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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(9): 2412-2425, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956058

RESUMO

Advances in cancer genomics have revealed genomic classes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by class-defining mutations, such as chimeric fusion genes or in genes such as NPM1, MLL, and CEBPA. These class-defining mutations frequently synergize with internal tandem duplications in FLT3 (FLT3-ITDs) to drive leukemogenesis. However, ∼20% of FLT3-ITD-positive AMLs bare no class-defining mutations, and mechanisms of leukemic transformation in these cases are unknown. To identify pathways that drive FLT3-ITD mutant AML in the absence of class-defining mutations, we performed an insertional mutagenesis (IM) screening in Flt3-ITD mice, using Sleeping Beauty transposons. All mice developed acute leukemia (predominantly AML) after a median of 73 days. Analysis of transposon insertions in 38 samples from Flt3-ITD/IM leukemic mice identified recurrent integrations at 22 loci, including Setbp1 (20/38), Ets1 (11/38), Ash1l (8/38), Notch1 (8/38), Erg (7/38), and Runx1 (5/38). Insertions at Setbp1 led exclusively to AML and activated a transcriptional program similar, but not identical, to those of NPM1-mutant and MLL-rearranged AMLs. Guide RNA targeting of Setbp1 was highly detrimental to Flt3ITD/+/Setbp1IM+, but not to Flt3ITD/+/Npm1cA/+, AMLs. Also, analysis of RNA-sequencing data from hundreds of human AMLs revealed that SETBP1 expression is significantly higher in FLT3-ITD AMLs lacking class-defining mutations. These findings propose that SETBP1 overexpression collaborates with FLT3-ITD to drive a subtype of human AML. To identify genetic vulnerabilities of these AMLs, we performed genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening in Flt3ITD/+/Setbp1IM+ AMLs and identified potential therapeutic targets, including Kdm1a, Brd3, Ezh2, and Hmgcr. Our study gives new insights into epigenetic pathways that can drive AMLs lacking class-defining mutations and proposes therapeutic approaches against such cases.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Doença Aguda , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética
2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 12(4): 757-771, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905739

RESUMO

Primed epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) can be reverted to a pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like state by expression of single reprogramming factor. We used CRISPR activation to perform a genome-scale, reprogramming screen in EpiSCs and identified 142 candidate genes. Our screen validated a total of 50 genes, previously not known to contribute to reprogramming, of which we chose Sall1 for further investigation. We show that Sall1 augments reprogramming of mouse EpiSCs and embryonic fibroblasts and that these induced pluripotent stem cells are indeed fully pluripotent including formation of chimeric mice. We also demonstrate that Sall1 synergizes with Nanog in reprogramming and that overexpression in ESCs delays their conversion back to EpiSCs. Lastly, using RNA sequencing, we identify and validate Klf5 and Fam189a2 as new downstream targets of Sall1 and Nanog. In summary, our work demonstrates the power of using CRISPR technology in understanding molecular mechanisms that mediate complex cellular processes such as reprogramming.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Animais , Biomarcadores , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Dosagem de Genes , Camadas Germinativas/citologia , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Camundongos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 152: 49-67, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150004

RESUMO

The introduction of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in mammalian cells is a scientific breakthrough, which has greatly affected basic research and gene therapy. The simplicity and general access to CRISPR/Cas9 reagents has in an unprecedented manner "democratized" gene targeting in biomedical research, enabling genetic engineering of any gene in any cell, tissue, organ, and organism. The ability for fast, precise, and efficient profiling of the double-stranded break induced insertions and deletions (indels), mediated by any of the available programmable nucleases, is paramount to any given gene targeting approach. In this study we review the most commonly used indel detection methods and using a robust, sensitive, and cost efficient Indel Detection by Amplicon Analysis method, we have investigated the impact of the most commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 delivery formats, including lentivirus transduction, plasmid lipofection, and ribo nuclear protein electroporation, on the dynamics of indel profile formation. We observe rapid indel formation using RNP electroporation, especially with synthetic stabilized gRNA, as well as long-term decline in overall indel frequency with lipofectamine-based, plasmid transfection methods. Most methods reach peak editing on day 2-3 postdelivery. Furthermore, we find relative increase in frequency of larger size indels (>6bp) under condition of persistent editing using stably integrated lentiviral gRNA and Cas9 vectors.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Mutação INDEL , Reparo do DNA , Humanos
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