Nearly half had low annual household income (<$35,000) and 41% had a high school education or less. Overall, participants had a median of 10 ambulatory visits to 4 providers in the 12 months following their baseline study visit. Participants in the highest quintile of fragmentation scores had a median of 11 visits to 7 providers. Black race was associated with an absolute adjusted 3% lower fragmentation score compared to white race (95% confidence interval (2% lower to 4% lower; p < 0.001). This difference was explained by blacks seeing fewer specialists than whites. Income and education were not independent predictors of fragmentation scores. CONCLUSIONS: Among Medicare beneficiaries, blacks had less fragmented ambulatory care than whites, due to lower utilization of specialty care. Future research is needed to determine the effect of fragmented care on health outcomes for blacks and whites.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Medicare , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(1): 292-298, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of dementia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 65 years and older, and compare the incidence of dementia in patients with RA with prevalent cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), CV risk factors but no prevalent CVD and neither (referent group). METHODS: We analyzed claims data from the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) from 2006-2014. Eligibility criteria included continuous medical and pharmacy coverage for ≥ 12 months (baseline period 2006), > 2 RA diagnoses by a rheumatologist and at least 1 medication for RA. CVD and CV risk factors were identified using codes from the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse. Incident dementia was defined by 1 inpatient or 2 outpatient claims, or one dementia specific medication. Age-adjusted incident rates were calculated within each age strata. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among 56,567 patients with RA, 11,789 (20.1%) incident cases of dementia were included in the main analysis. Age adjusted incident rates were high among all groups and increased with age. After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities and baseline CV and RA medications, patients with CVD and CV risk factors between 65 and 74 years had an increased risk for incident dementia compared to those without CVD and without CV risk factors (HR 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.33) and HR 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.11), respectively). We observed a trend towards increased risk in patients between 75 and 84 years with CVD at baseline. CONCLUSION: Patients with RA with both CVD and CV risk factors alone are at an increased risk for dementia compared to those with neither CVD nor CV risk factors; however, this risk is attenuated with increasing age. The impact of RA treatment and CV primary prevention strategies in the prevention of dementia in patients with RA warrants further studies.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Demência , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Incidência , Medicare , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(2): 422-429, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly fragmented ambulatory care (i.e., care spread across many providers without a dominant provider) has been associated with excess tests, procedures, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Whether fragmented care is associated with worse health outcomes, or whether any association varies with health status, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fragmented care is associated with the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events, overall and stratified by self-rated general health. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the nationwide prospective Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study (2003-2016). We included participants who were ≥ 65 years old, had linked Medicare fee-for-service claims, and had no history of CHD (N = 10,556). MAIN MEASURES: We measured fragmentation with the reversed Bice-Boxerman Index. We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between fragmentation as a time-varying exposure and adjudicated incident CHD events in the 3 months following each exposure period. KEY RESULTS: The mean age was 70 years; 57% were women, and 34% were African-American. Over 11.8 years of follow-up, 569 participants had CHD events. Overall, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the association between high fragmentation and incident CHD events was 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 1.39). Among those with very good or good self-rated health, high fragmentation was associated with an increased hazard of CHD events (adjusted HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.06, 1.73; p = 0.01). Among those with fair or poor self-rated health, high fragmentation was associated with a trend toward a decreased hazard of CHD events (adjusted HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29, 1.01; p = 0.052). There was no association among those with excellent self-rated health. CONCLUSION: High fragmentation was associated with an increased independent risk of incident CHD events among those with very good or good self-rated health.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Medicare , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Med Care ; 59(4): 334-340, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that highly fragmented ambulatory care increases the risk of subsequent hospitalization, but those studies used claims only and were not able to adjust for many clinical potential confounders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the association between fragmented ambulatory care and subsequent hospitalization, adjusting for demographics, medical conditions, medications, health behaviors, psychosocial variables, and physiological variables. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of data (2003-2016) from the nationwide REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, linked to Medicare fee-for-service claims. SUBJECTS: A total of 12,693 Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older from the REGARDS study who had at least 4 ambulatory visits in the first year of observation and did not have a hospitalization in the prior year. MEASURES: We defined high fragmentation as a reversed Bice-Boxerman score above the 75th percentile. We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between fragmentation as a time-varying exposure and incident hospitalization in the 3 months following each exposure period. RESULTS: The mean age was 70.4 years; 54% were women, and 33% were African American. During the first year of observation, participants with high fragmentation had a median of 8 ambulatory visits with 6 providers, whereas participants with low fragmentation had a median of 7 visits with 3 providers. Over 11.8 years of follow-up, 6947 participants (55%) had a hospitalization. High fragmentation was associated with an increased hazard of hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio=1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.24). CONCLUSION: Highly fragmented ambulatory care is an independent risk factor for hospitalization.

17.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 988-995, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine racial/ethnic differences in the use of conventional synthetic or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs or bDMARDs, respectively) and long-term glucocorticoids (GC) or opioids among beneficiaries of the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and <65 years old. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional analyses of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims data (2007, 2011, and 2014) for individuals <65 years old with RA receiving SSDI Medicare and Medicaid, no longer working because they were considered disabled. Generalized estimating equation models were used to determine whether the proportion of patients who used csDMARD, bDMARD, long-term GC, and long-term opioids differed by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: There were 12,931; 15,033; and 15,599 participants in 2007, 2011, and 2014, respectively. The overall use of csDMARD without bDMARD among beneficiaries of the SSDI were 31.1%, 30.3%, and 29.2%; 50.2%, 51.7%, and 53.8% used bDMARDs; 37.6%, 36.1%, and 34.4% used long-term GC; and 61.1%, 63.8%, and 63.7% used long-term opioids in years 2007, 2011, and 2014 respectively. The use of csDMARDs without bDMARDs was higher and the use of bDMARDs was lower among Blacks compared to Whites (adjusted absolute difference: +3.0%, +5.0%, and +3.3% for csDMARDs without bDMARDs and -4.6%, -5.7%, and -4.0% for bDMARDs in 2007, 2011, and 2014, respectively; all p<0.05). The use of bDMARDs was higher among Hispanics compared to Whites (adjusted absolute difference: +7.1%, +7.3%, and +7.5% in 2007, 2011, and 2014, respectively; all p<0.05). Long-term GC use was lower among Hispanics than among Whites only in year 2014 (absolute percentage point difference of -4.2%); no other difference in long-term GC use was identified. Whites were the patients with the highest use of long-term opioids (more than two third in each calendar year). CONCLUSION: Racial and ethnic differences exists in regards to the treatment of RA among beneficiaries of the SSDI. These findings suggest that this already vulnerable population of patients with RA can also have a racial and ethnic disparity that can contribute to additional disease burden and that should be examined in order to inform future interventions or even inform future policy changes to the SSDI.

18.
Cancer Cell ; 38(5): 661-671.e2, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997958

RESUMO

Patients with cancer may be at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the role of viral load on this risk is unknown. We measured SARS-CoV-2 viral load using cycle threshold (CT) values from reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays applied to nasopharyngeal swab specimens in 100 patients with cancer and 2,914 without cancer who were admitted to three New York City hospitals. Overall, the in-hospital mortality rate was 38.8% among patients with a high viral load, 24.1% among patients with a medium viral load, and 15.3% among patients with a low viral load (p < 0.001). Similar findings were observed in patients with cancer (high, 45.2% mortality; medium, 28.0%; low, 12.1%; p = 0.008). Patients with hematologic malignancies had higher median viral loads (CT = 25.0) than patients without cancer (CT = 29.2; p = 0.0039). SARS-CoV-2 viral load results may offer vital prognostic information for patients with and without cancer who are hospitalized with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Carga Viral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 243, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relevant clinical information is often missing when a patient sees a specialist after being referred by another physician in the ambulatory setting. This can result in missed or delayed diagnoses, delayed treatment, unnecessary testing, and drug interactions. Residents' attitudes toward providing clinical information at the time of referral and their perspectives toward training on referral skills are not clear. We sought to assess internal medicine residents' attitudes toward and experiences with outpatient referrals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in October-December 2018 of all internal medicine interns and residents affiliated with a large, urban internal medicine residency program in New York, NY. We used a novel survey instrument that included 13 questions about attitudes toward and experiences with outpatient referrals. We used descriptive statistics to characterize the results. RESULTS: Overall, 122 of 132 residents participated (92% response rate). Respondents were approximately equally distributed across post-graduate years 1-3. Although 83% of residents reported that it is "always" important to provide the clinical reason for a referral, only 11% stated that they "always" provide a sufficient amount of clinical information for the consulting provider when making a referral. Only 9% of residents "strongly agree" that residency provides sufficient training in knowing when to refer patients, and only 8% "strongly agree" that residency provides sufficient training in what information to provide the consulting physician. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a substantial discrepancy between the amount of information residents believe they should provide at the time of a referral and the amount they actually provide. Many residents report not receiving adequate training during residency on when to refer patients and what clinical information to provide at the time of referral. Improvements to medical education regarding outpatient referrals are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Medicina Interna/educação , New York , Encaminhamento e Consulta
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